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ED. 1601. 



JrfcttcU l)i ti)c SHmurian Club. 





PURSUANT to a Resolution to the following effect, passed at a meeting of 
the Committee held on Wednesday, the 15th March, 1848, 

" The best thanks of the Club are hereby presented to 

JONATHAN COUCH, Esq. F.L.S., the Superintending Editor of this 
Publication, and Translator of the Work. 

Also to the following Gentlemen, viz. : 

In the Department of Classics, 

W. G. V. BARNEWALL, Esq. M.A. 

In the Department of Geography, 

W. H. F. PLATE, Esq. LL.D. 

In the Department of Natural History and Physiology, 

C. J. B. ALDIS, Esq. M.D. 
C. R. HALL, Esq. M.D. 

For the Editorial Assistance rendered by them in the preparation of the 
accompanying Work." 







1. Epirus. 

2. ^Etolia. 

3. Locri. 

4. Peloponnesus. 

5. Achaia. 

6. Arcadia. 

7. Greece and Attica. 

8. Thessaly. 

9. Magnesia. 

10. Macedonia. 

11. Thracia. 

12. The Islands lying between 

those Countries : among 
which, Creta, Euboea, the 
Cyclades, Sporades : also, 


the Isles within Hellespont, 
near the Sea of Pontus, 
within Mceotis, Dacia, Sar- 
matia, and Scythia. 

13. The Islands of Pontus. 

14. The Islands of Germany. 

15. Islands in the French Ocean. 

16. Britain and Ireland. 

17. Gaul. 

18. Gallia Lugdunensis. 

19. Aquitain. 

20. High Spain (named Citerior). 

21. Portugal. 

22. Islands in the Ocean. 

23. The Measure of all Europe. 

Herein are contained many principal Towns and Countries, famous 
Rivers and Mountains ; Islands, also, besides Cities or Nations that are 
perished : in sum, Histories and Observations. 


M. Varro, Cato Censoring, M. Agrippa, Divus Augustus, Varro Ata- 
cinus, Cor. Nepos, Hyginus, L. Vetus, Pomponius Mela, Licinius Mutianus, 
Fabricius Thuscus, Atteius Capita, and Atteius Philologus. 


Polybius, Hecatceus, Hellanicus, Damastes, Eudoxus, Dicaearchus, 
Timosthenes, Ephorus, Crater the Grammarian, Serapion of Antioch, Cal- 
limachus, Artemidorus, Apollodorus, Agathocles, Eumachus Siculus the 
Musician, Alexander Pofyhfetor, Thucydides, Dosiades, Anaximander, 
Philistides, Mallotes, Dionysius, Aristides, Callidemus, Menachmus, JEdas- 
thenes, Anticlides, Heraclides, Philemon, Menephon, Pythias, Isidorus, 
Philonides, Xenagoras, Astyonomus, Staphylus, Aristocritus, Metrodorus, 
Ckobulus, and Posidonius. 







From whence jirst arose all the fabulous Lies, and the 
excellent Learning of the Greeks. 

HE third Bay of Europe beginneth at the 
Mountains of Acroceraunia, and endeth in 
the Hellespont. It containeth, besides 19 
smaller Bays, 25,000 Miles. Within it are 
Epirus, Acarnania, ^Etolia, Phocis, Locris, 
Achaia, Messania, Laconia, Argolis, Megaris, Attica, 
Bceotia. And again, from another Sea, the same Phocis 
and Locris, Doris, Phthiotis, Thessalia, Magnesia, Ma- 
cedonia, Thracia. All the fabulous Vein, as well as the 
illustrious learning of Greece, proceeded first out of this 
quarter; on which account we will therein stay somewhat 
the longer. The Country Epirus, generally so called, be- 
ginneth at the Mountains of Acroceraunia. In it are, first, 
the Chaones, of whom Chaonia taketh the Name : then the 
Thesproti, and Antigonenses : the Place Aornus, and Exha- 
lation so deadly to Birds. The Cestrini, and Perrhcebi, with 
their Mountain Pindus : the Cassiopaei, the Dryopes, Selli, 
Hellopes, and Molossi, among whom is the Temple of Jupiter 

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 3 

Dodonceus, so famous for the Oracle : the Mountain To- 
marus, celebrated by Theopompus for the hundred Fountains 
about its foot. 


EPIRUS itself reaching to Magnesia and Macedonia, hath 
behind it the Dassaretae above named, a free Nation; but 
presently the savage People of the Dardani. On the left 
side of the Dardani, the Treballi and Nations of Mcesia lie 
ranged : from the Front are joined to them, the Medi 
and Denthelatse ; upon whom the Thraces border, who 
reach as far as to Pontus. Thus it is environed with 
Rhodop, and is fenced presently also with the Heights of 
Haemus. In the Coast of Epirus, among the Acroceraunia, 
is the Castle Cbimsera, under which is the Spring of the 
King's Water. The Towns are Mseandria and Cestria : the 
River of Thesprotia, Thyamis : the Colony Buthrotium : 
and the Gulf of Ambracia, above all others most famous, 
receiving at its Mouth the wide Sea, 39 Miles in Length 
and 15 in Breadth. Into it runneth the River Acheron, 
flowing out of Acherusia, a Lake of Thesprotia, 36 Miles 
from thence: and the Bridge over it, 1000 Feet long, ad- 
mirable to those that admire all Things of their own. In 
the Gulf is the Town Ambracia. The Rivers of the Molossi, 
Aphas and Arachtus. The City Anactoria, and the Lake 
Pandosia. The Towns of Acarnania, called formerly Curetus, 
are Heraclea and Echinus : and in the very entrance, Actium, 
a Colony of Augustus, with the noble Temple of Apollo, and 
the free City Nicopolis. When out of the Ambracian Gulf 
and in the Ionian Sea, we meet with the Leucadian Coast 
and the Promontory of Leucat. Then the Bay, and Leu- 
cadia itself, a Peninsula, once called Neritis, but by the 
Labour of the neighbouring Inhabitants cut off quite from 
the Continent, but joined to it again by means of the Winds 

4 History of Nature. [ BOOK IV. 

blowing together heaps of Sand ; which Place is called 
Dioryctus, and is in Length half a rnile. A Town in it is 
called Leucas, formerly Neritum. Then the Cities of the 
Acarnani, Halyzea, Stratos, Argos, surnamed Amphilo- 
chicum. The River Achelous running out of Pindus, and 
dividing Acarnania from jEtolia ; and by continual addition 
of Earth joining the Island Artemita to the main Land. 


THE jEtolian People are the Athamanes, Tymphei, 
Ephiri, ^Enienses, Perrhoebi, Dolopes, Maraces and Atraces, 
from whom the River Atrax falleth into the Ionian Sea. 
The Town Calydon in .ZEtolia is seven Miles and a half from 
the Sea, near to the River Evenus. Then followeth Ma- 
cynia and Molychria ; behind which Chalcis standeth, and 
the Mountain Taphiassus. But in the Borders, the Pro- 
montory Antirrhium, where is the Mouth of the Corinthian 
Gulf, not a Mile broad where it runneth in and divideth 
the ^Etoli from Peloponnesus. The Promontory that shooteth 
out against it is named Rhion : but in the Corinthian Gulf 
are the Towns of ^Etolia, Naupactum, and Pylene : and in 
the Midland parts, Pleuron, Halysarna. The Mountains of 
name : in Dodone, Tomarus : in Ambracia, Grania : in 
Acarnania, Aracynthus : in jEtolia, Acanthon, Pansetolium, 
and Macinium. 


NEXT to the ^Etoli are the Locri, surnamed Ozolse, free : 
the Town Oeanthe : the Port of Apollo Phcestius : the Bay 
Crissaeus. Within, the Towns Argyna, Eupalia, Phaestum, 
and Calamissus. Beyond are Cirrhaei, the Plains of Phocis, 
the Town Cirrha, the Port Chalseon : from which, seven 
Miles within the Land, is the free City Delphi, under the 

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 5 

Mountain Parnassus, the most illustrious Place upon Earth 
for the Oracle of Apollo. The Fountain Castalius, the River 
Cephissus, running before Delphos, which ariseth in a former 
City, Liloea. Moreover, the Town Crissa, and together with 
the Bulenses, Anticyra, Naulochum, Pyrrha, Amphissa, a 
free State, Trichone, Tritea, Ambrysus, the Region Drymaea, 
named Daulis. Then, at the bottom of the Bay, the Angle 
of Breotia is washed by the Sea, with the Towns Siphae and 
Thebae, which are surnamed Corsicae, near to Helicon. The 
third Town of Boeotia from this Sea is Pagae, from whence 
projecteth the Neck of Peloponnesus. 


PELOPONNESUS, called formerly Apia and Pelasgia, is a 
Peninsula, worthy to come behind no other Land for noble- 
ness ; lying between two Seas, ^Egeum and Ionium : like 
the Leaf of a Plane Tree 1 , in regard of the indented Creeks 
thereof: it beareth a circuit of 563 Miles, according to 
Isidorus. The same, if you comprise the Creeks, addeth 
almost as much more. The Straits whence it passeth is 
called Isthmos. In which Place the Seas above-named, 
bursting from various ways, from the North and the East, 
devour all the Breadth of it there : until, by the contrary 
running in of such Seas, the Sides on both hands being 
eaten away, and leaving a Space between, five Miles over, 
Hellas, with a narrow Neck, meeteth with Peloponnesus. 
The one Side thereof is called the Corinthian Gulf, the 
other, the Saronian. Lecheum on the one hand, arid Cen- 
chreae on the other, are the Bounds of the Straits : where 
such Ships as for their bigness cannot be conveyed over upon 
Waggons, make a great compass about with some Danger. 
For which cause, Demetrius the King, Ccesar the Dictator, 

1 Dionysius, the geographer, also compares the form of the Morea, or 
ancient Peloponnesus, to the leaf of a plane-tree, making the footstalk to 
be the isthmus by which it is joined to Greece. And in Martyn's " Virgil," 
a figure of this leaf is engraved to illustrate the subject. Wern. Club. 

6 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

Prince Cams, and Domitius Nero, endeavoured to cut 
through the narrow portions, and make a navigable Channel : 
but the attempt was unhappy, as appeared by the issue of 
them all. In the midst of this narrow Strait which we 
have called Isthmos, the Colony Corinthus, formerly called 
Ephyra, situated on a little Hill, is inhabited, three score 
Stadia from each Shore : which from the top of its Citadel, 
which is named Acrocorinthus, wherein is the Fountain 
Pirene, hath a prospect into both those opposite Seas. 
Through the Corinthian Gulf is a Passage from Leucas to 
Patrae, of 87 Miles. Patrae, a Colony, built upon the Pro- 
montory of Peloponnesus that shooteth furthest into the 
Sea, over against ^Etolia and the River Evenus, of less dis- 
tance, as hath been said, than a Mile, in the very entrance, 
sendeth out the Corinthian Gulf 85 Miles in Length, even 
as far as Isthmos. 


ACHAIA, the name of a Province, beginneth at the 
Isthmus: formerly it was called ^Egialos, because of the 
Cities disposed in order upon the Strand. The first there is 
Lecheae above named, a Port of Lechese of the Corinthians. 
Next to it Oluros, a Castle of the Pellenaei. The Towns, 
Helice, Bura, and (into which the Inhabitants retired when 
these before-named were swallowed up in the Sea) Sicyon, 
jEgira, ^Egion, and Erineos. Within, Cleone and Hysiae. 
Also the Port Panhormus, and Rhiurn, described before : 
from which Promontory, five Miles off, standeth Patrae, 
above mentioned, and the Place called Pherse. Of nine 
Mountains in Achaia, Scioessa is most known ; also the 
Spring Cymothoe. Beyond Patrae is the Town Olenum, the 
Colony Dymae. Places called Buprasium and Hinnene : 
and the Promontory Araxum. The Bay of Cyllene, the 
Cape Chelonates: from whence to Cyllene is two Miles. 
The Castle Phlius. The Tract also by Homer named 
Arethyrea, and afterwards Asophis : then the Country of 

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 7 

the Elii, who before were called Epei. Elis itself is in the 
Midland, 12 Miles from Pylos. Within is the Shrine of 
Jupiter Olympius, which, for the fame of the Games there, 
containeth the Calendars of the Greeks (fasti) : also, the 
former Town of the Pisaei, before which the River Alpheus 
runneth : but in the Borders, the Promontory Icthys. The 
River Alpheus is navigated to the Towns Aulos and Leprion. 
The Promontory Platanestus. All these lie Westward. But 
towards the South, the Bay Cyparissius, the City Cyparissa, 
72 Miles in circuit. The Towns, Pylos, Methone, a Place 
called Helos : the Promontory Acritas : the Bay Asinaeus of 
the Town Asinum, and Coronaeus of Corone : and these are 
bounded by the Promontory Jaenarus. There also is the 
Region Messenia with 22 Mountains : the River Paomisus. 
But within, Messene itself, Ithome, Occhalia, Arene, Pteleon, 
Thryon, Dorion, Zanclum, famous at various times. The 
Compass of this Bay is 80 Miles, the Passage over 30 Miles. 
Then from Taenarus, the Laconian Land pertaining to a free 
People, and a Bay there in circuit about 206 Miles, but 39 
Miles over. The Towns Taenarum, Amiclae, Pherae, Leuctra, 
and within, Sparta, Theranicurn : and where stood Car- 
damyle, Pitane, and Anthane. The Place Thyrea, and 
Gerania : the Mountain Taygetus : the River Eurotas, the 
Bay jEgylodes, and the Town Psamrnathus. The Bay 
Gytheates, of a Town thereby (Gythaeum), from whence to 
the Island Creta there is a very direct course. All these 
are enclosed within the Promontory Maleum. The Bay 
next following to Scyllaeus is called Argolicus, and is 50 Miles 
over, and 172 Miles round. The Towns upon it, Boea, 
Epidaurus, Limera, named also Zarax : the Port Cyphanta. 
Rivers, Inachus, Erasinus : between which standeth Argos, 
surnamed Hippium, upon the Lake Lerne, from the sea two 
Miles, and, nine Miles further, Mycenae. Also, where they 
say Tiryntha stood, and the Place Mantinea. Mountains, 
Artemius, Apesantus, Asterion, Parparus, and 1 1 others 
besides. Fountains, Niobe, Amymone, Psammothe. From 
Scyllatmm to the Isthmus, 177 Miles. Towns, Hermione, 
Troazen, Coryphasium, and Argos. called of some Inachium, 

8 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

of others Dipsium. The Port Csenites, the Bay Saronicus, 
encircled in old Time with a Grove of Oaks, from whence it 
had the Name, for so old Greece called an Oak. Within it 
the Town Epidaurum, celebrated for the Shrine of JEscu- 
lapius ; the Promontory Spiraeum, the Harbours Anthedon 
and Bucephalus : and likewise Cenchreae, which we spoke of 
before, being the other limit of the Isthmus, with the Shrine 
of Neptune, famous for its Games every five Years. So 
many Bays cut up the Peloponnesian Coast : so many Seas 
roar against it. For on the North side the Ionian Sea 
breaketh in : on the West it is beaten upon by the Sicilian. 
From the South the Crethean Sea driveth against it : the 
^Egean from the South-east, and Myrtoan on the North- 
east, which beginning at the Megarian Bay, washeth all 

Of Arcadia. 

THE midland Parts of this, Arcadia most of all taketh 
up, being every way remote from the Sea : at the beginning 
it was named Drymodis, but soon after Pelasgis. The 
Towns in it are Psophis, Mantinea, Stymphalum, Tegea, 
Antigonea, Orchomenum, Pheneum, Palatium, from whence 
the Mount Palatium at Rome took the Name, Megalepolis, 
Catina, Bocalium, Carmon, Parrhasiae, Thelphusa, Melanaea, 
Heraea, Pile, Pellana, Agree, Epium, Cynsetha, Lepreon of 
Arcadia, Parthenium, Alea, Methydrium, Enespe, Macistum, 
Lampe, Clitorium, Cleone ; between which Towns is the 
Tract Nemea, usually called Berubinadia. Mountains in 
Arcadia, Pholoe, with the Town : also Cyllene, Lyceus, 
wherein the Shrine of Jupiter Lyceus, Maenalus, Artemisius, 
Parthenius, Lampeus, and Nonacris : and eight besides of 
base account. Rivers, Ladon, issuing out of the Fens of 
Pheneus, Erymanthus out of a Mountain of the same Name, 
running both down into Alpheus. The rest of the Cities to 
be named in Achaea, Aliphiraei, Albeatae, Pyrgerises, Pareatae, 
Paragenitise, Tortuni, Typanaei, Thryasii, Trittenses. All 

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 9 

Achaea Domitius Nero endowed with Freedom. Pelo- 
ponnesus, from the Promontory of Malea to the Town 
Lechseum upon the Corinthian Bay, lieth in Breadth 160 
Miles: but across, from Elis to Epidaurum, 125 Miles: 
from Olympia to Argos, through Arcadia, 63 Miles : from 
the same Place to Phlius is the said measure. And the 
whole, as if Nature weighed out a Recompense for the 
irruptions of the Seas, riseth up into three score and sixteen 

Greece and Attica. 

FROM the Straits of the Isthmus beginneth Hellas, by our 
Countrymen called Graecia. The first Tract thereof is Attica, 
in old Time named Acte. It reacheth the Isthmus on that 
Part of it which is called Megaris, from the Colony Megara, 
from the Region of the Pagae. These two Towns, as Pelo- 
ponnesus lieth out in Length, are seated on either Hand, as 
it were, upon the Shoulders of Hellas. The Pagaei, and 
more especially the ^Egosthenienses, lie annexed to the 
Magarensians. In the Coast is the Harbour Schoenus. 
Towns, Sidus, Cremyon, the Scironian Rocks for three Miles 
long, Geranea, Megara, and Elcusin. There were besides, 
CEnoa and Probalinthus, which now are 52 Miles from 
the Isthmus. Pyraeeus and Phalera, two Ports joined to 
Athens by a Wall, within the Land five Miles. This City 
is free, and needeth no more any Man's praise : so abund- 
antly noble it is. In Attica are these Fountains, Cephissia, 
Larine, Callirrhoe, and Enneacreunos. Mountains, Brilessus, 
Megialcus, Icarius, Hymettus, and Lyrabetus : the River 
Ilissos. From Pyraeeus 42 Miles is the Promontory 
Sunium ; likewise the Promontory Doriscum. Also Po- 
tamos and Brauron, Towns in time past. The Village 
Rhamnus, the Place Marathon, the Plain Thriastius, the 
Town Melita and Oropus, in the Border of Bceotia. To 
which belong Anthedon, Onchestos, Thesprae, a free Town, 
Lebadea : and Thebes, surnamed Boeotia, not inferior in 

10 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

Fame to Athens, as being the native Country (as Men will 
have it) of two Gods, Liber and Hercules. Also, they attribute 
the Birth of the Muses to the Grove Helicon. To this Thebes 
is assigned the Forest Cithaeron and the River Ismenus. 
Moreover, Fountains in Boeotia, (Edipodium. Psammat, 
Dirce, Epigranea, Arethusa, Hippocrene, Aganippe, and 
Gargaphise. Mountains, besides the forenamed, Mycalessus, 
Adylisus, Acontius. The rest of the Towns between Megara 
and Thebes, Eleutherse, Haliartus, Plateae, Pherse, Aspledon, 
Hyle, Thisbe, Erythrse, Glissas, and Copse. Near the River 
Cephissus, Lamia and Anichia : Medeon, Phligone, Grephis, 
Coronsea, Chseronia. But in the Borders, beneath Thebes, 
Ocal, Elseon, Scolos, Scoenos, Peteon, Hyrie, Mycalessus, 
Hyreseon, Pteleon, Olyros, Tanagia, a free People ; and in 
the very Mouth of Euripus, which the Island Euboea maketh 
by its opposite Site, Aulis, renowned for its large Har- 
bour. The Boeotians in old Time were named Hyantes. 
The Locrians also are named Epicnemidii, in Times past 
Letegetes, through whom the River Cephissus runneth into 
the Sea. Towns, Opus (whereof cometh the Opuntinean 
Bay), and Cynus. Upon the Sea-coast of Phocis, one 
Daphnus. Within, among the Locrians, Elatea, and upon 
the Bank of Cephissus (as we have said) Lilaea : and toward 
Delphos, Cnemis and Hiampolis. Again, the Borders of 
the Locrii, wherein stand Larymna and Thronium, near 
which the River Boagrius falleth into the Sea. Towns, 
Narycion, Alope, Scarphia. After this, the Vale, called 
by the People there dwelling, Maliacus Sinus, wherein are 
these Towns, Halcyone, Econia, and Phalara. Then Doris, 
wherein are Sperchios, Erineon, Boion, Pindus, Cytinum. 
On the Back of Doris is the Mountain (Eta. Then fol- 
loweth jEmonia that so often hath changed Name : for 
the same hath been called Pelasgicum, Argos, and Hellas, 
Thessalia also, and Dryopis, and evermore it took the Name 
of the Kings. In it was born a King called Gr&cus, from 
whom Greece was named : there also was Hellen born, 
from whence came the Hellenes. These being but one 
People, Homer hath called by three Names: Myrmidons, 

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 11 

Hellenae, and Achaei. Of these, they are called Phthiotae 
who inhabit Doris. Their Towns are Echinus, in the entrance 
of the River Sperchius : and the Straits of Thermopylae, so 
named by reason of the Waters : and, four Miles from 
thence, Heraclea was called Trachin. There is the Mountain 
Callidromus : and the famous Towns, Hellas, Halos, Lamia, 
Phthia, and Arne. 


MOREOVER, in Thessalia, Orchomenus, formerly called 
Minyeus ; and the Town Almon, by some Elmon ; Atrax, 
Pelinna, and the Fountain Hyperia. Towns, Pherae, behind 
which Pierius stretcheth forth to Macedonia: Larissa, Gomphi, 
Thebes of Thessalia, the Grove Pteleon, and the Bay Pa- 
gasicus. The Town Pagasa, the same named afterwards 
Demetrias ; Tricca, the Pharsalian Plains, with a free City : 
Cranon, and Iletia. Mountains of Phthiotis, Nymphaeus, 
beautiful for the natural Harbours and Garden-works there : 
Buzigaeus, Donacesa, Bermius, Daphista, Chimerion, Atha- 
mas, Stephane. In Thessalia there are 34, of which the 
most famous are Cerceti, Olympus, Pierus, Ossa : over 
against which is Pindus and Othrys, the Seat of the Lapithae ; 
and those lie toward the West : but Eastward, Pelios ; all of 
them bending in the manner of a Theatre : and before them, 
in form of a Wedge, 72 Cities. Rivers of Thessalia, 
Apidanus, Phrenix, Enipeus, Onochomus, Pamisus : the 
Fountain Messeis, the Lake Boebeis : and illustrious above 
all the rest, Peneus, which, rising near Gomphi, runneth 
for 500 Stadia in a woody Dale between Ossa and Olympus, 
and half that Way is navigable. In this Course are the 
Places called Tempe, five Miles in Length, and almost an 
Acre and a half Broad, where on both Hands the Hills arise 
by a gentle Ascent above the reach of Man's Sight. Within, 
Peneus glideth by, in a fresh green Grove, clear as Crystal, 
over the gravelly Stones ; pleasant for the Grass upon the 
Banks, and melodious with the Harmony of Birds. It 

1 2 History of Na ture. [ Boo K I V . 

taketh in the River Eurotas, but receiveth him not, but, as 
Homer expresseth it 1 , floweth over him like Oil: and within a 
very little while rejecteth the Burden, as refusing to mingle 
with his own silver Streams those penal and cursed Waters 
so direfully produced. 


To Thessalia, Magnesia is annexed : the Fountain there 
is Libethra. The Towns, lolchos, Hirmenium, Pyrrha, 
Methone, Olizon. The Promontory Sepias. Towns, Cas- 
tana, Sphalatra, and the Promontory .ZEnantium. Towns, 
Meliboea, Rhisus, Erymne. The Mouth of Peneus. Towns, 
Homolium, Orthe, Thespiae, Phalanna, Thaumaciae, Gyrton, 
Cranon, Acarne, Dotion, Melitaea, Phylace, Potinae. The 
Length of Epirus, Achaia, Attica, and Thessalia, lying strait 
out, is by report 480 Miles, the Breadth 287. 


MACEDONIA, so called afterwards (formerly it was named 
Emathia) is a Kingdom, consisting of 150 several People, 
renowned for two Kings, and once ennobled for the Empire 
of the World. This Country passing behind Magnesia and 
Thessalia toward the Nations of Epirus Westward, is much 
troubled with the Dardani. The North Parts thereof are 
defended by Paeonia and Pelagonia, against the Triballi. 
The Towns are these, -^ge, wherein it was the Custom to inter 

1 As Homer expresseth it. See " Iliad," b. 750 : 

" To these were join'd, who till the pleasant fields 
Where Titaresius winds : the gentle flood 
Pours into Peneus all his limpid stores, 
But with the silver-eddied Peneus flows 
Unmixt as oil ; for Stygian is his stream, 
And Styx is the inviolable oath. 

COWPEE'S Homer. Wern. Club. 

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 13 

their Kings : Beroea, and ^Eginium, in that Quarter which, 
from the Wood, is called Pieria. In the Borders, Heraclea, 
and the River Apilas : Towns, Phina and Oloros : the River 
Haliacmon. Within are the Haloritse, the Vallei, Phylacei, 
Cyrrhestae, Tyrissaei : Pella, the Colony : the Town Stobi, of 
Roman Citizens. Presently, Antigonia, Europus, upon the 
River Axius, and another of the same Name, through which 
Rhaedias runneth : Heordese, Scydra, Mieza,, Gordinise. Soon 
after, in the Borders, Ichnae ; and the River Axius. To this 
Extremity the Dardani : Treres and Pieres border upon 
Macedonia. From this River are the Nations of Paeonia, 
Parorei, Heordenses, Almopii, Pelagones, and Mygdones. 
The Mountains Rhodope, Scopius, and Orbelus. Then the 
Lap of the Earth spreading along, Arethusii, Antiochienses, 
Idomenenses, Doberienses, Trienses, Allantenses, Andari- 
stenses, Moryllii, Garesci, Lyncestae, Othrionei, and the free 
States of the Amantini and Orestae. Colonies, Bulledensis 
and Diensis. Xilopolitae, Scotussaei, free ; Heraclea, Sintica, 
Tymphei, and Coronaei. In the Coast of the Macedonian 
Bay, the Town Calastra, and within, Phileros, and Lete : 
and in the middle bending of the Coast, Thessalonica, of 
free condition. To it from Dyrrhachium, is 114 Miles; 
Thermae. In the Bay Thermaicus, are these Towns, Dicaea, 
Pydna, Derrha, Scione : the Promontory Canastraeum. 
Towns, Pallene, Phlerga. In which Region these Moun- 
tains, Hypsizorus, Epitus, Alchione, Leuomne. Towns, 
Nissos, Brygion, Eleon, Mendae, and in the Isthmus of Pal- 
lene, the Colony sometime called Potidsea, and now Cas- 
sandria ; Anthemus, the Bay Holophyxus, and Mecyberna ; 
Towns, Phiscella, Ampelos, Torone, and Singos : the Creek 
(where Xerxes, King of the Persians, cut the Mountain 
Athos from the Continent), in Length a Mile and a half. 
The Mountain itself shooteth out from the Plain into the 
Sea, 75 Miles. The Compass of the Foot thereof taketh 
150 Miles. A Town there was on the Summit, Acroton. 
Now there be Vranopolis, Palaeotrium, Thyssus, Cleon&, 
Apollonia, the Inhabitants whereof are named Macrobii. The 
Town Cassera, and a second Gullet of the Isthmus, Acan- 

14 History of Nature. [BOOK IV. 

thus, Stagira, Sitone, Heraclea, and the Region lying under 
Mygdonia, wherein are, receding from the Sea, Apollonia 
and Arethusa. Again, in the Coast, Posidium, and a Bay, 
with the Town Cermorus : Amphipolis, a free State, and the 
Nation Bisaltae. Then, the River Strymon, which is the 
Bound of Macedonia, and which springeth in Haemus : of 
which this is worthy to be remembered, that it runneth into 
seven Lakes before it keepeth a direct Course. This is 
Macedonia, which once obtained the Dominion over all the 
Earth : this overran Asia, Armenia, Iberia, Albania, Cappa- 
docia, Syria, Egypt, Taurus, and Caucasus : this ruled over 
the Bactri, Medi, and Persi, and possessed all the East : 
this having the Conquest of India, wandered through the 
Tracts of Father Liber and Hercules. This is the very 
same Macedonia, of which in one Day Paulus jEmylius, 
our Imperator, sold 72 plundered Cities. So great a 
Difference of Fortune befel two Men. 


Now followeth Thracia, among the most valiant Nations of 
Europe, divided into 52 Regiments (strategias) of Soldiers. 
Of those People in it, whom it does not grieve me to name, 
the Denseletes and Medi inhabit near the River Strymon, on 
the right Side, as far as to the Bisaltae above-named : on the 
left, the Digeri, and many Names of the Bessi, to the River 
Nestus, which environeth the Bottom of the Mountain Pan- 
gaeus, between the Eleti, Diobesi, and Carbilesi ; and so 
forward to the Brysae and Capaei. Odomanta, a Nation of 
the Odrysae, poureth out the River Hebrus to the Neighbour- 
borderers, the Carbiletes, Pyrogeri, Drugeri, Csenici, Hyp- 
salti, Beni, Corpilli, Botisei, and Edoni. In the same Tract 
are the Selletae, Priautse, Diloncae, Thyni, Celetae, the greater 
under Haemus, the less under Rhodopae : between whom 
runneth the River Hebrus. The Town situate beneath Rho- 
dop, before-time named Poneropolis ; soon after by the 
Founder, Philippopolis ; but now, from its Site, Trimontium. 

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 15 

The Elevation of Haemus taketh six Miles : the Back and 
declining thereof down to Ister, the Mo3si, Getse, Aoti, 
Gaudse, and Clarise, and under them the Arraei, Sarmatae, 
whom they call Areatae, and Scythae : and about the Sea- 
coast of Pontus, the Moriseni and Sithonii, from whom the 
Poet Orpheus descended, do inhabit. Thus Ister boundeth 
it on the North : in the East, Pontus and Propontus : South- 
ward, the Sea ^Egaeum, in the Coast of which, from Strymon, 
stand Apollonia, (Estima, Neapolis, and Polis. Within, the 
Colony of Philip ; and 325 Miles from Dyrrhachium, Sco- 
tusa, Topiris, and the Mouth of the River Nestus. The 
Mountain Pangaeus, Heraclea, Olynthos Abdera, a free City ; 
the Marsh and Nation of the Bistoni. There stood the Town 
Tinda, terrible for the Stables of the Horses of Diomedes. 
Now there are the Diceae, Ismaron, the Place Parthenion, 
Phalesina, Maronea, called Ortagurea before-time. The 
Mountain Serrium and Zonae : then, the Place Doriscus, 
able to- receive 1 0,000 * Men : for so there Xerxes numbered 
over his Army. The Mouth of Hebrus : the Port of Stentor: 
the free Town ./Enea, with the Tomb of Polydorus ; the 
Region, sometime, of the Cicones. From Doriscus, the 
Coast bendeth to Macron-Tichos for 122 Miles. About 
which Place the River Melas, from which the Bay taketh its 
Name. Towns, Cypsella, Bisanthe, and that which is called 
Macron-Tichos, whence stretching forth the Walls from Pro- 
pontis to the Bay Melanes, between two Seas, it excludeth 
Cherronesus as it runneth out. For Thracia, on one Side, 
beginning at the Sea-coast of Pontus, where the River Ister 
is discharged, hath in that Quarter the very beautiful Cities, 
Istropolis of the Milesii, Tomi, and Calatis, which before 
was called Acernetis. It had Heraclea and Bizon, which 
was destroyed in a Chasm of the Earth ; now it hath Diony- 
sopolis, formerly called Crunos. The River Ziras runneth by 
it. All that Tract, the Scythians named Aroteres possessed. 
Their TOWIJS, Aphrodisius, Libistos, Zigere, Borcobe, Eu- 
menia, Parthenopolis, Gerania, where it is reported were the 

1 Or 100,000. 

16 History of Nature. [ BOOK IV. 

Nation of the Pygmei 1 , whom the Barbarians call Catizi, and 
they believe that they were chased away by Cranes. In the 
Borders from Dionysopolis is Odessus of the Milesii ; the River 
Pomiscus, the Town Tetranaulochos : the Mountain Haemus 
bending down with a huge Top into Pontus, had in the Sum- 
mit the Town Aristseum. Now in the Coast is Mesembria 
and Anchialum, where Messa was. The Region Astice. 
There was the Town Anthium, now there is Apollonia. The 
Rivers Panissa, Rira, Tearus, Orosines. Towns, Thynnias, 
Almedessos, Develton, with the Marsh which now is called 
Deultum, belonging to the Veterans. Phinopolis, near which 
is Bosphorus. From the Mouth of Ister to the Entrance of 
Pontus others have made 555 Miles. Agrippa hath added 
40 Miles more. From thence to the Wall above-named, 
150 : and from it to Cherronesus, 126. But from the Bos- 
phorus is the Bay Gasthenes. The Port Senum, and an- 
other which is called the Port Mulierum. The Promontory 
Chrysoceras, whereon standeth the Town Bizantium of free 
Condition, and formerly called Lygos. From Dyrrhachium 
it is 71 1 Miles. Thus much lieth out the Length between 
the Adriatic Sea and Propontis. Rivers, Bathynias, Pydaras, 
or Atyras. Towns, Selymbria, Perinthus, annexed to the 
Continent, 200 Paces broad. Within, Byzia, the Castle of 
the Thracian Kings, hated by Swallows 2 for the horrible 
Crime of Tereus. The Region Camica : the Colony Flavio- 
polus, where formerly the Town was called Zela. And 50 
Miles from Byria, the Colony Apros, which is from Philippi 
188 Miles. But in the Borders, the River Erginus, where 
was the Town Gonos. And there you leave Lysimachia, 

1 The Pygmies are frequently spoken of by ancient writers, and the 
existence of the diminutive race was never doubted. We defer the parti- 
cular consideration of the monstrous races of mankind to the 7th Book, 
c. 2, where they are all mentioned together ; but the Pygmies appear to 
have attracted more of the imagination of the poets than any of the 
others. The origin of their royal tyrant, the crane, is referred to by 
Ovid, "Metamorphoses," b. vi. Wern. Club. 

s See the story of Tereus, Procne, and Philomela, in Ovid's "Metamor- 
phoses," lib. vi. Wern. Club. 

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 17 

now in Cherronesns. For there is another Isthmus of like 
Straightness, of the same Name, and of equal Breadth. 
On both Sides two Cities beautify the Shores, which they 
hold in a Manner not unlike : Pactise from Propontis, and 
Cardia from the Bay Melane : this taketh its Name from the 
Appearance of the Place : and both, afterwards, were en- 
closed within Lysimachia, three Miles from the long Walls 1 . 
Cherronesus from Propontis had Tiristasis and Crithotes, 
also Cissa, upon the River ^Egos : now it hath from the 
Colony Apros 32 Miles ; Resistos, over against the Colony 
Pariana. And Hellespontus, dividing Europe from Asia by 
seven Stadia (as we have said), hath four Cities, opposite one 
against another: in Europe, Calippolis and Sestos ; in Asia, 
Lampsacum and Abydos. Then, is the Promontory of Cher- 
ronesus, called Mastisia, opposite to Sigeum, in the crooked 
Front whereof is Cynossema : for so is Hecuba s Tomb 
named, the Station of the Achaei. The Tower and Shrine 
of Protesilaus : and in the utmost Front of Cherronesus, 
which is called ^Eolium, the Town Elasus. After it, as a 
Man goeth to the Bay Melane, the Port Cselos, Panhormus, 
and the above-named Cardia. The third Bay of Europe is in 
this Manner shut in. Mountains of Thracia above those 
before rehearsed, Edonus, Gigemorus, Meritus, and Melam- 
phyllon ; Rivers falling into Hebrus, Bargus, and Suemus. 
The Length of Macedonia, Thracia, and Hellespontus, is set 
down before. Some make it 720 Miles. The Breadth is 380 
Miles. The Sea jEgeum took that Name from a Rock, be- 
tween Tenedos and Chios, more truly than from an Island 
named MX, resembling a Goat, and therefore so called of the 
Greeks ; which suddenly riseth out of the midst of the Sea. 
The People that sail from Achaia to Andros, discover it on 
the right Hand, dreadful and mischievous. Part of the 
./Egean Sea is given to Myrtoum, and is so called from a 
little Island which sheweth itself to them that sail from 
Gerestus to Macedonia, not far from Charystos in Eubcea. 
The Romans comprehend all these Seas in two Names : 

1 Macron-Tichos. 


18 History of Nature. [Boox IV. 

Macedonicum, all that which toucheth Macedonia and 
Thracia: and Graeciensum, where it beateth upon Greece. 
For the Greeks divide the Ionian Sea, into Siculum and 
Creticum, from the Islands. Also, Icarius (they call that), 
between Samos and Mycionus. The other Names are given 
by Bays, of which we have spoken. And thus much, indeed, 
of the Seas and Nations contained in this Manner within the 
third Bay of Europe. 


Islands between those Lands, among which, Creta, Euboea, 
Cyclades, and Sporades: also, of Hellespont, Pontus, 
Maoris, Dacia, Sarmatia, and Scythia. 

ISL ANDS over against Thresprotia, Corcyra: 12Miles from 
Buthrotus, and the same from Acroceraunia, 50 Miles, with 
a City of the same Name, Corcyra, of free Condition ; also, 
the Town Cassiope, and the Temple of Jupiter Cassiopeeus : 
it lieth out in Length 97 Miles. Homer called it Scheria 
and Phaeacia : Callimachus also, Drepane. About it are 
some others : but verging toward Italy, Thoronos : and to- 
ward Leucadia, the two Paxae, five Miles divided from Cor- 
cyra. And not far from them before Corcyra, Ericusa, 
Marate, Elaphusa, Malthace, Trachiae, Pytionia, Ptychia, 
Tarachie. And beyond Pholachrum, a Promontory of Corcyra, 
the Rock into which it is feigned that the Ship of Ulysses was 
turned, on Account of its Resemblance. Before Leucadia, 
Sybota. But between Leucadia and Achaia there are very 
many: of which are Teleboides, the same as Taphiae: of the 
Inhabitants before Leucadia, they are called Taphias ; Oxiae 
and Prinoessa : and before ^Etolia, the Echinades, ^Egialia, 
Cotonis, Thyatira, Geoaris, Dionysia, Cyrnus, Chalcis, 
Pinara, and Mystus. Before them in the deep Sea, Cepha- 
lenia and Zacynthus, both free States : Ithaca, Dulichium, 
Same, Crocylea, and Paxos. Cephalenia, formerly called 
Melaana is 11 Miles otf, and 44 Miles in Circuit. Same was 
destroyed by the Romans : nevertheless, it hath still three 
Towns : between it and Achaia is Zacynthus, with a Town, a 

BOOK IV.] History of Nature . 1 9 

stately Island, and remarkably fertile. In Times past it was 
called Hyrie, and is 22 Miles distant from the South-coast of 
Cephalenia. The famous Mountain of Elatus is there. The 
Island itself is in Circuit 25 Miles. Twelve Miles from it is 
Ithaca, wherein is the Mountain Neritus. And in the whole 
it taketh up the Compass of 25 Miles. From it 12 Miles off 
is Araxum, a Promontory of Peloponnesus. Before this, in 
the main Sea, Asteris and Prote. Before Zacynthus, 35 
Miles in the Wind Eusus, are the Strophades, called by 
others, Plotae : and before Cephalenia, Letoia. Before Pylos, 
three Sphagiae ; and as many before Messene, called (Enussae. 
In the Bay Asinseus, three Thyrides : in the Laconian Gulf, 
Teganusa, Cothon, Cythera, with the Town formerly named 
Porphyris. This lieth five Miles from the Promontory of 
Malea, doubtful for Ships to come about it, by Reason of the 
Straits there. In the Argolic Sea are Pityusa, Irine and 
Ephyre : and against the Territory Hermonium, Typarenus, 
Epiropia, Colonis, Aristera : over against Troszenium Ca- 
lauria, half a Mile from Plateae : also, Belbina, Lacia and 
Baucidias. Against Epidaurus, Cecryphalos, and Pytionesos, 
six Miles from the Continent. Next to it is ^Sgina, of free 
Condition, 17 Miles off, and the Navigation of it is 20 Miles 
about. The same is distant from Pyrseeum, the Port of the 
Athenians, 12 Miles, and in old Time it was usually called 
CEnone. Over against the Promontory Spiraeum, lie Eleusa, 
Dendros, two Craugiae, two Caeciae, Selachusa, Cenchreis, and 
Aspis. Also, in the Megarian Bay, there are four Methu- 
rides. But ^Egilia is 15 Miles from Cythera; and the same 
is from Phalasarna, a Town in Greta, 25 Miles. And Creta 
itself, lying with one Side to the South, and the other to the 
North, stretcheth forth in Length East and West ; famous 
and noble for 100 Cities. Dodades saith it took that Name 
from the Nymph Creta, Daughter of Hesperis : but according 
to Anaximander, from a King of the Curetes. Pkilistides, 
Mallotes, Crates, have thought it was called first vEria, and 
afterwards Guretis, and some have thought it was named 
Macaros, on Account of the excellent Temperature of the 
Air. In Breadth it exceedeth in no Place 50 Miles, arid in 

20 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

the middle Part it is broadest : in Length it is full 270 
Miles : in Circuit, 589 Miles : and bending itself into the 
Cretic Sea, so called from it, where it stretcheth out furthest 
Eastward, it putteth forth the Promontory Sarnmonium, 
opposite Rhodos ; and Westward, Criu-Metopon, toward 
Cyrenae. The principal Towns are Phalasarnae, Elaea, Cysa- 
mum, Pergamum, Cydon, Minoum, Apteron, Pantoma- 
trium, Amphimalla, Rhythymna, Panhormum, Cyteum, 
Apollonia, Matium, Heraclea, Miletos, Ampelos, Hiera- 
pytna, Lebena, Hierapolis. And in the midland Parts, Cor- 
tyna, Phaestum. Gnossus, Potyrrhenium, Myrina, Lycastus, 
Rhamnus, Lyctus, Dium, Asum, Pyloros, Rhytion, Clatos, 
Pharae. Holopyxos, Lasos 1 , Eleuthernae, Therapn, Mara- 
thusa, Mytinos. And other Towns to about the Number of 
60 stand yet upon Record. The Mountains : Cadiscus, 
Idaeus, Dictaeus, and Morycus. The Isle itself, from the 
Promontory in it called Criu-Metopon, as Agrippa reporteth, 
is distant from Phycus, a Promontory of the Cyrense, 225 
Miles. Likewise to Capescum from Malea in Peloponnesus, 
it is 80 Miles. From the Island Carpathus, from the Pro- 
montory Samrnonia, in the Favonian Wind, 60 Miles. This 
Island lieth between it and Rhodos. The Rest about it are 
these : before Peloponnesus two Coricae, and as many Mylae : 
and on the North Side, with Greta on the right Hand, there 
appeareth Leuce over against Cydonia, with the two Budorse; 
against Matium, Cia: against the Promontory Itanum Onisa 
and Leuce : against Hierapytna, Chrysa, and Caudos. In 
the same Tract are Ophiussa, Butoa, and Rhamnus : and 
doubling Criu-Metopon, the Isles called Musagores. Before 
the Promontory Sammonium, Phocae, Platiae, Sirnides, Nau- 
lochos, Armedon, and Zephyre. But in Hellas, yet still in 
^Egeum, Lichades, Scarphia, Maresa, Phocaria, and very 
many more over against Attica ; but without Towns, and 
therefore obscure : but against Eleusina, the noble Salamis, 

1 Dr. Bloomfield (" Recens. Synop." in loco) thinks this place was the 
Lasea of Acts xxvii. 8. Pliny makes it an inland town, but by inland 
towns he only means such as were not ports ; and that Lasea was not a 
port is clear, the Fair Havens being its port. Worn. Club. 

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 21 

and before it Psytalia: and from Sunium, Helene, five Miles 
off: and Ceos, from thence as many ; which our Countrymen 
have named Caea ; but the Greeks Hydrussa : cut off from 
Eubcea. In Times past it was 500 Stadia long: but soon 
after, almost four Parts, which verged towards Boeotia, were 
devoured by the same Sea : and now the Towns remaining 
are Julis and Carthaea. For Coressus and Paecessa are 
perished. From hence, as Varro saith, came the more deli- 
cate Dress that Women use. Euboea itself hath been torn 
from Boeotia, being divided with so little a Euripus, that a 
Bridge joineth the one to the other: it is well marked by 
Reason of two Promontories in the South Side, which are, 
Genestum, bending toward Attica; and Caphareus to Helles- 
pontus : and upon the North Side, Caeneus. In no Part doth 
it extend broader than 40 Miles ; and no where doth it con- 
tract beyond 20. But in Length from Attica, as far as Thes- 
salia, it lieth along Boeotia for 150 Miles; and containeth in 
Circuit 365. From Hellespont, on the Part of Caphareus, it 
is 225 Miles. In Times past it was illustrious for these 
Cities: Pyrrha, Porthmos, Nesos, Cerinthus, Oreum, Dium, 
^Edepsum, Ocha, CEchalia, now Calcis, over against which 
standeth Aulis on the Continent : but now noble for Geres- 
turn, Eretria, Carystus, Oritanum, Artemisium, the Fountain 
Arethusa, the River Lelantum, the hot Waters called Hel- 
lopiae ; but yet more known for the Marble of Carystus. 
In former Time it was called commonly Chalcodontis or 
Macris, as Dionysius and Ephorus say ; but Macra, ac- 
cording to Aristides : and according to Callidemus, Chalcis, 
from the Brass there first found: and as Menoecmus saith, 
Abantias : and Asopis, as the Poets commonly name it. Be- 
yond, in the Myrtoom Sea, are many Isles, but those prin- 
cipally famous are Glauconnesus and ^Egilia. And from the 
Promontory Gerestum, about Delos, some lying in a Circle 
together, whence they took their Name Cyclades. The first 
of them, Andrus, with a Town, is from Gerestum, 10 Miles ; 
and from Ceum, 39. Myrsilius saith it was called Cauros, 
and afterwards Antandros. Callimachus nameth it Lasia, 
others Nonagria, Hydrussa, and Epagris. It lieth in Coin- 
pass 93 Miles. A Mile from the same Andros, and 15 from 

22 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

Delos, lieth Tenos, with a Town stretched out 15 Miles in 
Length : which, for the Plenty of Water, Aristotle saith, was 
called Hydrussa, but others name it Ophiussa. The Rest are 
these: Myconos, with the Mountain Dimastos, 15 Miles 
from Delos. Scyros Syphnus, formerly named Meropia and 
Acis, in Circuit 28 Miles: Seriphus, 12 Miles, Praepesinthus, 
Cythnus. And Delos itself, of all others the most illustrious, 
the midmost of the Cyclades, celebrated for the Temple of 
Apollo, and for Merchandise; which, having a long Time 
floated up and down (as it is reported), was the only Island 
that never felt an Earthquake 1 unto the Time of M. Varro. 
Mutianus hath recorded that it was twice shaken. Aristotle 
giveth a Reason of the Name in this Sort, because it was 
produced and discovered on a sudden. JEylosthenes termeth 
it Cynthia : others Ortygia, Asteria, Lagia, Chlamydia, 
Cynethus, and Pyrpile ; because in it Fire was first found 
out. It is but five Miles about, and riseth up by the Moun- 
tain Cinthus. Next to it is Rhene, which Anticlides calleth 
Celadussa, and Helladius, Artemite. Moreover, Syros, which 
ancient Writers have reported to be in Circuit 20 Miles, 
and Mutianus, 160. Oliatos, Paros, with a Town, 38 Miles 
from Delos, of great Name for white Marble, which at 
first they called Pactia, but afterwards Minois. From it 
seven and a half Miles is Naxus, 18 Miles from Delos; 
with a Town, which they called Strongyle, afterwards Dia, 
soon after Dionysius, from its Fertility of Vines ; and by 
others, Sicily the Less, and Callipolis. It reacheth in Cir- 
cuit 75 Miles, and is half as long again as Paros. And thus 
far, indeed, they note for the Cyclades: the Rest that follow, 
for the Sporades. And these are Helenum, Phocussa, Phae- 
casia, Schinussa, Phalegandros ; and 17 Miles from Naxos, 
Icaros : which gave Name to the Sea, lying out as far in 
Length ; with two Towns, for the third is lost : beforetime 
it was called Dolichum, Macris, and Ichtycessa. " It is situated 

1 Thucydides, book ii., says : " There was also a little before the time 
of the Peloponnesian war, an earthquake at Delos, which, in the memory 
of the Grecians, never shook before ; and was interpreted for, and seemed 
to be a sign of, what was to come afterwards to pass." HOBBES. Wern. 

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 23 

North-east, from Delos 50 Miles : and from Samos it is 35 
Miles. Between Euboaa and Andros there is a Strait 12 
Miles over. From it to Gerestum is 112^ Miles. And then 
no Order forward can be kept ; the Rest, therefore, shall be 
set down promiscuously. los from Naxos is 24 Miles, vene- 
rable for the Sepulchre of Homer : it is in Length 25 Miles, 
and in former Time was called Phaenice. Odia, Letandros ; 
Gyaros, with a Town, in Circuit 12 Miles. It is distant from 
Aneros, 62 Miles. From thence to Syrnus, 80 Miles. Cyne- 
thussa ; Telos, famous for costly Ointment, and called by 
Callimachus, Agatluissa. Donysa ; Pathmos, in Circuit 30 
Miles. Corasiae, Lebinthus, Leros, Cynara, Sycinus, which 
beforetime was QEnoe ; Heratia, the same as Onus ; Casus, 
otherwise Astrabe; Cimolus, otherwise Echinussa ; Melos, 
with a Town, which Aristides nameth Byblis ; Aristotle, Ze- 
phyria ; Callimachus, Himallis ; Heraclides, Syphnus and 
Acytos. And this, of all the Islands, is the roundest. After it 
Machia; Hypere, sometime Patage, or after some Platage, 
now Amorgos ; Potyaegos, Phyle, Thera ; when it first 
appeared, called Calliste. From it afterwards was Therasia 
torn away : and between those two soon after arose Auto- 
mate, the same as Hiera : and Thia, which in our Days 
appeared new out of the Water near Hiera. los is from 
Thera, 25 Miles. Then follow Lea, Ascania, Anaphe, Hip- 
puris, Hippurissusa. Astipalaea of free Condition, in Com- 
pass 88 Miles : it is from Cadiscus, a Promontory of Greta, 
125 Miles. From it is Platea, distant 60 Miles. And from 
thence Camina, 38 Miles. Then Azibnitha, Lanise, Tragia, 
Pharmacusa, Techedia, Chalcia ; Calydna, in which are 
the Towns Coos and Olymna. From which to Carpathus, 
which gave the Name to the Carpathian Sea, is 25 Miles : 
and so to Rhodes with an African Wind. From Carpathus 
to Casos, seven Miles : from Casos to Samonium, a- 
Promontory of Greta, 30 Miles. Moreover, in the Euboic 
Euripus, almost at the first Entrance, are the four Islands, 
Petaliae ; and at the Outlet, Atalante, Cyclades, and Spo- 
rades : inclosed on the East with the Icarian Sea-coasts of 
Asia ; on the West, with the Myrtoan Coasts of Attica ; 

24 History of Nature. [BooK|IV. 

Northward, with the ^gean Sea; and South, with the Cretic 
and Carphacian Seas : and they lie in Length 200 Miles. 
The Bay Pagasicus hath before it Eutychia, Cicynethus, and 
Scyrus abovesaid : but the Outermost of the Cyclades and 
Sporades, Gerontia, Scadira, Thermeusis, Irrhesia, Solinnia, 
Eudemia, Nea, which is sacred to Minerva. Athos before 
it hath four ; Preparethus, with a Town, sometime called 
Euonos, nine Miles off: Scyathus, five Miles: and Imbrus, 
with a Town, 88 Miles off. The same is from Mastusia in 
Corinthos, 75 Miles. Itself is in Circuit 72 Miles. It is 
watered by the River Ilissus. From thence to Lemnos, 22 
Miles: and the latter from Athos, 87. In Compass it con- 
taineth 22 1 Miles. Towns it hath, Hephaestia and Myrina, 
into the Market-place of which the Mountain Athos casteth a 
Shadow at the Solstice. Thassos, a free State, is from it five 
Miles : in Times past, called ^Eria, or ./Ethria. From thence 
Abdera in the Continent is 20 Miles : Athos, 62 : the Isle 
Samothrace as much, which is free, and lieth before Hebrus : 
from Imbrus, 32 Miles: from Lemnus, 22| Miles: from the 
Borders of Thracia, 28 Miles: in Circuit it is 32 Miles, and hath 
a Rising of the Hill Saoces for the Space of 10 Miles : and 
of all the Rest is fullest of Harbours. Callimachus calleth it 
by the old Name Darclania : between Cherronesus and 
Samothrace is Halomesus, about 15 Miles from either of 
them : beyond lieth Gethrone, Larnponia, Alopeconnesus 
not far from Coelos, a Port of Cherronesus : and some 
others of no importance. In this Bay are rehearsed also 
the deserted Islands, of which the Names only can be disco- 
vered : Desticos, Larnos, Cyssicos, Carbrusa, Celathusa, 
Scylla, Draconon, Arconesus, Diethusa, Scapos, Capheris, 
Mesate, jEantion, Phaterunesos, Pateria, Calete, Neriphus, 
and Polendus. 

The fourth of those great Bays in Europe, beginning 
from Hellespont, endeth in the Mouth of Moeotis. But we 
are briefly to describe the Form of the whole Sea, that the 
Parts may be more easily known. The vast Ocean lying 
before Asia, and driven out from Europe in that long Coast 
of Cherronesus, breaketh into the Land with a narrow 

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 25 

Passage of seven Stadia (as hath been said) dividing Europe 
from Asia. The first Straits they call Hellespontus. Over 
this, Xerxes, King of the Persians, made a Bridge upon 
Ships, and so led his Army across. From thence is extended 
a small Euripus for the space of 86 Miles, to Priapus, a 
City of Asia, where Alexander the Great passed over. From 
that Place the Sea groweth wide, and again gathereth into 
a Strait : the largeness is called Propontis ; the Straits, the 
Thracian Bosphorus, 500 Paces over : by which Darius, the 
Father of Xerxes, made a Bridge and transported his Forces. 
The whole Length from Hellespont is 239 Miles. From 
thence the vast Sea called Pontns Euxinus, and in Times 
past Axenus, taketh up the space between Lands far remote, 
and with a great winding of the Shores, bendeth backward 
into Horns, and lieth stretched out from them on both Sides, 
resembling evidently a Scythian Bow. In the midst of this 
bending, it joineth close to the Mouth of the Lake Mceotis. 
That Mouth is called Cimmerius Bosphorus, two Miles and 
a half Broad. But between the two Bosphori, Thracius and 
Cirnmerius, there is a direct Course, as Polybius saith, of 
500 Miles. But the Circuit of all this Sea, as Varro and 
almost all the old Writers witness, is 2150 Miles. Nepos 
Cornelius addeth thereto 350 Miles. Artemidorus maketh 
it 2919 Miles : Agrippa, 2360 Miles : Mutianus, 2865 
Miles. In like sort, some have determined the Measure 
to the Side of Europe to be 4078| Miles: others, 11,072 
Miles. M. Varro taketh his Measure in this manner : from 
the Mouth of Pontus to Apollonia, 188 Miles: to Calatis, 
as much : to the Mouth of Ister, 125 : to Borysthenes, 250 : 
to Cherroriesus, a Town of the Heracleates, 375 Miles : to 
Panticapseus, which some call Bosphorus, the utmost Coast 
of Europe, 222 1 Miles : the sum of which makes 1336^ Miles. 
Agrippa measureth, from Bizantium to the River Ister, 560 
Miles: to Panticapseum, 630: from thence the very Lake 
Mffiotis, receiving the River Tanais which runneth out of 
the Riphaean Mountains, is supposed to be in Compass 1306 
Miles ; being the furthest Bound between Europe and Asia. 
Others make 11,025 Miles. But it is evident, that from its 

26 History of Nature. [BOOK IV. 

Mouth to the Mouth of Tanais, by a straight Course, it is 375 
Miles. The Inhabitants of that Bay have been named in 
the mention of Thracia, as far as to Istropolis. From thence 
the Mouths of Ister. This River riseth among the Hills of 
Abnoba, a Mountain of Germany, over against Rauricum, a 
Town in Gallia, and passing many Miles beyond the Alps, and 
through innumerable Nations, under the Name of Danubius, 
with a mighty increase of Waters, and whence he first be- 
ginneth to wash Illyricum taking the Name of Ister, after 
he hath received 60 Rivers, and almost the one- half of them 
navigable, rolleth into Pontus with six vast Streams. The 
first Mouth of it is Peuces : soon after, the Island Peuce 
itself, from which the next Channel took its name, and is 
swallowed up in a great Marsh of 19 Miles. Out of the 
same Channel, and above Astropolis, a Lake is produced of 
63 Miles' compass; which they call Halrnyris. The second 
Mouth is called Naracustoma : the third, Calostoma, near 
the Island Sarmatica : the fourth, Pseudostoma, and the 
Island Conopon Diabasis. After that, Boreostoma, and 
Spireostoma. Each of these is so great, that by Report 
the Sea, for 40 Miles' length, is overmatched with the 
same, and the fresh Water may so far be tasted. From it, 
into the inland Parts, the People are all Scythians : but 
various other Nations inhabit close on the Coasts : in some 
Places the Getae, called by the Romans Daci : in others the 
Sarinatse, by the Greeks Sauromatae ; and among them, the 
Hamaxobii or Aorsi. Elsewhere the degenerate Scythians, 
who are sprung from Servants, or the Troglodites : presently, 
the Alani and Rhoxalani. But the higher Parts between Da- 
nubius and the Forest Hercynius, as far as to the Pannonian 
wintering Places of Carnuntum, and the Confines there of 
the Germans, the Fields and Plains of Jazyge, the Sar- 
matians possess. But the Mountains and Forests, the Daci, 
who were expelled by them, inhabit, as far as to the River 
Parhyssus from Morns ; or this is Duria, dividing them 
from the Suevi and the Kingdom of Vanni. The Parts 
against these the Bastarnae hold ; and from thence other 
German!. Agrippa hath set down that whole Tract, from 

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 27 

the Ister to the Ocean, as amounting to 2000 Miles, and 
400 less in Breadth, from the Deserts of Sarmatia to the 
River Vistula : the Name of Scythae everywhere continually 
runneth into Sarmatge and Germani. Neither hath that old 
denomination remained in any others but those, who, as I 
have said, live the furthest off of these Nations, almost 
unknown to all other Men. But the Towns next to the 
Ister are Oemniscos and ^Epolium : the Mountains Ma- 
crocrennii : the noble River Tyra, giving Name to the Town, 
whereas before time it was called Ophiusa. Within the same 
is a spacious Island, inhabited by the Tyragetae. It is from 
Pseudostomum, a Mouth of the Ister, 130 Miles. Soon 
after are the Axiacae, named after the River : beyond whom 
are the Crobyzi : the River Rhode : the Bay Sagaricus, and 
the Port Ordesus. And, 120 Miles from Tyra, is the River 
Borysthenes, and a Lake and Nation of that Name : 
and a Town 15 Miles within from the Sea, called by the 
ancient Names Olbropolis and Miletopolis. Again, on the 
Shore, the Harbour of the Achaeans : the Island of Achilles, 
famous for the Tomb of that Man. And from it 135 Miles, 
is a Peninsula, lying out across in the Form of a Sword, 
and called Dromos Achilleos, upon occasion of his Exercise 
there : the Length of which Agrippa hath declared to be 80 
Miles. All that Tract, the Taurisci, Scythae, and Sarmatae 
inhabit. Then the woody Region gave the name to the Sea 
Hylaeum, by which it is encircled. The Inhabitants are called 
Enaecadloae. Beyond is the River Panticapes, which divideth 
the Nomades and Georgi : and soon after, Acesinus. Some 
say that Panticape, with Borysthenes, run together beneath 
Olbia ; but the more exact name Hypanis : so much they 
erred who have described it in a part of Asia. The Sea 
retires with a very great Ebb, until it is distant from Moeotis 
with an interval of five Miles, compassing a vast Space, and 
many Nations. There is a Bay called Corcinites, and a 
River Pacyris. Towns, Naubarura and Carcine. Behind 
is the Lake Buges, let out into the Sea by a foss. And 
(Buges) itself is disjoined from Coretus, a Bay of the Lake 
Moeotis, by a rocky Back. It receiveth the Rivers Buges, 

28 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

Gerrhus, Hypanis, coming from different quarters : for 
Gerrhus partetb the Basilides and Nomades. Hypanis 
floweth through the Nomades and the Hyleans into Buges, 
by a Channel made by Man's Hand, but in his natural 
Channel into Coretus. The Region of Scythia is named 
Sendica. But in Carcinites, Taurica beginneth : which in 
Times past was environed with the Sea, where now there 
lie Fields : afterwards it mounteth up with very great Hilly. 
Thirty People are in it : and of them 24 are within Land. 
Six Towna, Orgocyni, Caraseni, Assyrani, Tractari, Archi- 
lachitae, and Caliordi. The Crest of the Hill the Scytotauri 
hold. They are shut in Westward by Cherronesus ; East- 
ward by the Scythian Satarchi. In the Coast from Car- 
cinites are these Towns : Taphrse, in the very Straits of the 
Peninsula : then, Heraclea, Cherronesus, endowed with 
Liberty by the Romans. Formerly it was called Megarice, 
and is the most Elegant in all that Tract, as retaining the 
Manners of the Greeks ; and it is encompassed with a Wall 
of five Miles' extent. Then the Promontory Parthenium. 
A City of the Tauri, Placia. The Harbour Symbolon : the 
Promontory Criu-Metopon, over against Charambes, a Pro- 
montory of Asia, running through the middle of Euxinus 
for the space of 170 Miles : which is the cause especially 
that maketh the Form abovesaid of a Scythian Bow. Near 
to it are many Harbours and Lakes of the Tauri. The 
Town Theodosia, distant from Criu-Metopon 122 Miles, and 
from Cherronesus 165 Miles. Beyond, there have been 
the Towns Cyt, Zephyrium, Acre, Nymphaeum, and Dia. 
And by far the strongest of them all remaineth still in the 
very entrance of Bosphorus, namely, Panticapaeum of the 
Milesians, from Theodosia 1035 Miles : but from Cim- 
merum, a Town situated beyond the Strait, a Mile and a half, 
as we have said. And this is all the Breadth there that 
divideth Asia from Europe : and even that is for the most 
part passable on Foot, when the Strait is frozen oyer. The 
Breadth of Bosphorus Cimmerius is 12 Miles. It hath the 
Towns Hermisium, Myrmecium ; and within it, the Island 
Alopec. But through Moeotis, from the furthest part of 

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 29 

the Isthmus, which Place is called Taphrae, to the Mouth of 
Bosphorus, it containeth 260 Miles. From Taphrae, the 
Continent within is inhabited by the Anchetae, among whom 
the Hypanis springeth : and Neuri, where Borysthenes hath 
his Head ; also, the Geloni, Thussagetae, Budmi, Basilidse, 
and the Agathyrsi, with blue Hair on their Heads. Above 
them, the Nomades ; and then the Anthropophagi. From 
Buges, above Mreotis, the Sauromates and Essedones dwell. 
But along the Borders, as far as Tanais, the Mreotae, from 
whom the Lake was so called ; and the last behind them, 
the Arimaspi. Within a little are the Riphaean Mountains, 
and a Country called Pterophoros, for the resemblance of 
Wings (Feathers 1 ) occasioned by the continual fall of 
Snow : a Part of the World condemned by the nature of 
Things, and immersed in thick Darkness, having no shelter- 
ing Places but. the work of Cold, the produce of the freezing 
North Wind. Behind those Mountains, and beyond the 
North Pole, there is a happy Nation (if we may believe it) 
whom they call Hyperborei 2 , who live exceeding long, and 

1 " A race of men there are, as fame has told, 
Who shivering suffer Hyperborean cold, 
Till nine times bathing in Minerva's lake 
Soft feathers, to defend their naked sides, they take." 

DRFDEN'S Onid. Metam. lib. xv. 

Herodotus, Melpo. 31, says: " In respect to the feathers wherewith 
the Scythians affirm the air to be filled, my opinion is this : above that 
country snow falls continually ; now any one that has seen snow falling 
thick, and close to himself, must understand what I say. The snow does, in 
fact, bear great resemblance to feathers. I think, therefore, that the 
Scythians and the surrounding nations compare the snow to feathers. 
LAURENT. Wcrn. Club. 

2 The ancients denominated those people and places Hyperborean 
-which were to the northward of the Scythians. They had, indeed, but 
very little acquaintance with these regions;. and all they tell us of them 
is very precarious, while much of it is false. Herodotus, as well as Pliny, 
doubts whether or not there were any such nations ; while Strabo pro- 
fesses to believe that they really existed. See a very amusing account of 
these fabulous Hyperboreans in Herodotus, Melpo. 32-36. From whence 
much that Pliny says was borrowed. Wcrn. Club. 

30 History of Nature. [ BOOK IV. 

are celebrated for fabulous Wonders. There are believed to 
be the Poles of the World, and the very Ends of the revo- 
lution of the Heavens, having for six Months together one 
entire Day ; and Night as long, when the Sun is turned from 
them : but their Day is not from the Spring Equinox (as 
the Ignorant say) to the Autumn : for once in the Year, at 
the Solstice, the Sun riseth with them : and once likewise 
it setteth in Mid-winter. The Region is open to the Sun, 
of a happy Temperature, void of all hurtful impulse of Air. 
The Woods are their Habitations, and the Groves where 
they worship the Gods Man by Man, and in Companies : 
Discord and all Disease are unknown ; arid they never die, 
but when they are satiated with Life : when the aged Men, 
having feasted and anointed their bodies, leap from a certain 
Rock into the Sea. This kind of Sepulture is the most happy. 
Some Writers have placed them in the first Part of the Sea- 
coast in Asia, and not in Europe; because some are there re- 
sembling them in manners and situation, named Atocori ; 
others have set them in the midst, between both Suns ; that 
is, the Setting of it with the Antipodes, and the Rising of it 
with us: which cannot possibly be, so vast a Sea lying 
between. Those that have placed them nowhere but in the 
six Months' daylight, have written of them, that they sow in 
the Morning, reap at Noon, at Sunset gather the Fruits from 
the Trees, and by Night lie within Caves. Neither may we 
make doubt of that Nation, since so many Authors testify, 
that they were accustomed to send their first Fruits to 
Delos, to Apollo, whom they chiefly worship. They were 
Virgins that conveyed these Fruits ; who for certain Years 
were venerated and entertained by all Nations, until, upon 
breach of Faith, they appointed to bestow those sacred ob- 
lations in the next Borders of their Neighbours : and these 
again to convey them to those that bordered upon them, and 
so on as far as to Delos : and, soon after, this custom wore 
out. The Length of Sarmatia, Scythia, and Taurica, and of all 
that Tract from th River Borysthenes, is 980 Miles, the 
Breadth 717, as M. Agrippa hath delivered it. But I judge 

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 31 

that the Measure of this Part of the Earth is uncertain. 
But after the appointed Order, the remainder of this Gulf 
may be spoken of; and we have already shewn the Seas of it. 

The Islands of Pontus. 

HELLESPONT hath no Islands to be spoken of in Europe. 
In Pontus are two, a Mile and a half from Europe, and 14 
Miles from the Mouth : Cyanese, of others called Symple- 
gades : and by Report of Fables, they ran one into another : 
because they being severed by a small Space, to them that 
enter the Sea full upon them they seemed a Pair : but if 
the Eye be a little turned aside, they made a Show as if they 
met together. On this Side the Ister there is one, pertaining 
to the Apolloniates, 80 Miles from Bosphorus Thracius : out 
of which M. Lucullus brought Apollo Capitolinw 1 . What 
were within the Mouths of the Ister we have declared al- 
ready. Before Borysthenes is the above-named Achillea, and 
the same is called Leuce and Macaron. This the modern 
demonstration places 140 miles from Borysthenes : from 
Tyra, 120 : from the Island Peuce, 50. It is in Compass 
about ten Miles. The rest are in the Bay Carcinites : Ce- 
phalonnesos, Rhosphodusa, and Macra. I cannot pass by 
the Opinion of many Writers, before we depart from Pontus, 
who have thought that all the inland Seas arise from that 
head, and not from the Straits of Gades ; and they lay for 
their argument, not without some probability, because out 
of Pontus the Tide always floweth, and never returneth. 

But now we are to depart thence, that other Parts of 

' Apollonia was a colony of the Milesians in Thrace, the greatest 
part of whose chief town was situated in a small island in the Euxine, 
and contained a temple dedicated to Apollo. The colossal statue of the 
god which Lucullus is said to have removed from thence, and placed in 
the Capitol at Rome, is described by Pliny (lib. xxxiv. c. 7), as being 30 
cubits high, and costing 500 talents. After its removal, it acquired the 
name of Apollo Capitolinus. (Note. HOLLAND'S Translation says 150 
talents only.) Wern. Club. 

32 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

Europe may be spoken of; and passing the Riphaean Moun- 
tains, we must proceed along the Shore of the Northern 
Ocean to the left, until we come to Gades. In which 
Tract there are reported to be very many Islands without 
Names, of which, by the Report of Timcsus, there is one be- 
fore Scythia called Bannomanna, distant from Scythia one 
Day's Sailing, into which, in the Time of Spring, Amber is 
cast up by the Waves. The other Coasts are of uncertain 
Report. The North Ocean from the River Paropamisus, 
where it washeth Scythia, Hecatceus nameth Amalchium, 
which Word, in the language of that Nation, signifieth 
Frozen. Philemon writeth, that the Cimbrians call it Mori- 
marusa, that is Mortuum Mare [the Dead Sea], even as far 
as to the Promontory Rubese: then beyond, Cronium. 
Xenophon Lampsacenus saith, That in three Days' sailing 
from the Scythian Coast there is the Island Baltia, of ex- 
ceeding magnitude. The same doth Pythias name Basilia. 
There are reported the Isles Oonae, wherein the Inhabitants 
live on Birds' Eggs and Oats. Others also, wherein men 
are born with the Feet of Horses, and called Hippopodes. 
Others of the Panoti 1 , who, being otherwise naked, have 
immensely great Ears that cover their whole Bodies. Then 
begins a clearer Report to open from the Nation of the 
Ingevoni, the first of the Germans in those Parts. There is 
the exceeding great, Mountain Sevo, not inferior to the high 
Crags of Riphaeus, which maketh a very large Gulf, as far 
as to the Cimbrians' Promontory, called Codanus, and it is 
full of Islands, of which the most celebrated is Scandinavia, 
the Magnitude whereof is not yet discovered. A Part 
only thereof, as much as is known, the Nation of Helle- 
viones inhabiteth, in 500 Villages : and they call it a second 
World, and as it is thought Enigia is not less. Some say, 
that these Parts, as far as to the River Vistula, are in- 
habited by the Sarmati, Veneti, Scyri, and Hirri : also that 

' Some editions read Fanesii, but Panotii seems the more correct ; for 
as the Oonse were so called in consequence of their living on eggs, and the 
Hippopodes because they had horses' feet, so the Panoti derived their 
name from having immensely great ears that covered their whole bodies. 

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 33 

the Gulf of the Sea is called Clylipenus : and that in the 
Mouth of it is the Island Latris. Also that not far from it, 
there is another Bay bounding upon the Cimbri. The Pro- 
montory of the Cimbrians shooting far into the Seas; maketh 
a Peninsula, which is called Cartris. Thence three-and- 
twenty Islands are known by the Roman Armies. The 
noblest of them are Burchana, called by our countrymen 
Fabaria, from the Plenty of Vegetables growing there un- 
sown. Likewise Glessaria, so called by the Soldiers from 
Amber ; but by the Barbarians, Austrania ; and besides them 
Actania. Along this Sea, until you come to the River Scaldis, 
the German Nations inhabit : but the Measure of that Tract 
can scarcely be declared, such very great Discord there 
is among Writers. The Greeks and some of our own Writers 
have described the Coast of Germany to be 2500 Miles. 
Ayrippa again, joining with it Rhsetia and Noricum, saith, 
that it is in Length 686 miles, and in Breadth 268. And 
of Rhsetia alone, the Breadth is almost greater, at least at 
the time that it was subdued, and the People departed out 
of Germany : for Germany was discovered many years after, 
and is not all, even now. But if it be permitted to guess, there 
will not be much wanting in the Coasts, from the opinion 
of the Greeks ; nor in the Length as set down by Agrippu. 

Ger mania. 

OF Germans, there are five Kinds ; the Vindili, a part of 
whom are the Burgundiones, Varini, Carini, and Gurtones. 
A second kind, the Ingaevones, part of whom are the Cimbri, 
Teutoni, and the Nations of the Cauchi. The Istaevones are 
the nearest to the Rhine (Rhenus), and part of them are the 
Cimbri. Then the Midland Hermiones, among whom are 
the Suevi, Hermunduri, Chatti, and Cherusci. The fifth 
part are the Peucini, and Basternae, bordering upon the 
abovenamed Dacae. Notable Rivers that run into the 
Ocean; Guttalus, Vistillus or Vistula, Albis, Visurgis, Ami- 

34 History of Nature. [Boox IV. 

sius, Rhenus, Mosa. And within, the Hireynium Hill, 1 infe- 
rior to none in estimation, is stretched forward. 

Islands in the Gallic Ocean. 

IN the Rhine itself, for almost an hundred Miles in 
Length, is the most noble Island of the Batavi, Cannenu- 
fates; and others of the Frisii, Cauchi, Frisiaboni, Sturii, 
and Marsatii, which are spread between Helius and Flevus. 
For so are the Mouths called, into which Rhenus, as it gushes, 
scatters itself: from the North into Lakes; from the West 
into the River Mosa. But in the middle Mouth between 
these, he keepeth a small Channel, of his own name. 


Britannia and Hybernia England and Ireland.* 

OVER against this Tract lieth the Island Britannia, be- 
tween the North and West; renowned in Greek and Roman 

1 The Hercynian Hill (jugum) is elsewhere called the Hercynian 
Forest (saltus). 

Although Pliny had served with the army in Germany, and had 
written a history of the war in which he was engaged, yet he makes no 
mention, in this work, of any city or region of that country ; a proof 
that the celebrity of a place as estimated at Rome, was the measure of its 
importance with him. Wern. Club. 

a Different suggestions have been offered in explanation of the word 
" Britannia." By some it has been supposed to be derived from the British 
word " Brithy" painted ; from a practice by the inhabitants of staining 
their skin of a blue colour with woad, to render themselves formidable to 
their enemies. But a name thence derived would only be applied by 
strangers, who would not have selected a word foreign to their own lan- 
guage to express the custom. It is more likely, therefore, to have been 
derived from a foreign source; and it is Bochart's opinion that it was 
first applied by the Phoenicians, in whose language the word " Baratanac" 
signifies the land of tin : the chief produce which tempted these adven- 
turous merchants to visit this country, and make settlements in its most 
western extremity, at a very remote period. The word became after- 
wards translated into the Greek name " Cassiterides," which was applied by 

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 35 

Records. It is opposite to Germania, Gallia, and Hispania, 
the greatest Parts by far of Europe, and no small Sea lying be- 
tween. Albion was its Name, when all the Islands were called 
Britannise, of which by and by we will speak. This (Island) 
is from Gessoriacum, a Coast of the Nation of the Morini, 
50 Miles by the nearest Passage. In Circuit, as M. Pytheas 
and Isidorus report, it containeth 3825 Miles. And now for 
about 30 Years the Roman Armies growing into further 
knowledge, yet have not penetrated beyond the neighbour- 

the latter people, more particularly to the Scilly Islands and the County 
of Cornwall. Albion was more properly the Roman name of the coun- 
try ; and was probably derived from its white appearance, as seen on their 
approach to it from Gaul. This latter name was retained in official docu- 
ments, even under the Saxon dominion, as appears from a charter of 
-^Ethelred in the 10th century; in which he terms himself " Ego .ZEthel- 
redus, totius Albionis, Dei gubernante moderamine, Basileus :" and end- 
ing, " Ego .ZEthelredus Rex Anglorum." HEARNE'S Leland, vol. ii. 

As natives of the British Islands, we cannot but regret that, while the 
Author has been so minute in the mention of places lying round the 
borders of the Mediterranean Sea, he has passed over with neglect the 
regions and towns of Britain and Ireland, as well as those of the north of 
Europe. Although his knowledge of these was probably limited, the 
omission can scarcely have proceeded from ignorance alone, for Suetonius 
informs us, that the Emperor Vespasian, who was the great patron of Pliny, 
had subdued twenty cities in Britain, together with the Isle of Wight ; and 
we cannot suppose that Pliny remained unacquainted with the names of 
any of them. In another place he names Camelodunum, which is be- 
lieved to be Doncaster, as a station sufficiently known, from which to 
measure the distance to the Island Mona, or Anglesea; and the city of 
the Trinobantes had been previously mentioned by Julius Cassar. His 
distribution of the islands lying round Britain is contradictory as well 
as obscure ; but he appears to regard all that are situated west of the 
ordinary place of passage from the Continent into Britain, (Gessoriacum, 
which is probably Boulogne on the one side, and the British port of the 
Morini, whether Dover or Folkestone,) as being necessarily situated be- 
tween Britain and Ireland. Vectis is admitted to be the Isle of Wight ; 
but by some authors the same name is given to an island to which tin 
was carried from Cornwall in carts, and from which it was afterwards 
exported. From a comparison of ancient authors, Sir Christopher Haw- 
kins was persuaded that this could be no other thai St. Michael's Mount, 
in Cornwall ; and the argument urged against this supposition, built on 
the tradition that it once stood within the land, and was surrounded by 

36 History of Nature. [BOOK IV. 

hood of the Caledonian Forest. Agrippa believeth that it 
is in Length 800 miles, and in Breadth 300 ; and also that 
Ireland is as broad, but not so long by 200 Miles. This 
Island is seated above it, and but a very short Passage 
distant ; 30 Miles from the Nation of Silures. Of the 
other Islands there is none, by report, in Compass more than 
125 Miles. But there are the Orcades 40, divided from each 
other by small spaces : Acmodse 7, and 30 Haebrides. Also 
between Britannia and Hibernia are Mona, Monapia, Ricnea, 

a wood, may be answered by believing that these facts refer to very different 
ages of the world. The Mictis of Pliny may be this Cornish island ; 
his error in the distance having arisen from confounding the place 
of export for tin with the islands producing it. To the latter, or Scilly 
Islands, it appears the Britons were accustomed to sail in their wicker boats 
covered with leather, or coracles ; a mode of navigation perhaps not less 
secure than the somewhat similar vessels at present in use among the 
Greenlanders. That they were capable of a considerable voyage appears 
from the fact, that they have been employed in crossing the channel 
from Armorica to Cornwall so late as about the 7th century. It must 
have been from misinformation that Pliny assigns the Cassiterides (Chap. 
XXII.) to Spain; but even this great error may be excused, by recol- 
lecting that in a preceding age the merchants had succeeded in concealing 
the situation of this Cornish group from the inquiry of Julius Caesar, 
when he was tempted to invade the seat of pearls and tin ; and that 
Cadiz was the Continental port, from which this profitable intercourse 
with Cornwall and Scilly had from the remotest ages been carried on. 
The Islands mentioned by Pliny may be judged the following : 

Orcades . . . Orkneys. 

Acmodce . probably Zetland. 

Habredes, Hebrides . Western Islands. 

Mona . . . Anglesea. 

Monapia, Monacedia, and by others Menavia, Isle of Man. 

Ricnea, qu. Ricina * . Birdsey, between Wales and Ireland. 

Vectis . . . Isle of Wight. 

Sttumnus ... ? 

Andros ... ? 

Siambis ... ? 

Axantos ... ? 

Mictis . . . St. Michael's Mount. 

GlessarifB j Nordstant, in the German Sea. 

Electrifies ) 

Wern. Club. 

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 37 

Vectis, Silimnus, and Andros : but beneath Siambis and 
Axantos: and on the contrary side, toward the German 
Sea, there lie scattered the Glessaria?, which the later Greek 
Writers have named Electrides, because Amber was pro- 
duced there. The farthest of all, which are spoken of, is 
Thule ; in which there are no Nights, as we have declared, 
at the Solstice, when the Sun passeth through the Sign 
Cancer ; and on the other hand no Days in Midwinter ; and 
each of these Times they supposed to last Six Months. 
Timceus the Historiographer saith, That farther within, at 
Six Days' sailing from Britannia, is the Island Mictis, in 
which White Lead is produced, and that the Britanni sail 
thither in Wicker Vessels, sewed round with Leather. Some 
make mention of others, as Scandia, Dumna, and Bergos ; 
and the biggest of all, Nerigos; from which Men sail to 
Thule. Within one Day's Sail from Thule is the Frozen 
Sea, named by some Cronium. 


ALL Gallia, by one Name called Comata, is divided into 
three Kinds of People, and those for the most part divided 
one from the other by Rivers : Belgica, from Scaldis to 
Sequana : Celtica, from it to Garumna ; and this Part of 
Gallia is also named Lugdunensis. From thence to the lying 
out of the Mountain Pyrenseus, Aquitania, formerly called 
Aremorica. Agrippa hath made this Computation of all 
the Galliae lying between Rhenus, Pyrenaeus, the Ocean, 
and the Mountains Gehenna and Jura ; whereby he ex- 
cludeth Narbonensis Gallia; in Length 420 Miles, and in 
Breadth 313. Next to Scaldis, the Toxandri inhabit the 
utmost Borders, under many Names. Then the Menapii, 
Morini, and Oromansaci ; joining upon that District which is 
called Gessoriacus, the Brinanni, Ambiani, Bellonici, and 
Hassi. Within, the Castologi, Atrebates, and the free Nervii. 
The Veromandui,Sueconi,and free Suessiones,freelllbanectes, 
Tungri, Rinuci, Frisiabones, Betasi, free Leuci. The Treviri, 

38 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

free formerly : the Lingones Confederates : the Remi Confe- 
derate : the Mediomatrici, the Sequani, the Raurici, and Hel- 
vetii. Colonies, Equestris and Rauriaca. But, of German 
Nations in the same Province, that dwell near the Rhenus, 
the Nemetes, Tribochi, and Vangiones : then the Ubii, Co- 
Ipnia Agrippensis, Gugerni, Batavi, and those whom we 
spake of in the Islands of the Rhenus. 

Lvgdunensis Gallia. 

LUGDUNENSIS GALLIA containeth the Lexovii, Velocasses, 
Galleti, Veneti, Abricatui, Osismii, and the noble River Li- 
geris : but a remarkable Peninsula running out into the 
Ocean from the Extremity of the Osismii, having in cir- 
cuit 625 Miles: with its Neck 125 Miles broad. Beyond 
it dwell the Nannetes : within, the Hoedui Confederates, 
the Carnuti Confederates, the Boii, Senones, Aulerici, 
surnamed Eburovices, and the Cenomannes, arid Meldi, 
free. Parrhisii, Trecasses, Andegavi, Viducasses, Vadicasses, 
Unelli, Cariosvelites, Diablindi, Rhedones, Turones, Itesui, 
and free Secusiani, in whose Country is the Colony Lug- 


To Aquitania belong the Ambilatri, Anagnutes, Pictones, 
the free Santones (Bituriges), named also Vibisci, Aquitani, 
from whom the Province is named, and the Sediboniates. 
Then such as were enrolled into a Town from various Parts : 
Begerri, Tarbeli, who came under 4 Ensigns ; Cocossati, 
under 6 Ensigns ; Venami, Onobrisates, Belendi, and the 
Forest Pyrenseus. Beneath them, the Monesi ; Osquidates, 
Mountaineers ; Sibyllates, Camponi, Bercorates, Bipedimui, 
Sassumini, Vellates, Tornates, Consoranni, Ausci, Elusates, 
Sottiates, the Field Osquidates, Succasses, Latusates, Basa- 
bocates, Vassei, Sennates, Cambolectri, Agesinates joined to 

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 39 

the Pictones. Then the free Bituriges, who are also called 
Cubi. Next to them, Lemovices, the free Arverni, and Ga- 
bales. Again, those that border upon the Province Narbo- 
nensis; the Rutheni, Cadurci, Autobroges, and the Petro- 
gori divided from the Tolosani by the River Tarne. Seas 
about the Coast: upon the Rhenus the North Ocean : between 
the Rhenus and Sequana, the British Ocean : between it and 
Pyrenseus, the Gallic Ocean. Islands : many of the Veneti, 
which are called also Veneticae : and in the Gulf of Aquitaine, 


The Hither Hispania. 

AT the Promontory of Pyrenaeus beginneth fiispania 
(Spain) ; narrower not only than Gallia, but also than itself 
(as we may say), so vast a Quantity is wrought into it by 
the Ocean of the one Coast, and the Iberian Sea on the 
other. The Mountains of Pyrenaeus, which from the 
East spread all the way to the Southwest, make Hispania 
shorter on the North Side than the South. The nearest 
Border of this hither Province is the same as the Tract 
of Tarracon, from Pyrenseus along the Ocean, to the 
Forest of the Vascones. In the Country of the Varduli : 
the Towns Olarso, Morosgi, Menosca, Vesperies, the Port 
Amanum, where now is Flaviobriga, a Colony of nine Cities. 
The Region of the Cantabri, the River Sada, the Port of 
Victoria, inhabited by the Juliobrigenses. From that Place 
the Fountains of tberus, 40 Miles. The Port Biendium, the 
Origeni, intermingled with the Cantabri. Their Harbours, 
Vesei and Veca : the Country of the Astures, the Town 
Noaga, in the Peninsula Pesicus. And then the Conventus 
Lucensis, from the River Navilubio, the Cibarci, Egovarri, 
surnamed Namarini, ladoni, Arrotrebae, the Promontory 
Celticum. Rivers, Florius and Nelo. Celtici, surnamed 
Neriae : and above the Tamirici, in whose Peninsula are 
three Altars called Sestianae, dedicated to Augustus; Ceepori, 
the Town Noela. The Celtici, surnamed Praesamarci, Cileni. 
Of Islands worth the naming, Corticata and Aunios. From 

40 History of Nature. [ BOOK IV. 

the Cileni, the Conventus of the Bracae, Heleni, Gravii, the 
Castle Tyde, all descended from the Greeks. The Islands 
Cicse, the distinguished Town Abobrica ; the River Minius 
with a broad Mouth, four Miles over ; the Leuni, Seurbi, 
Augusta, a Town of the Bracse : and above them, Gallsecia; 
the River Limia. The River Durius, one of the greatest in 
Hispania, springing in the Pelendones' Country, and running 
by Numantia : and so on, through the Arevaci and Vaccsei, 
dividing the Vettones from Asturia, and the Gallaeci from 
Lusitania : and there also it keepeth off the Turduli from the 
Bracari. All this Region abovesaid from Pyreneeus is full 
of Mines, of Gold, Silver, Iron, Lead, both black and white 



FROM the (River) Durius beginneth Lusitania, wherein 
are Turduli the old, Pesuri, the River Vacca. The Town 
Talabrica, the Town and River Minium. Towns, Conim- 
brica, Olisippo, Eburo, Britium. From whence runneth out 
into the Sea with a mighty Horn the Promontory, which 
some have called Artabrum ; others, the Great ; and many, 
Olissoponense, from the Town, making a Division of Land, 
Sea, and Sky. By it is the Side of Hispania determined, 
and from the Compass of it beginneth the Front. 

Islands in the Ocean. 

ON the one hand, is the North and the Gallic Ocean : 
on the other, the West and the Atlantic Ocean. The 
shooting forth of the Promontory some have reported to 
be 60 Miles, others 90. From thence to Pyrenseus not a 
few say it is 1250 Miles ; and that there is a Nation of the 
Atabri, which never was, with a manifest Error. For they 
have set the Arrotrebae, whom we have placed before the 
Celtic Promontory, in this place, by exchanging some Let- 
ters. They have erred also in certain famous Rivers. From 

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 41 

Minius abovenamed (as Varro saith) J^minius is 200 Miles 
distant (which some take to be elsewhere, and call it Limaea), 
named by the ancients Oblivionis ; of which goeth many 
a Fable. From Durius to Tagus is 200 Miles, and Munda 
cometh between. Tagus is much renowned for Sand that 
yieldeth Gold : 160 Miles from it the Promontory Sacrum 
(Sacred) runneth out from about the middle Front of His- 
pania : and Varro saith it is 14 Miles from it to the midst of 
Pyrenaeus. But from Ana, by which we have separated 
Lusitania from Bsetica, 226 Miles : adding thereto from 
Gades 102 Miles. Nations : Cellici, Varduli, and about the 
Tagus, the Vettones. From Ana to Sacrum, the Lusitani. 
Memorable Towns : from Tagus in the Coast Side, Olisippo, 
noble for the Mares that conceive there by the Favonius 
Wind. Salacia, denominated Urbs Imperatoria, and Mero- 
brica : the Promontory Sacrum, and another called Caeneus. 1 
Towns : Ossonoba, Balsa, and Myrtius. The whole Province 
is divided into three Conventions : Emeritensis, Pacensis, 
and Scalabitanus. Itcontaineth in all five-and-forty People: 
wherein are five Colonies, one Municipium of Roman Citi- 
zens ; three of Old Latium. Stipendiaries, six-and-thirty. 
Colonies, Augusta Emerita : and upon the River Ana, 
Metallinensis ; Pacensis, Norbensis, which is named also 
Caesariana. To it are laid Castra Julia and Castra Caecilia. 
The fifth is Scalabis, called Praesidiurn Julium. The Muni- 
cipium of Roman Citizens Olyssippo, named also Felicitas 
Julia. Towns of the Old Latium, Ebora, which likewise was 
called Liberalitas Julia : Myrtilis also, and Salatia, which we 
have spoken of. Of Stipendiaries, which I am not loth to 
name, beside the abovesaid, in the additions of Baetica, 
Augustobrigenses, Ammienses, Aranditani, Axabricenses, 
Balsenses, Caesarobricenses, Caperenses, Caurenses, Colarni, 
Cibilitani, Concordienscs, the same as Bonori ; Interau- 
senses, Lancienses, Mirobrigenses surnamed Celtici ; Medu- 
bricenses, the same as Plumbarii ; Ocelenses, who also are 
Lancienses; Turtuli, named Barduli, and Tapori. M.Agrippa 

1 Cceneus is read in some editions, and Cuneus in others. 

42 History of Nature. [BooK IV. 

hath written, that Lusitania, with Asturia and Gallaecia, is in 
Length 540 Miles, and in Breadth 526. But all the His- 
paniae (Spains), from the two Promontories of Pyrenaeus along 
the Seas, are supposed to take up in Circuit of the whole 
Coast 2900 Miles, and by others, 2700. Over against Celti- 
beria are very many Islands, called by the Greeks Cassiterides, 
from the plenty of Lead :* and from the region of the Pro- 
montory of the Arrotrebae, six named Deorum (i. e. of the 
Gods) which some have called Fortunatae. But in the very 
Cape of Bsetica, from the Mouth of the Strait 75 Miles, 
lieth the Island Gades, 12 Miles long, as Polylius writeth, 
and 3 Miles broad. It is distant from the Continent, where 
it is nearest, less than 700 Paces, 2 in other Parts above 7 
Miles. Its space containeth 15 Miles. It hath a Town of 
Roman Citizens, which is named Augusta, Urbs Julia 
Gaditana. On that side that looks toward Spain, within 
about 100 Paces, is another Island, 3 Miles long, and a 
Mile broad, wherein formerly was the Town of Gades. The 
Name of this Island, according to Ephorus and P hilts tides t is 
Erythia : but according to Timceus and Silenus, Aphrodisias : 
by the Native Inhabitants, of Juno. The bigger, Timeeus 
saith, was by them called Cotinusa ; our Countrymen name 
it Tartessos, the Poani Gadir, 3 which in the Punic Lan- 
guage signifieth 4 the number of seven. 5 Erythia was 
called, because the Tyri were reported to have had their 
first beginning out of the (Red) Sea, Erythraeum. Some think 
that Geryon here dwelt, whose Herds Hercules took away. 
There are again some who think that it is another, over 

1 See p. 36, c. xvi. 

1 Less than three-quarters of a mile. 

8 Or Gadiz. 

4 Septem, or, as some read, Septum (t. e. a park or enclosure). 

s From the Hebrew root signifying to make a fence, the Phoenicians 
called any enclosed space Gaddir, and particularly gave this name to their 
settlement on the south-western coast of Spain, which the Greeks from 
them called Gaderia, the Romans Gades, and we Cadiz. See Bochart, 
vol. i. 628-734. This name is very appropriately given to the island 
mentioned by Pliny ; but why it should be derived from a Punic word 
signifying seven is not so apparent. Wern. Club. 

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 43 

against Lusitania, and there sometime called by the same 

The Measure of all Europe. 

HAVING finished the circuit of Europe, we must now 
yield the total Sum, that such as are desirous of Knowledge 
be not deficient in any thing. Artemidorus and Isldorus have 
set down the Length of it from Tanais to Gades 84,014 
Miles. Polybius hath put down the Breadth of Europe, from 
Italy to the Ocean 1150 Miles, for then the largeness of it 
was not known. But the Breadth of Italy itself (as we have 
shewn) is 1220 Miles to the Alps : from whence by Lug- 
dunum to the Port of the Morini in Britain, from which 
Polybius seemeth to take his Measure, is 1168 Miles. But 
the more certain Measure, and the longer, is directed from 
the said Alps to the extreme West and the Mouth of the 
Rhenus, through the Camps of the Legions of Germania, 
1243 Miles. Now will we proceed to describe Africa and 







1. Mauritania. 

2. The Province Tingitana. 

3. Numidia. 

4. Africa. 

5. Gyrene. 

6. Lybia Marseotis. 

7. Islands lying about Africa, and 

over against Africa. 

8. The Ethiopians. 

9. Asia. 

10. Alexandria. 

11. Arabia. 

12. Syria, Palasstina, Phoenice. 

13. Idumasa, Syria, Palaestina, Sa- 


14. Judaea, Galilea. 

15. The River Jordan. 

16. The Lake Asphaltites. 

17. The Essenes (people). 

18. The Country Decapolis. 

19. Tyrus and Sidon. 

20. The Mount Libanus. 


21. Syria Antiochena. 

22. The Mountain Casius. 

23. Ccele-Syria. 

24. The River Euphrates. 

25. The Region Palmyra. 

26. Hierapolis (the Country). 

27. Cilicia and the Nations adjoin- 

ing : Pamphylia, Isauria, 
Homonades, Pisidia, Lyca- 
onia, the Mountain Taurus, 
and Lycia. 

28. The River Indus. 

29. Laodicea, Apamia, Ionia, and 


30. JEolis, Troas, Pergamus. 

31. Islands about Asia, the Pain- 

phylian Sea, Rhodes, Samus, 
and Chius. 

32. Hellespont, Mysia, Phrygia, 

Galatia, Nicea, Bithynia, 

Herein you find Towns and Nations, principal Rivers, famous Moun- 
tains, Islands, 117. Towns also that are perished. Affairs, Histories and 


Agrippa, Suetonius Pavlinus, Varro Atacinus, Cornelius Nepos, Hyginus, 
L. Vetus, Mela, Domitius Corbulo, Licinius Mutianus, Claudius Ccesar, 
Aruntius, Livius the Son, Sebosus, the Records of the Triumphs. 


King Juba, Hecatceus, Hellanicus, Damastes, Diccearchus, Bion, Timo- 
sthenes, Philonides, Xenagoras, Astynomus, Staphylus, Aristotle, Dionysius, 
Aristocritus, Ephorus, Eratosthenes, Hipparchus, Pancetius, Serapion An- 
tiochenas, Callimachus, Agathocles, Polybius, Timceus the Mathematician, 
Herodotus, Myrsilus, Alexander Polyhistor, Metrodorus, Posidonius who 
wrote Periplus or Periegesis, Sotades, Periander, Aristarchus Sicyonius, 
Eudoxus, Antigenes, Callicrates, Xenophon Lampsacenus, Diodorus Syra- 
cusanus, Hanno, Himilco, Nymphodorus, CaUiphon, Artemidorus, Mcga- 
sthenes, Isidores, Cleobulus, Aristocreon. 





The Description of Africa. 

AFRICA the Greeks have called Lybia; from 
which the Lybian Sea before it beginneth, and 
endeth in the Egyptian. No part of the Earth 
receiveth fewer Gulfs in that long compass of 
oblique Coasts from the West. The Names 
of its People and Towns are exceedingly hard 

to be Pronounced, unless by their own Tongues : and again, 

they for the most part dwell in Castles. 


AT the beginning, the Lands of Mauritania, until the 
time of C. Ccesar (i. e. Caligula), son of Germanicus, were 
called Kingdoms : but by his Cruelty it was divided into two 
Provinces. The utmost Promontory of the Ocean is named 
by the Greeks Ampelusia. The Towns were Lissa and Cotes 

46 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

beyond the Pillars of Hercules. Now there is Tingi, formerly 
built by Antceus ; and afterwards by Claudius Ccesar, when he 
made it a Colony, by whom it was called Traducta Julia. It 
is from Belone, a Town in Bsetica, by the nearest Passage, 30 
Miles. Five-and-Twenty Miles from it, in the Coast of the 
Ocean, is a Colony of Augustus, now Julia Constantia, exempt 
from the Jurisdiction of the Kings of Zilis : and commanded 
to seek for Law to Baetica. And 32 Miles from it is Lixos, 
made a Colony by Claudius Ccesar, of which in old Time there 
were related many Fabulous Tales. There stood the Royal 
Palace of Antceus ; there was the combat with Hercules ; there 
also were the Gardens of the Hesperides. Now there floweth 
into it out of the Sea a Creek by a winding Channel, in 
which Men now interpret that there were Dragons serving 
as Guards. It encloseth an Island within itself, which (not- 
withstanding the Tract near it is somewhat higher) is alone 
not overflowed by the Tides of the Sea. In it there standeth 
an Altar of Hercules ; and except wild Olives, nothing is to 
be seen of that Grove, reported to bear Golden Apples. 
And indeed less may they wonder at the enormous lies of 
Greece invented concerning these, and the River Lixus ; 
who will think how of late our Countrymen have delivered 
some Fables scarcely less monstrous, regarding the same 
things : as, that this is a very strong City, bigger than great 
Carthage : moreover, that it is situated over against it, arid 
almost at an immense way from Tingi : and other such, 
which Cornelius Nepos hath been very eager to believe. 
From Lixus 40 Miles, in the Midland Parts, standeth Babba, 
another Colony of Augustus, called Julia Campestris : also 
a third 75 Miles off, called Banasa, but now Valentia. 
35 Miles from it is the Town Volubile, just in the midway 
between both Seas. But in the Coast, 50 Miles from Lixus, 
there runneth Subur, a copious and navigable River, near to 
the Colony Banasa. As many Miles from it is the Town 
Sala, standing upon a River of the same Name, near now to 
the Wilderness, much infested with Herds of Elephants, but 
much more with the Nation of the Autololes, through 
which lieth the Way to Atlas, the most fabulous Mountain of 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 47 

Africa. For Writers have given out that, rising out of the 
very midst of the Sands, it mounteth to the Sky, rough and 
ill-favoured on that side which lieth toward the Shore of the 
Ocean, unto which it gave the Denomination : and the same 
is shadowy, full of Woods, and watered with Sources of 
spouting Springs, on the way which looketh to Africa, with 
Fruits of all sorts, springing of their own accord, one under 
another, in such a manner, that at no time is Fulness of Plea- 
sure wanting. Moreover, that none of the Inhabitants are 
seen by day : all is silent, like the Awe of Solitude : a secret 
Devotion creepeth into the Hearts of those who approach 
near to it ; and besides this Awe they are lifted above the 
Clouds, even close to the Circle of the Moon : that the same 
(Mountain) shineth by Night with frequent Fires, and is 
filled with the Lasciviousness of ^Egi panes and Satyrs ; that it 
resoundeth with the Melody of Flutes and Pipes ; and 
ringeth with the Sound of Drums and. Cymbals. These are 
the Reports of famous Writers, besides the Labours of 
Hercules and Perseus there. The Way unto it is exceedingly 
long, and not certainly known. There were also Com- 
mentaries of Hanno, the General of the Carthaginians, who 
in the time of the most flourishing state of Carthage had a 
charge to explore the Circuit of Africa. Him, most of the 
Greeks as well as our Countrymen following, among some 
other fabulous Stories, have written that he also built many 
Cities there : but neither any Memorial, nor Token of them 
remain. When Scipio jEmylianus carried on War in Africa, 
PolyUus, the Writer of the Annals, received from him a Fleet ; 
and having sailed about for the purpose of searching into that 
part of the World, he reported, That from the said Mountain 
West, toward the Forests full of Wild Beasts, which Africa 
breedeth, to the River Anatis, are 485 Miles ; and from 
thence to Lixus, 205. Agrippa saith, That Lixus is distant 
from the Straits of Gades 112 Miles. Then, that there is a 
Bay called Saguti; also a Town upon the Promontory, 
Mutelacha. Rivers, Subur and Sala. That the Port 
Rutubis is from Lixus 313 Miles. Then the Promontory 
of the Sun. The Port Risardir : the Gaetulians, Autololes, 

48 History of 'Nature. [BooK V. 

the River Cosenus, the Nation of the Scelatiti and Massati. 
The Rivers Masatal and Darat, wherein Crocodiles are pro- 
duced. Then a Bay of 516 Miles, enclosed within the Promon- 
tory of the Mountain Barce, running out into the West, which 
is called Surrentium . After it, the River Palsus, beyond which 
are the ^Ethiopian Perorsi, and at their back are the Pharusi. 
Upon whom join the inland People, the Gaetuli Darse. But 
upon the Coast are the .Ethiopian Daratitae ; the River 
Bambotus full of Crocodiles and Hippopotami. From which, 
he saith, there is a Continuation of Mountains as far as to 
that which we call Theon-Ochema (the Gods' Chariot). 
Then, in sailing nine Days and Nights to the Promontory 
Hesperium, he hath placed the Mountain Atlas in the mid- 
way ; which by all other Writers is set down to be in the 
utmost Borders of Mauritania. The Romans first warred in 
Mauritania, in the time of Claudius the Prince : when 
jEdtemon, the Freedman of King PtolenuEus, who was 
slain by C. Ctzsar, endeavoured to avenge his Death. For 
as the Barbarians fled backward, the Romans came to the 
Mountain Atlas. And not only to such Generals as had 
been Consuls, and to such as were of the Seriate, who at that 
time managed affairs, but to Knights also, who from that 
time had command there, was it a glory to have pene- 
trated to the Atlas. *Five Roman Colonies, as we have 
said, are in that Province, and by common fame it may seem 
to be accessible. But this is found for the most part by 
Experience very fallacious : because Persons of high Rank, 
when it is irksome to search out the Truth, find it not irk- 
some through the shame of Ignorance, to give out Untruths : 
and never are Men more credulous to be deceived than when 
some grave Author fathereth the lie. And indeed I less 
wonder, that things are not known, when they of the Eques- 
trian Order, and those now also of the Senatorial Rank, 
admire nothing but Luxury : which very powerful and pre- 
vailing Force is seen when Forests are searched for Ivory and 
Citron-trees : and all the Rocks in Getulia for Murices and 

* It seemeth that this clause is to be set in the beginning of the next 
chapter. . 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 49 

Purpurse. Nevertheless the natural Inhabitants report, That 
in the Sea-coast 150 Miles from Sala there is the River 
Asana, that receiveth Salt Water into it, but with a goodly 
Harbour : and not far from it a River, which they call Fut : 
from which to Dyris (for that is the Name in their Language 
of Atlas) are 200 Miles, with a River coming between, 
named Vior. And there, by report, are to be seen the cer- 
tain tokens of a Soil formerly inhabited ; the vestiges of 
Vineyards and Date-tree Groves. Suetonius Paulinus (a 
Consul in our time), who was the first Roman Leader that 
passed over Atlas for the space of some Miles, also hath re- 
ported regarding the height thereof: and moreover, that the 
foot of it toward the bottom is full of thick and tall Woods, 
with Trees of an unknown kind, but the height of them is 
delightful to see, smooth and beautiful, the branches like 
Cypress ; and, besides the strong smell, are covered over 
with a thin Down, of which (with some help of Art) fine 
Cloth may be made, such as the Silk-worm yieldeth : that 
the top of it is covered with deep Snow, even in Summer, 
and that he reached up to it on the tenth day, and beyond to 
the River called Niger, through solitudes of black Dust, 
with sometimes conspicuous ragged Rocks, appearing as if 
burnt : places by reason of the Heat not habitable, although 
tried in the Winter Season. Those who dwelt in the next 
Forests were pestered with Elephants, wild Beasts, and 
Serpents of all sorts ; and those People were called Canarii ; 
because they and Animals feed together, and part among 
them the Bowels of wild Beasts. For it is sufficiently 
known that a Nation of ^Ethiopians, whom they call Peroresi, 
joineth to them. Juba, the Father of Ptolemceus, who for- 
merly ruled over both Mauritania, a Man more memorable 
for his illustrious Studies than for his Kingdom, hath written 
the like concerning Atlas ; and (he saith) moreover, that 
there is an Herb growing there called Euphorbia, from his 
Physician's name that first found it: the Milky Juice of 
which he praiseth exceedingly much for clearing the Eyes 
and against Serpents and all Poisons, in a dedicated Book by 
itself. Thus much may suffice, if not too much, about Atlas. 

50 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

The Province Tingitania. 

THE Length of the Province Tingitania is 170 Miles. The 
Nations therein are these : The Mauri, which in times past 
was the principal, and of whom the Province took its Name: 
and those most Writers have called Marusii. Being by War 
weakened, they wasted to a few Families. Next to them 
were the Massaesuli, but in like manner they were extin- 
guished. Now are the Nations inhabited by the Getulae, 
Bannurri, and the Autololes, the most powerful of all : a 
part of whom were once the Vesuni : but being divided from 
them, they became a Nation by themselves, and were turned 
to the Ethiopians. This Province being full of Mountains 
eastward, affordeth Elephants. In the Mountain Abila, 
also, and in those which for their equal height they call 
the Seven Brethren : these are joined to Abila, which looketh 
over the arm of the Sea. From these beginneth the Coast of 
the Inward Sea. The River Tamuda navigable, and for- 
merly a Town. The River Laud, which also is able to 
receive Vessels. The Town Rusardir, and the Harbour. 
The navigable River Malvana. The Town Siga, over 
against Malacha, situated in Hispania : the royal Seat of 
Syphax, and now the other Mauritania. For a long time they 
kept the names of the Kings, so that the furthest was called 
Bogadiana: and likewise Bocchi, which now is Csesariensis. 
Next to it is the Harbour for its space called Magnus, with a 
Town of Roman Citizens. The River Muluca, which is the 
limit of Bocchi and the Massaesuli. Quiza Xeriitana, a Town 
of Strangers : Arsennaria, a Town of Latins, 3 Miles from the 
Sea : Carcenna, a Colony of Augustus, the Second Legion : 
Likewise another Colony of his, planted with the Pretorian 
Cohort : Gunugi : and the Promontory of Apollo. And a 
most famous Town there, Caesarea, usually in old time called 
lol, the royal Seat of King Juba : endowed by Divus Clau- 
dius with the Right of a Colony, by whose Appointment the 
old Soldiers were there bestowed. A new Town, Tipasa, 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 51 

with the Liberties of Latiura. Likewise Icosium, endowed 
by Vespasian the Emperor with the same Gift. The Colony 
of Augustus, Rusconiae: and Ruscurum, by Claudius honoured 
as a City : Rusoezus, a Colony of Augustus. Salde, a Colony 
of the same. Igelgili also, and Turca, a Town seated upon 
the Sea and the River Ampsaga. Within Land, the Colony 
Augusta, the same as Succubar; and likewise Tubrisuptus. 
Cities, Timici, Tigavse. Rivers, Sardabala and Nabar. The 
Nation, Macurebi : the River Usar and the Nation of the 
Nabades. The River Ampsaga is from Csesarea 233 
Miles. The Length of either Mauritania is 839 Miles, the 
Breadth, 467. 


NEXT to Ampsaga is Numidia, renowned for the Name of 
Masanissa: called by the Greeks, the Land Metagonitis. 
The Numidian Nomades (so named from changing their Pas- 
ture), who carry their Huts, that is, their Houses, about with 
them upon Waggons. Their Towns are Cullu and Rusicade ; 
from which 48 Miles off, within the midland Parts is the 
Colony Cirta, surnamed of the Sittiani ; another also within 
Cicca, and a free Town named Bulla Regia. But in the Coast, 
Tacatua, Hippo Regius, and the River Armua. The Town 
Trabacha, of Roman Citizens : the River Tusca, which 
boundeth Numidia : and besides the Numidian Marble, and 
abundance of wild Beasts, nothing is there worth the 



FROM Tusca forward is the Region Zeugitana, and the 
Country properly called Africa. Three Promontories : the 
White ; then that of Apollo, over against Sardinia: that of Mer- 
cury opposite to Sicily ; which, running into the Sea, make 
two Bays : the one Hipponensis, next to the Town which 
they call Hipponis, named by the Greeks Diarrhyton, on 

52 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

account of Brooks of Water : upon this bordereth Theudalis, 
an exempt Town, but further from the Sea-side ; then the 
Promontory of Apollo. And in the other Bay, Utica, of 
Roman Citizens, ennobled by the death of Cato : the River 
Bagrada. A Place called Castra Cornelia : and the Colony 
Carthago, among the Relics of great Carthage: and the 
Colony Maxulla. Towns, Carpi, Misna, and the free Clupea, 
upon the Promontory of Mercury. Also, free Towns, Cu- 
rubis and Neapolis. Soon is another distinction of Africa 
itself. Libyphoenices are they called, who inhabit Byzacium ; 
for so is that Region named : containing in Circuit 250 Miles, 
exceedingly fertile, where the Ground sown yieldeth to the 
Husbandman an hundred-fold Increase. In it are free Towns, 
Leptis, Adrumetum, Ruspina, and Thapsus : then, Thenae, 
Macomades, Tacape, Sabrata, reaching to the Lesser Syrtis : 
unto which, the Length of Numidia and Africa from Am- 
phaga is 580 Miles : the Breadth, of so much as is known, 
200. This Part, which we have called Africa, is divided into 
two Provinces, the old and the new ; separated by a Fosse 
brought as far as to Thense, within the African Gulf; which 
Town is 217 Miles from Carthage. The third Bay is sepa- 
rated into two ; horrible Places for the Shallows and ebbing 
and flowing of the Sea at the two Syrtes. From Carthage 
to the nearer of them, which is the lesser, is 300 Miles, by 
the Account of Polybius : who saith, also, that the said Pas- 
sage of Syrtis is 100 Miles forward and 300 in Circuit. By 
Land also, the Way to it is by observation of the Stars, and 
through the Desert over Sands and through Places full of 
Serpents ; you pass Forests filled with Numbers of wild 
Beasts : and within, Solitudes of Elephants : and soon after, 
vast Deserts, even beyond the Garamantes, who, from the 
Augilse, are distant twelve Days' Journey. Above them was 
the Nation of the Psylli : and above them the Lake of Lyco- 
medes environed with Deserts. The Augilee themselves are 
seated about the middle Way from Ethiopia ; which bendeth 
Westward, and from the Country lying between the two 
Syrtes, with an equal Distance on each Side : but the Shore 
between the two Syrtes is 250 Miles. There standeth the 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 53 

City Oeensis, the River Cinyps, and the Country. Towns, 
Neapolis, Taphra, Abrotonum, the other Leptis, called also 
the Great. Then the Greater Syrtis, in Compass 625 Miles, 
and in direct Passage 313. Then inhabit the Nation of Cisi- 
pades. In the inmost Gulf was the Coast of the Lotophagi, 
whom some have called Alachroas, as far as to the Altars of 
the Philaeni, and they are formed of Sand. Next to them, not 
far from the Continent, the vast Marsh admitteth into it the 
River Triton, and taketh its Name from it : but Callimachus 
calleth it Pallantias, and saith it is on this Side the lesser 
Syrtes ; but many place it between both Syrtes. The Pro- 
montory that encloseth the greater is named Borion. Beyond 
is the Province Cyrenaica. From the River Ampsaga to this 
Bound, Africa containeth 26 separate People, who are subject 
to the Roman Empire : among which are six Colonies, be- 
sides the above-named, Uthina and Tuburbis. Towns of 
Roman Citizens, 15 ; of which those in the midland Parts to 
be named are Azuritanum, Ahutucense, Aboriense, Cano- 
picum, Chilmanense, Simittuense, Thunusidense, Tuburni- 
cense, Tynidrumense, Tribigense, two Ucitana, the greater 
and less; and Vagiense. One Latin Town, Usalitanum. 
One stipendiary Town near Castra Cornelia. Free Towns, 
30, of which are to be named, within, Acrolitanum, Achari- 
tanum, Avinense, Abziritanum, Canopitanum, Melzitanum, 
Madaurense, Salaphitanum, Tusdritarmm, Tiricense, Tiphi- 
cense, Tunicense, Theudense, Tagestense (Tigense), Ulusi- 
britanurn, another Vagense, Vigense, and Zarnensti. The 
rest it may be right to call not only Cities, but also for the 
most Part, Nations ; as the Natabudes, Capsitani, Misulani, 
Sabarbares, Massili, Misives, Vamacures, Ethini, Massini, 
Marchubii : and all Gaetulia to the River Nigris, which 
parteth Africa and Ethiopia. 


THE Region Cyrenaica, called also Pentapolitana, is 
illustrious for the Oracle of Hammon, which is from Cyrenae 

54 History of Nature. [BOOK V. 

400 Miles, from the Fountain of the Sun ; and principally 
for five Cities, Berenice, Arsinoc, Ptolemais, Apollonia, and 
Gyrene itself. Berenice standeth upon the outermost Horn 
of Syrtis, called formerly the City of the above-named Hes- 
perides, according to the wandering Tales of Greece. And 
before the Town, not far off, is the River Lethon, the sacred 
Grove where the Gardens of the Hesperides are reported to 
be. From Leptis it is 385 Miles. From it is Arsinoe, usually 
named Teuchira, 43 Miles : and from thence 22 Miles, 
Ptolemais, called in old time Barce. And then 250 Miles 
off, the Promontory Phycus runneth out through the Cretic 
Sea, distant from Taenarus, a Promontory of Laconia, 350 
Miles : but from Greta itself 125 Miles. And after it Gyrene, 
1 1 Miles from the Sea. From Phycus to Apollonia is 24 
Miles: to Cherrhonesus, 88: and so to Catabathnus, 216 
Miles. The Inhabitants there bordering are the Marmaridae, 
stretching out in Length almost from Paraetonium to the 
Greater Syrtis. After them the Ararauceles : and so in the 
very Coast of Syrtis, the Nesamones, whom formerly the 
Greeks called Mesammones, by reason of the Place, as 
seated hi the midst between the Sands. The Cyrenaic 
Country, for the Space of 15 Miles from the Sea-shore, is 
fruitful for Trees : and for the same Compass within the 
Land, for Corn only: but then for 30 Miles in Breadth, and 
250 in Length, for Laser. 1 After the Nasamones live the 
Hasbitae and Masae. Beyond them the Hammanientes, 11 
Days' Journey from the Greater Syrtis to the West ; and even 
they also every Way are compassed about with Sands : but 

1 The plant that yielded the Cyrenaic juice called Laser, was the 
Silphion of the Greeks, and the Laserpitium of the Romans (Thapsia 
Silphion, Viviani), and agrees tolerably well with the rude figures struck 
on the Cyrenean coins. It would appear, however, that the Cyrenaic 
juice becoming scarce, the ancients employed some other substance of 
similar, though inferior properties, as a substitute, and to both of them 
they applied the term Laser. Pliny (lib. xix. c. 3) says, " For a long 
time past the only Laser brought to us is that which is produced abun- 
dantly in Persia, &c., but it is inferior to the Cyrenaic." Now it is not at 
all improbable that the Laser of Persia may have been our Asafcedita 
(Ferula Asafatdita, Li*.)Wern. Club. 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 55 

they find without much difficulty Wells almost in the Depth 
of two Cubits, where the Waters of Mauritania settle. They 
build themselves Houses of Salt, hewn out of their own 
Mountains in the manner of Stone. From these to the Tro- 
glodites, in the South-west Coast, the Country is four Days' 
Journey; with whom is a Traffic only for a precious Stone, 
which we call a Carbuncle, brought out of Ethiopia. There 
cometh between, the Country Phazania toward the Solitudes 
of Africa, above the said Lesser Syrtis : where we subdued 
the Nation of the Phazanii, with the Cities Alele and Cillaba. 
Also Cydamum, over against the region of Sabrata. Next to 
these is a Mountain, reaching a great way from East to 
West, called by our People Ater, as if burnt by Nature, or 
scorched by the reflection of the Sun. Beyond that Moun- 
tain are the Deserts : also Matelgse, a Town of the Gara- 
mantes, and likewise Debris, which casteth forth a Fountain, 
the Waters boiling from Noon to Midnight, and for as many 
Hours to Mid-day reducing again : also the very illustrious 
Town Garama, the head of the Garamantes. All which 
Places the Roman Arms have conquered, and over them 
Cornelius Balbus triumphed ; the only Man of Foreigners 
that was honoured with the (Triumphant) Chariot, and en- 
dowed with the Freedom of Roman Citizens ; because being 
born at Gades, he and his Uncle, Balbus the Elder, were 
made free Denizens of Rome. And this wonder our Writers 
have recorded, that besides the Towns above named by him 
conquered, himself in his Triumph carried the Names and 
Images, not of Cydamus and Garama only, but also of all 
the other Nations and Cities ; which went in this Order. 
The Town Tabidium, the Nation Niteris ; the Town Neglige- 
mela, the Nation Bubeium ; the Town Vel, the Nation Enipi ; 
the Town Thuben, the Mountain named Niger ; the Towns 
Nitibrum and Rapsa ; the Nation Discera,-the Town Debris ; 
the River Nathabur, the Town Tapsagum, the Nation Nan- 
nagi, the Town Boin ; the Town Pege, the River Dasibari. 
Presently these Towns lying continuously, Baracum, Buluba, 
Alasi, Balsa, Galla, Maxala, and Zizama. The Mountain 
Gyri, wherein Titus hath reported that precious Stones 

56 History of Nature. [BOOK V. 

were produced. 1 Hitherto the Way to the Garamantes was 
intricate, by reason of the Robbers of that Nation, who used 
to dig Pits in the Way (which to them that know the Places 
is no hard matter to do) and then cover them with Sand. 
But in the last War which the Romans maintained against the 
Oeenses, under the conduct of Vespasian the Emperor, there 
was found a short Way of four Days' Journey : and this Way 
is called Prceter caput Saxi [beside the Rock's Head]. The 
Frontier of Cyrenaica is called Catabathmos ; which is a Town 
and a Valley with a sudden Descent. To this Bound, from 
the Lesser Syrtis, Cyrenaica Africa lieth in Length 1060 
Miles, and in Breadth, for so much as is known, 800. 


Libya Mareotis. 

THE Country following is named Mareotis Libya, bounded 
by Egypt; inhabited by the Marmaridae, Adyrmachidse, and 
then the Mareotae. The Measure from Catabathmos to Pa- 
retonium is 86 Miles. In that Tract there lieth in the way 
the Village Apis, a place noble for the Religion of Egypt. 
From it to Paraetonium, 12 Miles. From thence to Alexan- 
dria, 200 Miles: the Breadth is 169 Miles. Eratosthenes 
hath delivered, That from Cyrenae to Alexandria by Land the 
Journey is 525 Miles. Agrippa saith, that the Length of all 
Africa from the Atlantic Sea, with the inferior part of Egypt, 
containeth 3040 Miles. Polybius and Eratosthenes, reputed 
the most diligent, have set down from the Ocean to great 
Carthage 600 Miles : from thence to Canopicum, the nearest 
Mouth of Nilus, 1630 Miles. Isidorus reckoneth from Tingi 
to Canopus 3599 Miles ; and Artemidorus, 40 less than 

1 Some editions read Titus prodidit, while others have titulus prcecepit. 

In the triumph of Vespasian and Titus, so minutely described by 
Josephus (" Wars of the Jews," book vii. cap. 5) a title was affixed to 
the several images carried in procession, containing the names of the con- 
quered nations and towns, with mention of their chief productions. 
Wern. Club. 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 57 

Islands about Africa, and over against Africa. 

THESE Seas do not contain very many Islands. The 
fairest is Meninx, 35 Miles long and 25 broad, called by 
Eratosthenes Lotophagitis. It hath two Towns, Meninx on 
the side of Africa, and Thoar on the other: itself is situated 
from the right-hand Promontory of the Lesser Syrtis 200 
Paces. 1 A hundred Miles from it against the left hand is 
Cercina, with a free Town of the same Name, in Length 25 
Miles, and half as much in Breadth where it is most : but 
toward the end not above five Miles. To it there lieth a 
little one toward Carthage called Cercinitis, and it joineth 
by a Bridge. From these, almost 50 Miles, lieth Lopadusa, 
six Miles long. Then, Gaulos and Galata, the Earth of which 
killeth the Scorpion, a dangerous Creature of Africa. They 
say also that they will die in Clupea, over against which 
lieth Cosyra, with a Town. But against the Bay of Car- 
thage are the two jEginori, more truly Rocks than Islands, 
lying for the most part between Sicily and Sardinia. Some 
write that these were inhabited, but sunk down. 

The JEthiopes. 

BUT within the inner Compass of Africa, toward the 
South, and above the Gsetuli, where the Deserts come be- 
tween, the first People that inhabit are the Libii ^Egyptii, 
and then the Leucsethiopes. Above them are the ^Ethiopian 
Nations : the Nigritse, from whom the River was named : the 
Gymnetes, Pharusi, and those which now reach to the Ocean, 
whom we spake of in the border of Mauritania : the Perorsi. 
From all these are vast Solitudes eastward, to the Gara- 
mantes, Augylae, and Troglodites, according to the truest 
opinion of them who place two .ZEthiopias above the Deserts 
of Africa : and especially of Homer, who saith, that the 
Ethiopians are divided two ways, towards the East and 

1 Or 1500 paces, i. e. a mile and a half. 

58 History of Nature. [BOOK V. 

West. The River Niger is of the same nature as Nilus ; 
producing the Reed and Papyrus, and the same living Crea- 
tures, and swelleth at the same Seasons. It springeth be- 
tween the Tareleia jEthiopiae, and the Oecalicae. The Town 
Mavin, belonging to this People, some have set upon the 
deserts : near them the Atlantse ; the -ZEgipanae, half beasts ; 
the Blemmyae, the Garnphasantae, Satyri, and Himantopodae. 
Those Atlantae, if we will believe it, degenerate from Human 
Manners: for neither call they one another by any Name: 
and they look upon the Sun, rising and setting, with dread- 
ful curses, as being pernicious to them and their Fields : 
neither Dream they in their Sleep, as other Men. The 
Troglodites dig Caverns, and these serve them for Houses : 
they feed upon the Flesh of Serpents ; they make a gnash- 
ing Noise, not a Voice, so little exchange have they of Speech. 
The Garamantes live out of Marriage, and converse with 
their Women in common. The Augylae only worship the 
Infernal Gods. The Gamphasantes are naked, and know no 
Wars, and associate with no Foreigner. The Blemmyae, by 
report, have no Heads, but their Mouth and Eyes fixed in 
their Breast. The Satyri, besides their Shape, have nothing 
of Human Manners. The jEgipanae are shaped as you see 
them commonly painted. The Himantopodae are some of 
them wry-legged, with which they naturally go creeping. 
The Pharusi, formerly Persae, are said to have been the 
Companions of Hercules, as he went to the Hesperides. 
More of Africa worth the noting does not occur. 1 

Of Asia. 

UNTO it joineth Asia, which from the Mouth of Canopus 
unto the Mouth of Pontus, according to Timosthenes, is 2639 
Miles. But from the Coast of Pontus to that of Maeotis, 
Eratosthenes saith it is 1545 Miles. The whole, together with 
Egypt unto Tanais, according to Artemidorus and Isidorus, 
taketh 8800 Miles. Many Seas there are in it, taking their 

1 Notes on these alleged varieties of the human form will be found 
b. vii. c. 2 ; see also b. vi. c. 30. Wern. Club. 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 59 

Names from the Borderers : and therefore they shall be 
declared together. The next Country to Africa that is 
inhabited is Egypt, receding withinward to the South, so 
far as to the Ethiopians, who are stretched out on its Back. 
The Nilus is on the lower part, and is divided on the Right 
and Left ; by its encircling it boundeth it with the Mouth 
of Canopus from Africa, and with the Pelusiac from Asia, 
with an interval of 170 Miles. For which cause, some have 
reckoned Egypt among the Islands, considering that Nilus 
doth so divide itself as to make a triangular figure of the 
Land. And so, many have called Egypt by the Name of the 
Greek letter Delta (A). The Measure of it from the Channel 
where it is single, from whence it first parteth into sides, to 
the Mouth of Canopus, is 146 Miles ; and to the Pelusiac 256. 
The upmost part bounding upon ./Ethiopia, is called Thebais. 
It is divided into Townships, with separate Jurisdictions, 
which they call Nomi : as Ombites, Phatunites, Apol- 
lopolites, Herrnonthites, Thinites, Phanturites, Captites, 
Tentyrites, Diospalites, Antaeopolites, Aphroditopolites, and 
Lycopolites. The Country about Pelusium hath these Nomi : 
Pharboetites, Bubastites, Sethroites, and Tanites. But the 
remainder, the Arabic, the Hammoniac which extendeth to 
the Oracle of Jupiter Hammon, Oxyrinchites, Leontopolites, 
Atarrhabites, Cynopolites, Hermopolites, Xoites, Mendesius, 
Sebennites, Capastites, Latopolites, Heliopolites, Prosopites, 
Panopolites, [Thermopolites, Saithes?] Busirites, Onuphites, 
Sorites, Ptenethu, Pthemphu, Naucratites, Nitrites, Gynse- 
copolites, Menelaites, in the Country of Alexandria. In like 
manner of Libya Mareotis. Heracleopolites is in an Island of 
Nilus, 50 Miles long, wherein also is the place they call the 
Town of Hercules. There are two Arsinoetes; they and 
Memphites reach as far as to the Head of Delta. Upon it there 
border, out of Africa, the two Ouasitae. There are Writers 
that change some of these Names, and substitute other Nomi: 
as Heroopolites, and Crocodilopolites. Between Arsinoetes 
and Memphites there was a Lake 250 Miles in Circuit ; or, 
as Mutianus saith, 450, and 50 Paces deep (i. e. 150 Feet), 
made by Hand ; called the Lake Moeridis, from a King who 

60 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

made it: 72 Miles from thence is Memphis, the Castle in 
old time of the Egyptian Kings. From which to the 
Oracle of Hammon is 12 Days' Journey ; and to the Division 
of Nilus, which we have called Delta, 15 Miles. The Nilus, 
rising from unknown Springs, passeth through Deserts and 
burning Countries: and going a vast way in Length, is 
known by Fame only, without Arms, without Wars, which 
have discovered all other Lands. It hath its beginning, so 
far as King Juba was able to search, in a Mountain of the 
lower Mauritania, not far from the Ocean, near to a stag- 
nant Lake, which they call Nilides. In it are found the 
Fishes called Alabetae, 1 Coracini, Siluri, and also the Cro- 
codile. Upon this argument the Nilus is thought to spring 
from hence, for that it is seen dedicated by him at Caesarea, 
in Iseum, at this day. Moreover, it is observed, that as the 
Snow or Rain fills the Country in Mauritania, so the Nilus 
increases. When it is run out of this Lake, it scorneth 
to pass through the sandy and unclean Places, and hideth 
itself for some Days' Journey. By and by out of another 
greater Lake it breaketh forth in the Country of the Mas- 
saesyli, of Mauritania Caesariensis ; and as if it looks about for 
the Company of Men, with the same arguments of living 
Creatures, again becomes received within the Sands, where 
it is hidden a second time for 20 Days' Journey in the 
Deserts, as far as to the next ^Ethiopas : and so soon as it 
hath again espied a Man, forth it leapeth (as it should seem) 
out of that Spring, which they called Nigris. And then 
dividing Africa from ^Ethiopia, being acquainted, if not pre- 
sently with people, yet with the frequent company of wild and 
savage Beasts, and creating the shade of Woods, it cutteth 

1 The first named, Alabes or Alabetae, is a species of Lota of Cuvier, 
or Burbot : though, perhaps not the same with the fish of that name that 
inhabits the fresh waters of Europe. The name Coracinus has been 
applied to more than one fish of a sooty colour : but the species referred 
to by Pliny is probably the Perca Nilotica of Linnaeus : the Lates Nilo- 
ticus of Cuvier. The Silurus of Pliny is perhaps a species of Cuvier's 
genus Schilbe, although true Siluri are found in the Nile. The Croco- 
dile will be more particularly referred to in another place. Wern. Club. 

BooKV.] History of Nature. 61 

through the midst of the ./Ethiopians : there surnamed 
Astapus, which in the Language of those Nations signifieth 
a Water flowing out of Darkness. Thus dasheth it upon 
such an innumerable Multitude of Islands, and some of them 
so very great, that although it bear a swift Stream, yet is it 
not able to pass beyond them in less space than five Days. 
About the fairest of them, Meroe, the Channel going on the 
Left is called Astabores, which is, the Branch of a Water 
coming forth from Darkness : but that on the Right is 
Astusapes, which adds the signification of Lying hid. And 
it never taketh the Name of Nilus, until its Waters meet 
again and accord together. And even so was it formerly 
named Siris for many Miles: and by Homer altogether 
^Egyptus : by others, Triton : here and there hitting upon 
Islands, and stirred with so many Provocations : and at the 
last enclosed within Mountains : and in no place is it more a 
Torrent, while the Water that it beareth hasteneth to a 
Place of the ^Ethiopii called Catadupi, where in the last 
Cataract among the opposing Rocks it is supposed not to 
run, but to rush down with a mighty Noise. But afterwards 
it becometh gentle, as the Stream is broken and the violence 
subdued and partly wearied with his long way: and so, 
though with many Mouths, it dischargeth itself into the 
Egyptian Sea. Nevertheless, on certain Days it swelleth 
to a great height : and when it hath travelled through all 
Egypt, it overfloweth the Land, to its great Fertility. Dif- 
ferent causes of this Increase have been given : but those 
which carry the most probability are either the rebounding 
of the Water driven back by the Etesian Winds, at that time 
blowing against it, and driving the Sea upon the Mouths of 
the River: or the Summer Rain in ^Ethiopia, by reason 
that the same Etesian Winds bring Clouds thither from 
other parts of the -World. Timaus the Mathematician 
alleged an hidden reason for it, which is, that the Foun- 
tain of the Nilus is named Phiala, and the River itself is 
hidden within Trenches under the Ground, breathing forth 
in a Vapour out of reeking Rocks, where it lieth concealed. 
But so soon as the Sun during those Days cometh near, it is 

62 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

drawn up by the force of Heat, and while it hangeth aloft it 
overfloweth : and then, lest it should be devoured, it hideth 
again. And this happeneth from the rising of the Dog 
through the Sun's entrance into Leo, while the Star standeth 
perpendicularly over the Fountain : when in that Tract there 
are no Shadows to be seen. Many again were of a different 
Opinion : that a River floweth more abundantly when the 
Sun is departed toward the North Pole, which happeneth in 
Cancer and Leo, and therefore at that time it is not so easily 
dried : but when it is returned again toward Capricorn and 
the South Pole, it is drunk up, and therefore floweth more 
sparily. But if, according to Timceus, it would be thought 
possible that the Water should be drawn up, the want of 
Shadows during those Days, and in those Places, continueth 
still without end. For the River beginneth to increase at 
the New Moon, that is after the Solstice, by little and little 
gently, so long as the Sun passeth through Cancer, but most 
abundantly when he is in Leo. And when he is entered 
into Virgo it falleth in the same measure as it rose before. 
And it is altogether brought within its banks in Libra, as 
Herodotus thinketh, by the hundredth day. While it riseth 
it hath been thought unlawful for Kings or Governors to sail 
upon it. Its increasings are measured by Marks in certain 
Pits. The ordinary Height is sixteen Cubits. The Waters 
short of this do not overflow all ; when more than that they 
are a hinderance, by reason that they retire more slowly. By 
these the Seed Time is consumed, by the Earth being too 
Wet; by the other there is none, because the Ground is 
Thirsty. The Province taketh reckoning of both. For 
in 12 Cubits it findeth Famine : at 13 it feeleth Hunger ; 14 
Cubits comfort their Hearts; 15 bring Safety; and 16 
Dainties. The greatest Increase that ever was known until 
these Days was 18 Cubits, in the time of Prince Claudius : 
and the least, in the Pharsalian War : as if the River by 
that Prodigy turned away with horror from the Slaughter of 
that great Man. 1 When the Waters have stood, they are 

1 Pompey the Great, slain by treachery in Egypt. Wern. Club. 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 63 

admitted by opening the Flood-gates. And so soon as any 
part of the Land is freed from the Water it is sowed. This 
is the only River, of all others, that breatheth out no Air. 
The Dominion of Egypt beginneth at Syene,from the Frontier 
of .^Ethiopia, for that is the Name of a Peninsula a hundred 
Miles in Compass, wherein are the Cerastae upon the side of 
Arabia : and over against it the four Islands Philse, 600 
Miles from the Division of Nilus, where it began to be called 
Delta, as we have said. This space of Ground hath Arte- 
midorus published ; and that within it were 250 Towns. 
Juba setteth down 400 Miles. Aristocreon saith, That from 
Elephantis to the Sea is 750 Miles. The Island Elephantis 
is Inhabited beneath the lowest Cataract three Miles, and 
above Syene 16 : and is the utmost Point that the Egyp- 
tians sail unto. It is 586 Miles from Alexandria. So far 
the Authors above written have erred : there the ^Ethiopian 
Ships assemble ; for they are made to fold up together, and 
are carried upon Shoulders, so often as they come to those 
Cataracts. Egypt, above the other glory of Antiquity, 
pretends that in the Reign of King Amasis there were in- 
habited in it 20,000 Cities. And even at this Day it is full 
of them, though of base account. Nevertheless, that of 
Apollo is renowned ; and near to it that of Leucothea, and 
Diospolis 1 the Great, the same as Thebes, noble for the 
Fame of its Hundred Gates. Also, Captos, a great commer- 
cial Town very near to Nilus, frequented for Merchandise of 
India and Arabia. Near is the Town of Venus, and another 
of Jupiter ; and Tentyris, beneath which standeth Abydus, 
the royal Seat of Memnon ; and renowned for the Temple of 
Osiris, seven Miles and a half distant from the River, toward 
Lybia. Then Ptolemais, Panopolis, and another of Venus. 
Also in the Lybian Coast, Lycon, where Mountains bound 
Thebais. After these, the Towns of Mercury, Alabastron, 
Canum, and that of Hercules spoken of before. After these, 
Arsinoe, and the abovesaid Memphis, between which and 
the Nomos Arsinoetes, in the Lybian Coast, are the Towns 
called Pyramids ; the Labyrinth built up out of the Lake 
1 The city of Jupiter. 

64 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

Moeris without any Timber to it; and the Town Crialon. 
One besides, standing within and bounding upon Arabia, 
called the Town of the Sun : of great importance. 

Alexandria. 1 

BUT justly worthy of praise is Alexandria, standing upon 
the Coast of the Egyptian Sea, built by Alexander the Great 
on the Part of Africa, 12 Miles from the Mouth of Canopus, 
near to the Lake Mareotis : which Lake was formerly called 
Arapotes. 2 Dinochares, the Architect, renowned for his 
remarkable Ability in many ways, laid out the Plan with 
the great Extent of the Circuit of 15 Miles, according to the 
Shape of a Macedonian Cloak ; full of Plaits, with the Circuit 
waved on to the right Hand and on the left with an angular 
Extension; and yet, even then, he assigned one-fifth Part of 
this Space for the King's Palace. The Lake Mareotis 3 from 
the South Side of the City, meeteth with an Arm of the River 
Nilus, brought from out of the Mouth of the said River 
called Canopicus, for the more commodious Commerce out 
of the inland Continent. This Lake containeth within it 
sundry Islands, and, according to Claudius Ccesar, it is 30 

1 Alexandria is connected with much that is interesting in the estima- 
tion of the Christian and philosopher. It was built B.C. 331, and became 
the capital of Egypt under the Ptolemies ; at a subsequent period, its 
library was the most renowned in the world ; its school rose into high 
repute during the second and third centuries ; it long continued a flou- 
rishing bishopric of the early Christian Church (having been planted by 
St. Mark), and was the scene of many Christian persecutions in common 
with the rest of the empire. Of the ancient city little remains, the only 
monuments of its extent and grandeur being, as Dr. Robinson relates, 
" a few cisterns still in use, the catacombs on the shore, the granite obelisk 
of Thothmes III., with its fallen brother, brought hither from Heliopolis, 
and usually called ' Cleopatra's Needle ; ' and the column of Dioclesian, 
commonly called 'Pompey's Pillar.'" Wern. Club. 

2 Or, Rachobes. 

3 (Various reading.) "The Lake Mareotis, from the south part of 
the city, by an arm of the sea, is sent through the mouth of Canopus for 
inland traffic ; it also embraces many islands, and is 30 miles in breadth, 
and 150 in circuit, as Claudius Ccesar says." Wern. Club. 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 65 

Miles over. Others say, that it lieth in Length 40 Schceni ; 
and as every Schoenus is 30 Stadia, it cometh to be 150 
Miles long, and as many broad. There are many Towns of 
importance standing upon the Course of the River Nilus, 
and those especially which have given Names to the Mouths, 
not to all those (for there are 11 of them, besides 4 more, 
which they themselves call false Mouths), but to the most 
celebrated 7 : as, to that of Canopus, next to Alexandria ; 
then Bolbitinum, Sebenniticum, Phatniticum, Mendesicum, 
Taniticum, and last, Pelusiacum ; besides, Euros, Pharbcetos, 
Leontopolis, Athribis, the Town of Isis, Busiris, Cynopolis, 
Aphrodites, Sa'is, Naucratis, whence some name the Mouth 
Naucraticum, which others call Heracleoticum, preferring it 
before Canopicum, next to which it standeth. 


BEYOND the Pelusiac Mouth is Arabia, bordering on the 
Red Sea : and that Arabia, so rich and odoriferous, and re- 
nowned with the Surname of Happy. This Desert Arabia is 
possessed by the Catabanes, Esbonitae, and Scenite Arabians : 
barren, except where it toucheth the Confines of Syria, and, 
setting aside the Mountain Casius, nothing memorable. This 
Region is joined to the Arabians, Canchlei on the East Side, 
and to the Cedraei Southward ; and they both are joined 
afterwards with the Nabathaei. Moreover, two Bays there 
be, one Bay is called that of Heroopoliticus, and the other, 
Elaniticus : in the Red Sea, bordering on Egypt, 150 Miles 
distant, between two Towns, Elana and Gaza, which is in our 
[Mediterranean] Sea. Agrippa counteth from Pelusium to 
Arsinoe, a Town upon the Red Sea, through the Deserts, an 
hundred and five-and-twenty Miles. So small a Way lieth 
between things of such Difference in Nature. 

Syria, Palcestina, Pkcenicfi. 

NEAR the Coast is Syria, a Region which in Times past 
was the chiefest of Lands, and distinguished by many Names. 

66 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

For where it toucheth upon the Arabians, it was called Palses- 
tina, 1 Judaea, Coele (Syria) ; and afterward, Phoenice : and 
where it passes inward, Damascena. Still further south- 
wards, it is named Babylonia. And the same between the 
Rivers Euphrates and Tigris is called Mesopotamia, and 
when it passeth the Mountain Taurus, it is Sophene : but on 
this Side Comagene, and beyond Armenia, is Adiabene, 
formerly named Assyria ; and where it meets Cilicia, it is 
known by the Name of Antiochia. The whole Length of 
Syria between Cilicia and Arabia is 470 Miles : the Breadth 
from Seleucia Pieria to Zeugma, a Town seated upon the 
Euphrates, is 175 Miles. They that minutely divide it 
would have Phcenice" to be environed with Syria ; and that 
it is the Sea-coast of Syria, a Part of which compriseth 
Idumaea and Judaea : then Phoenice, and then Syria. And 
that Sea which lieth along that Coast beareth the Name of 
the Phoenician Sea. This Nation of the Phoenicians hath 
had great Glory for the Invention of Letters, and for the Arts 
of the Stars, Navigation, and Skill in War. Beyond Pelu- 
sium is Chabriae Castra, the Mountain Casius, the Temple of 
Jupiter Casius, the Tomb of Pompeius Magnus; and Ostra- 
cine. From Pelusium to the Frontiers of Arabia are 65 

Idumceaf Syria, Palcestina, Samaria. 

SOON after beginneth Idumaea and Palestina, from the 
Rising up of the Lake Sirbon, which some have reported to 

1 The following division of Palestine under the Romans will throw 
light upon the comments which follow : 

Palestina Prima, Kingdom of Judah ( Judam) and Samaria. 
Palestina Secunda, Galilee and Trachonitis. 
Palestina Tertia, Peraea and Idumasa Proper. 

Wern. Club. 

2 Idumaea comprised the country in the southern extremity of Judaea, 
and embraced also apart of Arabia, which, from having beeu left nearly 
depopulated during the Babylonian captivity, was seized upon by the 
Idumaeans, and continued to be called Idumaea in common with Idumaea 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 67 

possess a circuit of 150 Miles. Herodotus saith it lies close 
by the Mountain Casius ; but now it is a small Lake. The 
Towns are Rhinocolura ; and within the Land, Raphaaa : also 
Gaza, and within, Anthedon, and the Mountain Angoris. 
Samaria, the Region through the Coast ; the free Town 
"Ascalon, and Azotus : the two Jamnes, whereof one is within 
the Land ; and Joppe, in Phoenicia, which, by report, is 
more ancient than the Deluge over the Earth. 1 It is situated 
upon a Hill, with a Rock before it, in which they shew the 
Remains of the Chains of Andromeda. There the fabulous 
Derceto is worshipped. Then is Apollonia ; the Town of 
Strato, called also Caesarea, founded by King Herod: itbeareth 
now the Name of Prima Flavia, a Colony derived from Ves- 
pasian the Emperor. The Bounds of Palsestinaare 180 Miles 
from the Confines of Arabia : and there entereth Phcenice. 
But within-land are the Towns of Samaria, and Neapolis, 
which formerly was named Mamortha [or Maxbota], Also 
Sebaste upon the Mountain, and Gamala, which yet standeth 
higher than it. 

Proper, to a later period than the date of our author. The bounds of 
Palestine, in the time of the Romans, embraced Judaea, Samaria, Galilee, 
and Trachonitis ; and Peraaa and Idumaea. Wern. Club. 

' Mandeville, who travelled through these countries about the year 
1323, and collected all the information that fell in his way, without discri- 
mination, says : " And whoso wil go longe tyme on the See, and come 
nerrer to Jerusalem, he schal go fro Cipre, be see, to the Port Jaff. For 
that is the nexte Havene to Jerusalem. For fro that Havene is not but 
o Day Journeye and an half to Jerusalem. And the Town is called Jaff : 
for on of the Sones of Noe, that highte Japhet, founded it ; and now it is 
clept Joppe. And zee schulle undrestonde, that it is on of the oldest 
Townes of the World : for it was founded before Noes Flode. And zitt 
there schewethe in the Eoche ther, as the Irene cheynes were festned, 
that Andromade, a great Geaunt, was bounden with, and put in Presoun 
before Noes Flode : of the whiche Geaunt, is a rib of his Syde, that his 40 
Fote longe." In the Ethiopics of Heliodorus, book x., the Ethiopic kings 
are said to derive their pedigree from Perseus and Andromeda ; whose 
history is by Pliny treated as something more than a fable. But the 
mistake of Mandeville, in confounding Andromeda with the monster 
that was to have devoured her, is perfectly consistent with other errors 
in regard to the Scriptures and classical learning, which occur in his 
narrative. Wern. Club. 

68 History of Nature. [BooKV. 

Judcea and Galilcea. 

ABOVE Idumsea and Samaria, Judaea spreadeth out far in 
Length and Breadth. That part of it which joineth to Syria, 
is called Galilaea : but that which is next to Syria and Egypt 
is named Peraea [i. e. beyond Jordan] : full of rough Moun- 
tains dispersed here and there : and separated from the other 
Parts of Judaea by the River Jordan. The rest of Judaea is 
divided into ten Toparchies, which we will speak of in order: 
of Hiericho, planted with Date-trees ; Emmaus, well watered 
with Fountains ; Lydda, Joppica, Accrabatena, Gophnitica, 
Tharnnitica, Betholene, Tephene, and Orine, wherein stood 
Hierosolyma, by far the most illustrious of the Cities of the 
East, and not of Judaea only. In it also is the Toparchy 
Herodium, with a famous Town of the same Name. 

The River Jordan. 3 

THE River Jordanis springeth from the Fountain Pane- 
ades, which gave the Surname to Caesarea, whereof we will 

1 This chapter should properly have been embodied with the pre- 
ceding, which treats of Palestine, that name having been applied by the 
Greeks to the whole country on account of the number of the Philistines 
always within its bounds, both before and after the final conquest of that 
people by David and Solomon. " Judaea," in its real signification, implies 
the whole of the country inhabited by the Jews, in fact, the whole " Land 
of Promise," from Dan to Beersheba in length, and including the region 
allotted to the two tribes and a half on the other side Jordan ; the term 
was originally synonymous with " the land of Judah," but on the separa- 
tion of the ten tribes, the latter term was applied to the territories of 
Judah and Benjamin, then formed into a separate kingdom, and hence 
" Judaea " also came to be applied to that district in particular. Pliny is 
also in error in speaking of Judaea as " spreading out far in length above 
Idumaea and Samaria" inasmuch as Samaria occupies the central portion 
of Judaea itself, and there is, therefore, an evident contradiction in the 
description. Wern. Club. 

8 This river rises at Caesarea Philippi ; its length is 100 miles or there- 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 69 

speak. It is a pleasant River, and so far as the Situation of 
the Country will permit, spacious, offering itself to the 
neighbouring Inhabitants ; and reluctantly, as it were, it 
passeth to the Lake Asphaltites, cursed by Nature : by which 
it is swallowed up ; it loseth its own esteemed Waters, by 
their becoming mixed with those of the Pestilential Lake. 
And therefore upon the first opportunity of any Valleys, it 
poureth itself into a Lake, which many call Genesara, which 
is 16 Miles Long and 6 Broad. This is environed with 
beautiful Towns : on the East side with Julias and Hippo ; 
on the South with Tarichea, by which Name the Lake is by 
some called ; and on the West with Tiberias, an healthful 
Place on account of the Hot Waters. 


ASPHALTITES 1 produceth nothing besides Bitumen ; from 
whence the name. No Body of any Creature doth it receive : 
Bulls and Camels float upon it. And hence ariseth the 

abouts, and its embouchure is into the Dead Sea ; its inner banks, to within 
a few miles of this place, are covered with willows, oleanders, reeds, &c. &c. 
whilst its periodical overflowings have formed a wider channel, defined by 
a second or outer bank on either side. Wern. Club. 

1 Asphaltites, in other words the bituminous lake, from the abund- 
ance of asphalt (bitumen) which occurs in it. Dr. Shaw estimated its 
length at 72 English miles, and its breadth 19 miles. Dr. Robinson, 
however, estimates its length at only 50, and its average breadth 10 or 12 
miles. The constituents of the water of the Dead Sea are as follows : 

Muriate of lime 3-920 grains. 

Muriate of magnesia 10-246 " 

Muriate of soda 19-360 " 

Sulphate of lime 0-054 " 

34-580 grains in each 100. 

Several analyses have been made by Marat, Gay-Lussac, Gmelin, &c., 
with nearly the same result. The origin of this lake accounts for the 
above facts, and the phenomena by which it is surrounded equally evi- 
dence its truth sterility in land, water, and air, are its saddening cha- 
racters. It is reputed to be very shallow, which seems to be a mistake. 
It also bore the name of the " Sea of the Plain." The history of this 
lake is best seen in the Bible. Wern. Club. 

70 Hist&ry of Nature. [BooK V. 

Report that nothing will sink in it. This Lake in Length 
exceedeth 100 Miles, in Breadth 25 Miles where broadest, 
and 6 where narrowest. On the East, Arabia of the 
Nomades confronteth it ; and on the South, Machserus, in 
Time past the second Fortress of Judsea, next to Hierosolyma. 
On the same side is a Fountain of Hot Waters, useful in 
Medicine, named Callirhoe ; a Name that expresseth the 
Glory of the Waters. 

The Race of t fie Esseni. 

ALONG the West Coast retire the Esseni : l a Nation living 
alone, and beyond all others throughout the World wonder- 
ful : without any Women, casting off the whole of Venus : 
without Money: keeping company only with Date-trees. 
Yet the Country is ever well peopled, because daily numbers 
of Strangers resort thither from other Parts : and such as 
are weary of Life are by the Waves of Fortune driven thither 
to their manner of Living. Thus for thousands of Ages 
(beyond belief to say), the Race is eternal in which no one is 
Born : so prolific to them is the Repentance of Life of other 
Men. Beneath them stood the Town Engadda, for Fertility 
(of Soil) and Groves of Date-trees the next City to Hiero- 
solyma, now a Place for the Dead. Beyond it is Massada, 
a Castle upon a Rock, and not far from Asphaltites. And 
thus much concerning Judaea. 

1 The Essenes were a Jewish sect, divided into two classes. First, the 
practical, who lived in society, and applied themselves to husbandry and 
other harmless occupations ; and second, the contemplative, who were also 
called fherapeutoE, or physicians, from their application principally to the 
cure of the diseases of the soul ; these last devoted themselves wholly to 
meditation, and avoided living in great towns, as unfavourable to a con- 
templative life. Both classes were exceedingly abstemious, and highly 
exemplary in their moral deportment. Although our Saviour censured 
all the other sects of the Jews for their vices, yet He never spoke of the 
Essenes ; neither are they mentioned by name in any part of the New 
Testament. Pliny's object in the account he has thought fit to give of 
them appears to have been to say something that might excite wonder 
and ridicule. Wern. Club. 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 71 


THERE is joined to it on the side of Syria the Region 
Decapolis, 1 so called from the number of Towns ; in which 
all Men observe not the same. Nevertheless most Men 
speak of Damascus and Opotos, watered by the River Chry- 
sorrhoa, and also of the fruitful Philadelphia and Raphana, 
all lying within Arabia. Moreover, of Scythopolis, so named 
from the Scythians there planted : and formerly Mysa, so 
named of Father Liber, because his Nurse was buried there. 
Gadara, with the River Hieromiax running before it, and 
the before-named Hippos Dios. Pella, enriched with 
Waters, Galaza and Canatha. The Tetrarchies lie between 
and about these Cities ; every one resembling a Region : and 
they are reduced into several Kingdoms: Trachonitis, Panias, 
wherein standeth Ceesarea, with the Fountain abovesaid ; 
Abila, Area, Ampeloessa, and Gabe. 

Tyrus z and Sidon. 

WE must return to the Sea-coast of Phcenice, where a 
River runneth called Crocodilon, on which stood a Town 
bearing the same Name. Also there are the Memorials of 
the Cities, Dorum, Sycaminon, the Promontory Carmelum ; 
and a Town on the Mountain so named, but in old Time 
called Ecbatana. Near this is Getta and Jebba : the River 
Pagida or Belus, mixing on its little Shore the Sands fertile 
in Glass. This River floweth out of the stagnant pond Ceu- 
devia, from the foot of Carmel. Near it is the City Ptole- 

1 Josephus mentions the following cities as contained within this 
region : Pella, Gerasa, Gadara, Hippos Dios, Damascus, Philadelphia, 
Otopos, Raphana, and Scythopolis. Wern. Club. 

2 There were two cities of this name ; one on the Syrian coast of the 
Continent (vide Bishop Newton), and the other on an adjacent island, 
which, in our author, are both spoken of together. Tyre has been called 
the daughter of Sidon, because " The merchants of Sidon replenished 
it." (Isaiah, xxiii. 2.) Wern. Club. 

72 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

mais, a Colony of Claudius Ccesar, formerly called Ace. 
The Town Ecdippa ; the Promontory Album ; Tyrus, in old 
Time an Island, lying almost three quarters of a Mile within 
the Deep Sea : but now, by the Besieging Works of Alexander, 
joined to the firm Land : renowned for having produced 
Cities of ancient Name, Leptis, Utica, and that Carthage, 
the Rival of the Empire of Rome for the Dominion of the 
whole World : yea and Gades, founded beyond the Bounds 
of the Earth. But now all the Glory thereof standeth upon 
the (Shell-fishes) Chylium and Purpura. 1 The Circumference 
of it is 19 Miles, comprised within Palaetyrus. The Town 
itself taketh up 22 Stadia. Near it are the Towns Lynhydra, 
Sarepta, arid Ornithon : also Sidon, where Glass is made, 
and which is the Parent of Thebes in Boeotia. 

The Mountain Libanus. 

BEHIND it beginneth Mount Libanus, 2 and for 1500 
Stadia it reacheth as far as to Smyrna, where it is named 
Coele-Syria. Another Mountain equal to it, and lying oppo- 
site to it, is called Antilibanus; with a Valley lying between, 
which in old Time was joined (to the other Libanus) by a 
Wall. Being past this, there is the Region Decapolis ; and 
the above-named Tetrarchies with it, and the whole expanse 
of Palestina. But in that Coast still along the Foot of 
Libanus, is the River Magoras, and the Colony Berytus, 
called also Frelix Julia. The Town Leontos ; the River 
Lycos ; Palaebyblos ; the River Adonis ; the Towns Byblos, 
Botrys, Gigarta, Trieris, Calamos ; and Tripolis, subject to 
the Tyrians, Sidonians, and Aradians. Orthosia and the 
River Eleutheros. The Towns Simyra, Marathos ; and over 
against Aradus, Antaradus, a Town of seven Stadia ; and an 

1 See b. ix. c. 36, &c. 

3 Libanus (Lebanon) is a chain of limestone mountains ; the cedars 
for which they were formerly famed still grow there, though in reduced 
numbers, forming a small grove, in a small hollow at the foot of the highest 
peak. Anti- Libanus is the more lofty ridge of the two. Wern. Club. 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 73 

Island less than a quarter of a Mile from the Continent. 
The Country where the said Mountains end, and in the Plains 
lying between, beginneth Mount Bargylis : and thence 
Phoenice endeth, and Syria beginneth again. The Towns 
Carne, Balanea, Paltos, Gabale, the Promontory wherein is 
the Free (City) Laodicea, with Diospolis, Heraclea, Cha- 
radrus, Posidium. 

Syria Antiochena. 

THENCEFORWARD is the Promontory of Syria Antiochena ; 
within is the Free City itself, Antiochena, surnamed Epi- 
daphne ; through the midst runneth the River Orontes. 
But in the Promontory is the Free (City) Seleucia, named 
also Pieria. 

The Mountain Casius. 

ABOVE (the City) Seleucia, there is another Mountain 
named Casius, as well as the other. This is of that Height, 
that if a Man be upon the Top of it in the Night, at the 
Fourth Watch, he may behold the Sun rising. So that 
with a little turning of his Body, he may at one Time see 
both Day and Night. The Passage round to the Top is 19 
Miles ; but directly up, it is only Four Miles. In the Bor- 
ders runneth the River Orontes, which riseth between Li- 
banus and Antilibanus, near to Heliopolis. Then, the Town 
Rhosos : and behind, the Passages between the Mountains 
Rhosii and Taurus, which are called Portae Syrise. In the 
Coast, the Town Myriandros, the Mountain Amanus, 
where is the Town Bomitae. This separateth Cilicia from 
the Syrians. 


Cale-Syria. 1 

Now, to speak of the Midland parts. Cle hath Apa- 
mia, separated from the Nazerines' Tetrarchy by the River 

1 Ccelo- Syria (or Lower Syria) signifying "Syria in the Hollow." 
It may be considered, says Strabo, " either in a proper and restrained 

74 History of Nature. [BOOK V. 

Marsia: Bambyce, otherwise called Hierapolis; but of the 
Syrians, Magog. There is worshipped the monstrous Idol 
Atargatis, 1 called by the Greeks Derceto. Also Chalcis, 
surnamed Upon Belus : from which, the Region Chalcidene, 
the most fertile of all Syria, taketh its Name. Then the 
Region Cyrrhistica, Cirrhus, Gazatse, Gindareni, and Ga- 
beni. Two Tetrarchies, called Granucomatae. The Hemi- 
seni, Hylatae, the Nation of the Iturse, and those of them 

sense, as comprehending only the tract of land between Libanus and Anti- 
Libanus ; or in a larger signification, and then it will comprehend all the 
country in obedience to the king of Syria, from Seleucia or Arabia and 
Egypt. Wern. Club. 

1 The Syrian idol Atargatis is the same as the Astarte or Ashtaroth, 
so often mentioned in Holy Scripture ; it is also the Derceto of the 
Greeks, who represent her to be the daughter of Venus, or, as some say, 
Venus herself. The upper half of this monster had the form of a woman, 
while the lower was that of a fish. Atargatis is fabled to have thrown 
herself into a lake near Ascalon in Syria, through vexation at the loss of 
her chastity, after having given birth to a daughter named Semiramis. 
From this circumstance the Syrians abstained from eating the fish of that 
lake, deified Atargatis, and built a temple to her memory on the borders 
of the lake. Her daughter, Semiramis, was left exposed in a desert ; but 
her life was preserved by doves for one whole year, till a shepherd of 
Ninus found her and brought her up as his own child. She afterwards 
married Menones, the governor of Nineveh, and at length became the 
celebrated Queen of Assyria. After her death she was changed into a 
dove, and received immortal honours in Assyria. Ovid alludes to both 
mother and daughter in the commencement of his 4th Book of the 

" But she awhile profoundly seemed to muse, 

Perplex'd amid variety to choose ; 

And knew not whether she should first relate 

The poor Dercetis, and her wondrous fate ; 

(The Palestines believe it to a man, 

And shew the lake in which her scales began :) 

Or, if she rather should the daughter sing, 

Who in the hoary verge of life took wing, 

Who soar'd from earth, and dwelt in towers on high, 

And now a dove, she flits along the sky." 

EUSDEN'S Translation. 

It may be doubted whether she is not identical with Dagon, the first 
goddess of the Phoenicians. Wern. Club. 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 75 

who are named Betarrani, and the Mariammitani. The 
Tetrarchy named Mammisea : Paradisus, Pagrse, Pinaritse, 
and two Seleucise, besides the abovenamed ; one called Upon 
Euphrates, and the other, Upon Belus : the Carditenses. 
The rest of Syria hath besides these which shall be spoken 
of with the Euphrates, the Arethusi, Beraeenses, and Epi- 
phanenses. Eastward, the Laodiceni, which are entituled, 
Upon Libanus : the Leucadii, and Larisssei : besides 1 7 
Tetrarchies reduced into Kingdoms under Barbaric Names. 

Euphrates. 1 

THIS is the fittest Place to speak of the Euphrates. Its 
Source, by the Report of them who have seen it most closely, 
is in Caranitis, a Province of Armenia the Greater. These 
are Domitius Corbulo, who says, that it riseth in the Moun- 
tain Aba; and Licinius Mutianus, who affirmeth, that it 
issueth from the Foot of the Mountain which they call 
Capotes, 12 Miles higher than Simyra : and that in the 
beginning it was called Pyxirates. It runneth first to Der- 
xene, and then to Ana also, shutting out the Regions of Ar- 
menia from Cappadocia. The Dastusse from Simyra is 75 
Miles. From thence it is navigable to Pastona, Fifty Miles : 
from it to Melitene in Cappadocia, 74 Miles. To Elegia in 
Armenia, Ten Miles: where it receiveth the Rivers, Lycus, 
Arsania, and Arsanus. Near Elegia it meeteth the Moun- 

1 Euphrates rises in Armenia, near Mount Aba, and after flowing by 
Syria, Mesopotamia, and the site of Babylon, empties itself into the Per- 
sian Gulf. It overflows its banks at certain seasons, and in consequence 
its banks are very fertile. 

The Euphrates is universally allowed to take its rise in Armenia 
Major ; but in what particular spot, or in what direction it afterwards 
shapes its course, is still a matter of the greatest disagreement. Pliny's 
account entirely differs from those of Strabo and Mela. The best com- 
pendium of the discoveries of modern geographers and travellers on 
this subject will be found in the Penny Cyclopaedia articles " Asia" and 
"Euphrates." See also Macdonnald Kinneir's large map. Wern. Club. 

76 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

tain Taurus : yet stayetb it not, but prevaileth, although it 
be in Breadth Twelve Miles. Where it breaketh through 
they call it Omiras : and so soon as it hath cut through it is 
named Euphrates : full of Rocks and very violent. There 
it separateth Arabia on the Left Hand, called the Region of 
the Meri, by the Measure of Three Schoenae, and on the 
Right, Comagene. Nevertheless, even there where it con- 
quereth Taurus, it suffers a Bridge. At Claudiopolis in Cap- 
padocia, it taketh its Course westward. And here the 
Taurus, although resisted at first, hindereth him of his Course: 
and notwithstanding it was overcome and dismembered, it 
conquereth in another way, and drives it thus broken into 
the South. Thus Nature matcheth these Forces: The one 
proceeding whither it chooseth, and the other not suffering 
it to run which way it will. From the Cataracts it is Navi- 
gable, and Forty Miles from that place standeth Samosata, 
the Head of all Comagene\ Arabia aforesaid hath the Towns 
Edessa, sometime called Antiochea ; Callirrhoe, taking its 
Name from the Fountain ; and Carrae, famous for the 
slaughter of Crassus. Here joineth the Prefecture of Meso- 
potamia, which taketh its beginning from the Assyrians, in 
which stand the Towns Anthemusa and Nicephorium. Pre- 
sently the Arabians, called Rhetavi, whose Capital is Sin- 
gara. But from Samosatae, on the side of Syria, the River 
Marsyas runneth into Euphrates. Gingla limiteth Coma- 
gene, and the City of the Meri beginneth it. The Towns 
Epiphania and Antiochia have the River running close to 
them, and they are called Euphrates. Zeugma likewise, 
72 Miles from Samosatae, is ennobled by the Passage over 
Euphrates : for it is joined to Apamia, over against it, by a 
Bridge, built by Seleucus the Founder of both. The People 
that join to Mesopotamia are called Rhoali. But the Towns 
of Syria are Europum ; Thapsacum, formerly, now Amphi- 
polis ; Arabian Scaenitae. Thus it passeth as far as to the 
Place Ura, in which turning to the East, it leaveth the 
Deserts of Palmyra in Syria, which reach to the City Petra 
and the Country of Arabia called the Happy. 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 77 

Palmyra. 1 

THE City Palmyra, noble for its situation, the Riches of 
its Soil, and its pleasant Streams, encloseth its Fields with a 
vast compass of Sand. And as if shut out by Nature from 
all other Lands, it is by a peculiar lot between two mighty 
Empires, the Romans and the Parthians ; wherein Dis- 
cord is ever the first object on both Sides. It is distant 
from Seleucia of the Parthians, which is called, on the 
Tigris, 537 Miles : and from the nearest Coast of Syria, 252 : 
and from Damascus, 27 nearer. 


BENEATH the Solitudes of Palmyra, lieth the Country 
Stelendena, 2 wherein are the Cities named at this Day 
Hierapolis, Beroea, and Chalcis. Beyond Palmyra also, 
Hemesa taketh up some part of those Deserts : and likewise 
Elutium, nearer to Petra by one-half than is Damascus. 
And next to Astura standeth Philiscum, a Town of the Par- 
thians, on Euphrates. From which by Water it is a Journey 

1 We are at a loss to account for the praise bestowed on the site of 
Palmyra, situated as it is on the borders of a vast wilderness ; it can only 
be from comparison with the surrounding sterility, and the supply of 
water obtained here, which is so rare a blessing in the sandy plains of the 
East. The country does not appear to have undergone any change from 
the period of the foundation of this ancient city, until now ; Tadmor (its 
original name) was built by king Solomon, probably for the purpose of 
cutting off all commerce between the Syrians and Mesopotamians, and it 
rose into note in consequence. In later times it was also much frequented 
by the caravans of Persia and the countries beyond. Wern. Club. 

2 Stelendena does not appear to be mentioned by any other writer than 
Pliny. Hierapolis has been just before spoken of under the name of 
Bambyce or Magog, as the Syrians call it. It is the Magog of Holy 
Scripture (Ezekiel, xxxviii.) concerning the situation of which great 
diversity of opinion has been entertained. Wern. Club. 

78 History of Nature. [Boox V. 

of Ten Days to Seleucia, and about as many to Babylon. 
Euphrates is divided Fourscore and Three Miles from Zeug- 
ma, about the Village Massice, and on the Left Side it 
passeth into Mesopotamia, through Seleucia, it being poured 
into the River Tigris as it runneth by : but on the right 
Channel it passeth toward Babylon, formerly the Chief City 
of Chaldoea ; and passing through the midst of it, as also of 
another which they call Otris, it is drawn off into Marshes. 
It riseth at certain Times after the manner of the Nilus, 
but with a little difference ; for it overfloweth Mesopotamia 
when the Sun is the 20th degree of Cancer, and beginneth 
again to diminish when the Sun is past Leo, and is entered 
into Virgo : so that in the 29th degree of Virgo, it is reduced 


Cilicia, and the Nations adjoining, Isauriccs, Homonades, 
Pisidia, Lycaonia, Pamphylia : the Mountain Taurus, 
and Lycia. 

BUT we will return to the Coasts of Syria, to which 
Cilicia is the nearest. The River Diaphanes, the Mountain 
Crocodilus, Passages of the Mount Amanus : Rivers, Andri- 
con, Pinarus, and Lycus, the Gulf Issicus. The Town Issa, 
then the River Chlorus, the Free Town ^Ege, the River Pyra- 
mus, and the Passages of Cilicia. The Towns Mallos and 
Magarsos ; and within Tarsos, the Plains, Aleii ; the Towns, 
Cassipolis and Mopsum, which is free, and standeth upon the 
River Pyramus ; Thynos, Zephyrium, and Anchialse. The 
Rivers Saros and Sydnus, which runneth through Tarsus, a 
free City, far from the Sea : the Country Celenderitis, with 
the Town. The Place called Nymphaeum, and Soloe Cilicii, 
now Pompeiopolis, Adana, Cibira, Pinara, Pedalie, Halix, 
Arsinoe, Tabae, and Doron : and near the Sea ye shall find a 
Town, an Harbour, and a Cave, all named Corycos. Soon 
after, the River Calycadnus. The Promontory Sarpedon, 
the Towns Olme and Mylee, the Promontory and Town of 
Venus, nearest to which is the Isle of Cyprus. But in the 
Mainland are the Towns Myanda, Anemurium, Corace- 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 79 

slum : and the River Melas, the ancient Bound of Cilicia. 
Within are to be spoken of, the Anazarbeni, at this Day 
named Caesar-Augustani ; Castabla ; Epiphania, formerly 
Eniandos; Eleusa, and Iconium. Seleucia upon the River 
Calicadmus, surnamed also Trachiotis, removed backward 
from the Sea, where it was called Hormia. Furthermore, 
within the Country, the Rivers Liparis, Bombos, and Para- 
disus. The Mountain Jubarus. All Authors have joined 
Pamphylia to Cilicia, and never regarded the Nation Isau- 
rica. The Towns within it are, Isaura, Clibanus, Lalassis ; 
and it shooteth down to the Sea-side of the Country Anemu- 
rium abovesaid. In like sort, as many as have set forth 
Descriptions of these Matters, had no Knowledge of the 
neighbouring Nation, the Homonades, which have a Town 
within their Country called Homona. Other Fortresses, to 
the number of 44, lie hidden among the rugged Valleys. 
The Pisidae, formerly called Solymis, are placed on the top ; 
a Colony of which is Caesarea, the same as Antiochia. The 
Towns are Oroanda and Sagalessos. This Nation is enclosed 
within Lycaonia, lying within the Jurisdiction of Asia : with 
which are joined the Philomelienses, Tymbrians, Leucolithi, 
Pelteni, and Hyrienses. There is given a Tetrarchy out of 
Lycaonia, on that side that bordereth upon Galatia : to 
which belong 14 Cities, whereof the most celebrated is Ico- 
nium. In Lycaonia itself, those of celebrity are Tembasa 
upon Taurus, Sinda in the Confines of Galatia and Cappa- 
docia. But on the Side thereof above Pamphylia, the Myliae, 
descended in old Time from Thrace, whose Town is Aricanda. 
Pamphylia was in ancient Time called Mopsopia. The Pam- 
phylian Sea joineth to the Cilician. Its Towns are Sid, As- 
pendus on the Mountain, Platanistus, and Perga. Also the 
Promontory Leucolla, the Mountain Sardemisus, the River 
Eurymedon running near Aspendum. Cataractes, near which 
stand Lyrnessus and Olbia; and the furthest of that Coast, 
Phaselis. Joined to it is the Lycian Sea, and the Nation of 
the Lycians, where is a great Gulf. The Mountain Taurus, 
coming from the Eastern Shores, fixeth the limit by the 
Promontory Chelidonium. This (Taurus) is a mighty Moun- 

80 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

tain, and is an overlooker to a very great Number of Nations. 
So soon as it is risen from the Indian Sea, it parteth : and the 
right Hand passeth Northward, the left Southward, bending 
toward the West : dividing Asia through the midst : and 
(but that it meeteth the Seas) ready to oppress the whole 
Earth. It retireth, therefore, toward the North, fetching a 
great Circuit, and so making way, as if the Industry of 
Nature continually opposed the Seas against it ; on one side 
the Phrenician Sea, on another the Sea of Pontus ; here the 
Caspian and Hyrcanian Seas, and full against him the Lake 
Moeotis. And notwithstanding these Bars, within which it 
is pent and entwined, yet at last Conqueror ; it winds away 
and passeth on until it encounters its kindred Riphaean 
Mountains : and wherever it goeth, it is distinguished by a 
Number of new Names. For in the Beginning of its Course 
it is called Imaus : a little forward Emodus, Paropamisus, 
Circius, Camibades, Parphariades, Choatras, Oreges, Oro- 
andes, Niphates, Taurus ; and where it is predominant, Cau- 
casus ; where it stretcheth forth its Arms, as if now and then 
endeavouring toward the Seas, it taketh the Name Sarpedon, 
Coracesius, and Cragus ; and then again Taurus, even where 
it gapeth, and opening itself to the People. And yet it 
claimeth its Unity still, and (these Passages are called) by 
the Names of Gates ; as in one Place Armenise, in another 
Caspise, and again Cilicise. And besides being broken into 
Parcels, and escaped far from the Sea, it taketh here and 
there many Names of Nations ; as, on the right Hand Hyr- 
canus and Caspius ; on the left, Pariedrus, Moschicus, 
Amazonicus, Coraxicus, and Scythicus. And throughout all 
Greece, Ceraunius. 

To return to Lycia, beyond its Promontory, is the Town 
Simena, the Mountain Chimaera, emitting Flames by Night ; 
the City Hephaestium, where the Hills likewise oftentimes 
are known to burn. Formerly the City Olympus stood there ; 
but now the Mountain Towns, Gage, Corydalla, and Rhodio- 
polis. Near the Sea, Lymira with a River, into which 
Arycandus runneth : also the Mountain Massyrites, the 
Cities Andriarca and Myra. These Towns, Apyr and Anti- 


BOOK V.] History of Nature. 81 

phellos, which formerly was called Habessus, and in a cor- 
ner, Phellus. Then Pyrrha, and also Xanthus, J5 Miles 
from the Sea, and a River of the same Name. Soon after 
Patara, formerly named Sataros ; and Sydinia on a Hill ; 
the Promontory Ciagus. Beyond which is a Gulf equal to 
the former. There is Pinara ; and Telrnessus, that boundeth 
Lycia. In ancient Time Lycia possessed threescore Towns, 
but now 36; of which the most celebrated, besides the above- 
named, are Canae, Candyba, where the Wood Oeniutn is 
praised ;- Podalia, Choma upon the River Adesa, Cyan, 
Ascandalis, Amelas, Noscopium, Tlos, and Telanorus. It 
containeth in the midland Parts Chabalia, with three Towns 
thereto belonging : Oenonda, Balbura, and Bubon. 

Beyond Telmessus is the Asiatic Sea, otherwise called 
Carpathium, and the Country which is properly called Asia. 
Agrippa hath divided it into two Parts, of which the one by 
his Description boundeth Phrygia and Lycaonia, eastward : 
but on the West Side it is limited by the ^Egean Sea. 
Southward it boundeth upon Egypt: and in the North upon 
Paphlagonia. The Length thereof by his Computation is 
470 Miles, the Breadth 300. The other he hath limited 
Eastward from Armenia the Less: Westward by Phrygia, 
Lycaonia, and Pamphylia; on the North by the Province of 
Pontus ; and on the South by the Pamphylian Sea : it con- 
taineth 575 Miles in Length, and 325 in Breadth. The next 
Coast bordering upon it is Caria : and near it, Ionia ; 
beyond that, jEolis. For Caria encloseth Doris in the midst, 
environing it round on every Side to the Sea. In it is the 
Promontory Pedalium, and the River Glaucus, charged 
with (the River) Telmessus. The Towns, Daedala and Crya, 
peopled with Fugitives ; the River Axon, and the Town 

The River Indus. 

THE River Indus, rising in the craggy Mountains of the 
Cybiratae, receiveth threescore regularly running Rivers, but 
of Torrents above an hundred. The Free Town Caunos, and 

82 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

a little off, Pyrnos. The Port Cressa, from which the Island 
Rhodus is distant 20 Miles. The Place Loryma ; the Towns 
Tysanusa, Taridion, Larymna; the Bay Thymnias, and the 
Promontory Aphrodisias ; the Town Hyda, the Bay Schcenus. 
The Country Bubassus ; where stood the Town Acanthus, 
otherwise called Dulopolis. On the Promontory is the Free 
(Town) Gnidos, Triopia, then Pegusa, called likewise Stadia. 
Beyond which Doris beginneth. But first it is convenient to 
have pointed out the midland Jurisdictions and the Parts 
which lie behind : one is named Cibiratica. The Town itself 
is in Phrygia, and to it are joined 25 Cities. 

Laodicea, Apamia, Ionia, Ephesus. 

THE most celebrated City is Laodicea. 1 It is seated on 
the River Lycus, Asopus and Caper washing its Sides. This 
City was first called Diospolis, and afterwards Rhoas. The 
other Nations belonging to that Jurisdiction worth the Nam- 
ing are the Hydrelitse, Themisones, and Hierapolitae. Another 
Jurisdiction taketh its Name from Synnada: and to it repair 
the Licaones, Appiani, Eucarpeni, Dorylaei, Midsei, Julienses, 
and fifteen other ignoble People. A third (Jurisdiction) 
goeth to Apamia, which in old Time was called Celsenae, and 
afterwards Ciboton. It is situated at the Foot of the Moun- 

1 Laodicea, so named in honour of Laodice, wife of Antiochus II., by 
whom the city was enlarged. From all accounts it appears to have been 
built on a volcanic hill, and boasted, in its prosperity, many public build- 
ings of note, of which the remains of an aqueduct and amphitheatre are 
still to be seen. 

Ephesus was the capital of Proconsular Asia, and was situated in Ionia 
(now Natolia), about five miles from the -ZEgean Sea, on the sides and 
at the foot of a range of mountains overlooking a fine plain watered and 
fertilised by the river Cayster. The city was celebrated for the Temple 
of Diana, a most magnificent edifice, erected at the common expense 
of the inhabitants of Asia Proper, and described by Pliny, b. xxxvi. c. 14, 
but of which the site is now unknown. Ephesus was finally overthrown 
in the fourteenth century, after continued struggles. There are numerous 
traces of its magnificence still extant, though the neighbouring country 
bears all the marks of desolation and decay. Wern. Club. 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 83 

tain Signia, environed with the Rivers Marsyas, Obrima, 
and Orga, which fall into the Maeander. The River Marsyas, 
which a little from his Spring is hidden under Ground, 
where Marsyas contended with Apollo in playing on the 
flute, sheweth itself again in Aulocrenee, for so is the Valley 
called, ten Miles from Apamia, as Men travel to Phrygia. 
Under this Jurisdiction we should do well to Name the 
Metropolitae, Dionysopolitee, Euphorbeni, Acmoneses, Pel- 
teni, and Silbiani. There are besides 60 ignoble Towns. 
Within the Bay of Doris, Leucopolis, Amaxitos, Elaeus, and 
Euthene. Then Towns of Caria, Pitaium, Eutanise, and 
Halicarnassus. To this (City) were annexed by Alexander 
the Great, six Towns: Theangela, Sibde, Medmossa, Eura- 
nium, Pedasium, and Telmessum. It is inhabited be- 
tween the two Gulfs, Ceramicus and Jasius. From thence 
Myndus, and where formerly stood Palsemyndus, Neapolis, 
Nariandus, Carianda, the Free City Termera, Bergyla, and 
the Town Jasus, which gave Name to the Gulf Jasius. But 
Caria is most renowned for the Places of Name within it, 
for therein are these Cities : Mylasa Free, and Antiochia, 
where sometime were the Towns Seminethos and Cranaos : 
and it is now environed about with the Maeander and Mos- 
sinus. In the same Tract also stood Maeandropolis. There 
is Eumenia close by the River Cludrus ; the River Glaucus ; 
the Town Lysias and Orthasia. The Tract of Berecinthus, 
Nysa, Trallis, which also is named Euanthia, and Seleucia, 
and Antiochia. It is washed by the River Eudone, and 
Thebanis passeth through it. Some report that the Pigmaei 1 

1 The Pygmasi were a fabulous nation inhabiting Thrace and other 
regions, who brought forth young at five years of age, and were old at 
eight. Homer has celebrated their memorable defeats by cranes. Iliad, 
3d Book. 

" When inclement winters vex the plain 

With piercing frosts, or thick descending rain, 
To wanner seas the cranes embodied fly, 
With noise, and order, through the mid- way sky : 
To pigmy nations wounds and death they bring, 
And all the war descends upon the wing." Pope. 

Pliny has described these tiny creatures in Lib. vi. c. 22 and 35, and 

84 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

formerly there dwelt. Besides, there are Thydonos, Pyrrha, 
Eurome\ Heraclea, Amyzon, and the Free Alabanda, from 
which that Jurisdiction took its Name. The Free Stratonicea, 
Hynidos, Ceramus, Troezene, and Phorontis. There are 
Nations farther remote that resort to that Court: the 
Othronienses, Halydienses or Hyppini, Xystiani, Hydis- 
senses, Apolloniates, Trapezopolitae, and the Free Aphro- 
disienses. Besides these, there are Cossinus and Harpasa, 
close by the River Harpasus, which also ran under Trallicon, 
when such a Town existed. Lydia is watered by the wind- 
ings of the River Maeander: and it reacheth above Ionia: 
being near upon Phrygia in the East, upon Mysia in the 
North, and in the South side enclosing Caria ; and was for- 
merly named Moeonia. It is celebrated chiefly for Sardis, 
seated upon the side of the Mountain Trnolus, formerly 
called Timolus, planted with Vineyards; and from it flows 
Pactolus, called likewise Chrysorrhoa : as also the Fountain 
Tarnes. This City was commonly by the Moeoniae called 
Hyde, and was famous for the Lake of Gyges. That Juris- 
diction is at this Day called Sardiana. Thither resort besides 
the abovenamed, the Macedonian Caduenes, the Loreni, 

again in lib. vii. c. 2. See also Aristotle's Hist. Anim. lib. viii., and 
Mela, lib. iii. There can be no question but that the ancient fictions of 
pygmies, satyrs, cynocephali, cynoprosopi, &c., and other supposed tribes 
of human monsters, originated in vague accounts of different species of 
simise, though the Bushmen of South Africa are supposed also to have 
been referred to as a nation of pigmies. The earliest unquestionable 
reference to any of the true apes is found in the Periplus of Hanno, circ. 
500 B.C. 

" For three days," says the Carthaginian admiral, " we passed along a 
burning coast, and at length reached a bay called the Southern Horn. 
In the bottom of this bay we found an island similar to that already men- 
tioned ; this island contained a lake, that in its turn contained another 
island, which was inhabited by wild men. The greater number of those 
we saw were females ; they were covered with hair, and our interpreters 
called them Gorilloi. We were unable to secure any of the men, as they 
fled to the mountains, and defended themselves with stones. As to the 
women; we caught three of them, but they so bit and scratched us that 
we found it impossible to bring them along; we therefore killed and 
flayed them, and carried their hides to Carthage." Wcrn. Club. 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 85 

Philadelpheni, and those Moeonians inhabiting on the 
River Cogamus, at the Foot of Tmolus ; and the Tripoli- 
tani, who, together with the Antoniopolitae, are washed by 
the River Maeander ; also, the Apollonos-Hieritae, Myso- 
tmolites, and others of mean Reputation. 

Ionia beginneth at the Bay of Jasius, and all its Coast is 
full of Indentations. The first Bay in it is Basilicus ; the 
Promontory Posideum, and the Town called the Oracle of 
the Branchidae, but at this Day, of Apollo Didymaeus, 20 
Stadia from the Sea-side. And beyond this 180 Stadia, 
standeth Milletus, the Head (City) of Ionia, named in Time 
past Lelegeis ; Pity lisa, also named Anactoria. From which, 
as from a Mother, are descended more than eighty others, 
built along the Sea-coast. Neither is this City to be de- 
frauded of the Citizen Cadmus, who taught first to declaim 
in Prose. The River Maeander issueth out of a Lake in the 
Mountain Aulocrene ; and passing by many Towns, and 
filled with Abundance of Rivers, it fetcheth such windings 
to and fro, that oftentimes it is thought to run backward 
again. The first Country it passeth through is Apamia : and 
presently Eumenitica, and so through the Plains Bargyl- 
letici. Last of all, it cometh gently into Caria, and watering 
all that Land with a very fruitful Mud, about ten Stadia 
from Miletus it glideth into the Sea. Near (to that River) is 
the Mountain Latmus : the Town Heraclea, surnamed 
Caryca, from a Hill of that Name; also Myus, which, 
as the Report goeth, was first founded by the lones after 
their proceeding from Athens ; Naulochum, and Pyrene". 
Upon the Sea-coast the (Town) called Trogilia ; the River 
Gessus. This Region is sacred to all the lonians, and there- 
fore it is named Panionia. Near it was Phygela, built for 
Fugitives, as appeareth by the Name : and the Town Mara- 
thesium : and above it Magnesia, designated with the sur- 
name On-Maeander, sprung from the Thessalian Magnesia. 
From Ephesus it is distant 15 Miles; and from Tralleis it is 
three Miles farther. Formerly it was called Thessaloce and 
Androlitia : and being situated upon the Shore, it took away 
with it from the Sea other Islands called Derasides. Within- 

86 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

land Thyatira (in old Time called Pelopia and Euhippa) is 
washed by the Lycus. But upon the Sea-coast is Manteium ; 
and Ephesus, a Work of the Amazons. But many Names 
it had gone through before ; for in the Time of the Trojan 
War it was called Alopes : soon after, Ortygia and Morges : 
and it took the Name of Smyrna, with addition of Trachaea 
(i. e. Rough), Samornium, and Ptelea. It is mounted on 
the Hill Pion, and is washed by the Caystrus, which spring- 
eth out of the Cilbian Hills, and bringeth down with it 
many other Rivers, and the Lake Pegaseum, which dis- 
chargeth itself by the River Phyrites. From these Rivers 
proceedeth a large quantity of Mud, which increaseth the 
Land : so that it hath thrown good way within the Land the 
Island Syrie. There is a Fountain within the City called 
Callipia : and two (Rivers) Selinuces, coming from different 
Countries, encircle the Temple of Diana. From Ephesus 
you come to another Manteium, inhabited by the Colo- 
phonii : and within, the Country Colophon itself, with the 
(River) Halesus flowing by it. Then the Sacred Place 
(Fane) of Apollo Clarius, and Lebedos. And there formerly 
was the Town Notium. The Promontory Coryceon : the 
Mountain Mimas, which reacheth out 250 Miles, and 
endeth at length in the Plains within the Continent. This 
is the place where Alexander the Great commanded the 
Plain to be cut through for seven Miles and a half in Length, 
to join the two Gulfs, and to bring Erythrse and Mimas 
together, to be environed around therewith. Near this Ery- 
thrae were the Towns, Pteleon, Helos, and Dorion: now, 
there is the River Aleon, and Corineum: upon the Mount 
Mimas, Clazomene, Partheniae; and Hippi, called Chyto- 
phoria, when they were Islands : the same Alexander united 
them to the Continent for the Space of two Stadia. There 
have perished within, Daphnus, Hermesia, and Sipylum, 
called formerly Tantalis, the chief City of Mceonia, where 
now is the Lake Sale. And for that cause Archaeopolis 
succeeded to Sipylus, and after it Colpe, and to it Lebade. 
Returning thence twelve Miles off is Smyrna, on the Coast, 
built by an Amazon, but restored by Alexander the Great ; 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 87 

made pleasant by the River Meles, which hath its Source 
not far off. The most celebrated Mountains in Asia, for the 
most part, spread themselves at large in this Tract, as Mas- 
tusia, on the Back of Smyrna ; and Termetis that meeteth 
close to the Foot of Olympus. This (Olympus) endeth in 
Draco, and Draco in Tmolus ; Tmolus at Cadmus ; and Cad- 
mus in Taurus. Beyond Smyrna are Plains, formed by the 
River Hermus, and therefore adopting its Name. This 
(River) hath its Beginning near Doryleus, a City of Phrygia, 
and collecteth into it many Rivers; among which is Phryge, 
which giveth Name to the whole Nation and divideth Phry- 
gia and Caria asunder. Moreover, Lyllus and Crios, which 
are well filled by the other Rivers of Phrygia, Mysia, and 
Lydia. In the Mouth of this River stood the Town Tenmos : 
now in the further portion of the Gulf are the Rocks Myr- 
meces. Also the Town Leuce upon the Promontory, which 
was an Island : and Phocaea, which boundeth Ionia. A large 
part of ^Eolia, of which we will speak by and by, repaireth 
commonly to the Convention of Smyrna : and likewise the 
Macedonians, surnamed Hyrcani ; and the Magnetes from 
Sipylum. But to Ephesus, which is another Light of Asia, 
resort those that dwell farther off : the Caesarienses, Metro- 
politae, Cylbiani, the Myso-Macedones, as well the Higher 
as the Lower, the Mastaurenses, Brullitae, Hyppcepeni, and 


JEolis, Troas, and Pergamus. 

jEoLis, in old Time called Mysia, 1 is nearest (to Ionia :) 
and so is Troas, which boundeth upon the Hellespontus. 

1 The people of Mysia, according to Cicero, " were despicable and base 
to a proverb." Their country was bounded on the west by Troas, in 
which region was situated the city of that name, of which numerous 
vestiges remain, attesting its former splendour. " Indeed," says Mr. 
Fellowes, who visited the spot in 1838, " for many miles round the soil is 
rendered useless for agriculture, by the multitude of broken marbles, 
stones, and arches, which lie under the surface in every direction." 

Pergamus was the ancient capital of Mysia, and, as its ruins also attest, 
was a magnificent city. Wern. Club. 

88 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

Being past Phocaea, there is the Port Ascanius : and then 
the Place where Larissa stood : and now Cyme, and Myrina, 
which calleth itself Sebastopolis. Within the Land, ^Egae, 
Attalia, Posidea, Neon-tichos, and Temnos. Upon the Coast, 
the River Titanus, and a City taking its Name from it. There 
was also Grynia, now only a Port of the Ground ; the Island 
being taken into it. The Town Elaea, and the River Caicus 
corning out of Mysia. The Town Pytane, the River Canaius. 
There are perished, Cause, Lysimachia, Atarnea, Carenae, 
Cisthene, Cilia, Cocillum, Thebae, Astyre, Chrysa, Paloe- 
stepsis, Gergithos, and Neandros. At this Day, there is the 
City Perperene, the Tract Heracleotes; the Town Coryphas, 
the River Chryliosolius, the Country called Aphrodisias, 
which formerly was Politiceorgas, the Country Scepsis ; 
the River Evenus, upon the Bank of which have perished 
Lyrmessos and Miletos. In this Tract is the Mountain Ida. 
And in the Sea-Coast Adramytteos, formerly called Pedasus, 
where the Bay and Convention are named Adramytteos. 
Rivers, Astron, Cormalos, Eryannos, Alabastros, and Hieros 
out of Ida. Within, Mount Gargara, and a Town of the 
same Name. And then again on the Sea-side, Antandros, 
formerly called Edonis : then, Cymeris, and Assos, which 
also is Apollonia. Also there was a Town called Palame- 
dium. The Promontory Lecton, dividing jEolus and Troas. 
There also was the City Polymedia, and Cryssa, with another 
Larissa. The Temple Smintheum remaineth still. Within, 
the Town Colone is destroyed, and the Business removed 
to Adramytteum. The Apolloniatse, from the River Rhyn- 
dicus : the Eresii, Miletopolites, Pcemaneni, Macedones, 
Aschilacae, Polychnaei, Pionitae, Cilices, and Mandagandeni. 
In Mysia, the Abrettini, and those called Hellespontii ; be- 
sides others of base account. The first place in Troas is 
Amaxitus : then, Cebrenia, and Troas itself, named Anti- 
gonia, now Alexandria, a Roman Colony. The Town Nee : 
the navigable River Scamander; and on the Promontory, 
formerly, the Town Sigaeum. Then the Port of the Greeks, 
(Portus Achaeorum,) into which Xanthus and Simoeis run 
together; as also Palae-Scamander, but first it maketh a 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 89 

Lake. The remainder celebrated by Homer as Rhaesus, 
Heptaporus, Caresus, and Rhodius, have no Vestiges remain- 
ing. The Granicus floweth by a different Tract into the 
Propontis. Yet there is at this Day a little City called 
Scamandria; and one Mile and a half from the Port, the 
Free City Ilium, from which proceedeth all that great Name, 
Outside of this Gulf lieth the Coast Rhoetea, inhabited with 
the Towns upon it, of Rhoeteum, Dardanium, and Arisbe. 
There was also Acheleum, a Town near the Tomb of Achilles, 
founded by the Mitylenei, and afterwards re-edified by the 
Athenians, on the Bay Sigaeum, where his Fleet rode. There 
also was Acantium, built by the Rhodians, in another Horn, 
where Ajax was interred, thirty Stadia distant from Sigaeum, 
and the very Station of his Fleet. Above ^Eolis and a part 
of Troas, within the Continent, is the (Town) called Teu- 
thrania, which the Mysi in old Time held. There springeth 
Caicus, the River abovesaid. A large Country this is of it- 
self, and especially when it was united to Mysia, and also so 
called : containing in it Pioniae, Andera, Gale, Stabulum, 
Conisium, Tegium, Balcea, Tiare, Teuthrania, Sarnaca, Hali- 
serne", Lycide, Parthenium, Thymbre, Oxyopum, Lygda- 
num, Apollonia : and Pergamus, the most illustrious City of 
Asia by many Degrees ; through it passeth the River Selinus, 
and Caetius runneth by it, issuing out of the Mountain Pin- 
dasus. Not far from thence is Elea, which, as we have 
said, standeth on the Shore. The Jurisdiction of this Tract 
is named Pergamena. To it resort the Thyatyreni, Myg- 
dones, Mossini, Bregmenteni, Hieracomitae, Perpereni, 
Tyareni, Hierapolenses, Harmatapolitse, Attalenses, Pan- 
taenses, Apollonidenses, and other Cities of little Honour. 
Dardanium, a small Town, is threescore and ten Stadia dis- 
tant from Rhoeteum. Eighteen Miles from thence is the 
Promontory Trapeza, where first the Hellespont rusheth 
along roughly. Eratosthenes saith, That the Nations of the 
Solymi, Leleges, Bebrices, Colycantii, and Trepsedores, are 
utterly perished from Asia. Isidorus reporteth the same of 
the Arymei and Capretae, where Apamia was built by King 
Seleucus, between Cilicia, Cappadocia, Cataonia, and Armenia. 

90 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

And because he had vanquished most Fierce Nations, at the 
first he named it Damea. 


The Islands before Asia, the Pamphylian Sea ; Rhodus, 
Samus, and Chios. 

THE first of the Islands before Asia is in the Canopic 
Mouth of the Nilus, so called, as they say, from Canopus, 
the Pilot of King Menelaus. 1 The second is Pharus, which 
is joined to Alexandria by a Bridge. In old Time it was a 
Day's Sailing from Egypt : and now by Fires from a Watch- 
Tower, Sailors are directed in the Night. It is a Colony of 
Ctesar the Dictator. Alexandria is encompassed with de- 
ceitful Shallows, and there are but three Channels from the 
Sea; Tegamum, Posideum, and Taurus. Next to that Isle, 
in the Phrenician Sea before Joppa, lieth Paria, an Island 
not larger than the Town, in which they report that Andro- 
meda was exposed to the Beast. 2 Also Arados beforenamed, 
between which and the Continent, as Mutianus says, there is 
a Fountain in the Sea, where it is fifty Cubits deep, out of 
which Fresh Water is drawn from the very Bottom of the 
Sea, through Pipes made of Leather. The Pamphylian Sea 
hath some Islands of little Importance. In the Cilician Sea 
is Cyprus, one of the Five greatest, and it lieth east and 
west, opposite Cilicia and Syria ; in Times past the Seat of 
Nine Kingdoms. Timosthenes saith, that it contained in 
Circuit four hundred and nineteen Miles and a half; 
but Isidorus is of opinion, that it is but three hundred 
and seventy-five Miles in Compass. Its Length between 
the two Promontories, Dinaretas and Acamas, which 
is westward, Artemidorus reporteth to be 160| Miles: and 

1 Jacob Bryant, in his "Analysis of Ancient Mythology," (vol. ii. p. 4,) 
says, " that the priests of Egypt laughed at this account of the pilot of 
Menelaus, as an idle story ; affirming that the place was much more an- 
cient than the people of Greece ; and the name not of Grecian original." 
Also Stephanus of Byzantium calls the pilot Pharos, and not Canopus. 
Wern. Club. 

Seep. 67 of this vol. 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 91 

Timosthenes 200, who saith besides, that formerly it was 
called Acamantis : according to Philonides, Cerastis : after 
Xenagoras, Aspelia, Amathusia, and Macatia : Astynomus 
calleth it Cryptos and Colinia. Towns in it, 15 : Paphos, 
Palaepaphos, Curias, Citium, Corineum, Salamis, Amathus, 
Lapethos, Soloe, Tamaseus, Epidarum, Chytri, Arsinoe, 
Carpasium, and Golgi. There were in it besides, Cinirya, 
Marium, and Idalium. And from Anemurium in Cilicia, is 
50 Miles. The Sea which is stretched between they call 
Aulon Cilicium. In this Tract is the Island Elaeusa: and 
four others before the Promontory named Glides, over-against 
Syria. Likewise one more, named Stiria, at the other Cape. 
Over-against Neampaphos, Hierocepia. Over-against Sala- 
mis, Salaminse. But in the Lycian Sea, Illyris, Telendos, 
Attelebussa, and three Cyprise, all barren : also Dionysia, 
formerly called Caretha. Then over-against the Promon- 
tory of Taurus, the Chelidonise, dangerous to Sailors : and 
as many more, together with the Town Leucola Pactiae, 
Lasia, Nymphais, Maoris, Megista, the City of which is 
gone. Then many of no Importance. But over-against Chi- 
mera, Dolichiste, Chirogylium, Crambussa, Rhod, Enagora, 
eight Miles. Daedaleon, two: Cryeon, three: and Stron- 
gyle, over-against Sidynia of Antiochus: and toward the 
River Glaucus Lagusa, Macris, Didymse, Helbo, Scope, 
Aspis, and Telandria ; in which the Town is gone : and, near 
to Caunus, Rhodussa. But the fairest of all is the Free (Isle) 
Rhodos ; in Compass 130 Miles ; or if we rather give Credit 
to Isidorus, 103. Cities in it well peopled, Lindus, Camirus, 
and lalysus, now called Rhodus. By the Account of Isidorus, 
it is from Alexandria in Egypt, 578 Miles : but according to 
Eratosthenes, 569 : according to Mutianus, 500 ; and from 
Cyprus, 416. In Times past it was called Ophyusa, Asteria, 
jEthraea, Trinacria, Corymbia, Poeessa, Atabyria from the 
King( Atabyris) : and finally, Macaria, and Oloessa. Islands of 
the Rhodians, Carpathus, which gave name to the Sea (Car- 
pathium) ; Casos, formerly Achme : and Nisyros, distant 
from Gnidos twelve Miles and a half; which heretofore had 
been called Porphyris. And in the same Range, Syme, 

92 History of Nature. [ Boo K V . 

between Rhodtis and Gnidus ; it is in Circuit six-and-thirty 
Miles and a half. It is blessed with eight Harbours. Be- 
sides these, there lie about Rhodus, Cyclopis, Teganon, Cor- 
dylusa, four under the Name of Diabete" : Hymos, Chalcis, 
with a Town : Seutlusa, Narthecusa, Dimastos, and Progne. 
Beyond Gnidos, Cicerussa, Therionarce, Calydne with three 
Towns, Notium, Nisyrus, Mendeterus : and in Arconesus, 
the Town Ceramus. Upon the Coast of Caria, the Islands, 
twenty in number, called Argiae : and Hyetussa, Lepsia, and 
Leros. But the most noble in that Bay is Cos, which is dis- 
tant from Halicarnassus 15 Miles; and in Compass 100, as 
many judge; called Merope, as Staphylus saith : but accord- 
ing to Dionysius, Cos Meropis : and afterwards Nymphaea. 
There is the Mountain Prion : and as they think, Nysiris 
broken off; formerly named Porphyris. Beyond this, 
Carianda, with a Town: and not far from Halicarnassus, 
Pidosus. Moreover, in the Gulf Ceramicus, Priaponnesus, 
Hipponesus, Psyra, Mya, Lampsemandus, Passala, Crusa, 
Pyrrhe, Sepiussa, Melano ; and within a short Distance of 
the Continent, another called Ciuedopolis, from the shameful 
Persons that King Alexander left there. The Coast of Ionia 
hath (the Islands) ^Egese and Corsese, besides Icaros, spoken 
of before. Also Lade, formerly called Latse : and among 
some others of no worth, the two Camelides near to Miletus. 
Mycalenum, Trogyliae, Trepsilion, Argennon, Sardalion : 
and the free Samos, which in Circuit is fourscore and seven 
Miles; or as Isidorus thinketh, 100. Aristotle writeth, 
that at first it was called Parrhania, afterwards Dryusa, and 
then Anthemusa. Aristocritus giveth it other Names, as 
Melamphyllus, and afterward Cyparissia : others term it 
Partheno-arusa, and Stephane. Rivers in it, Imbrasus, 
Chesius, and Ibettes : Fountains, Gigarto and Leucothea : 
the Mountain Cercetius. There lie adjoining to it the 
Islands Rhypara, Nymphaea, and Achillea. Fourscore and 
thirteen Miles from it, is Chios, free, with a Town ; which 
Island is as renowned as Samos. jEphorus by the ancient 
Name calleth it jEthalia : Metrodorvs and Cleobulus, Chia, 
from the Nymph Chio. Others suppose it was so called 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 93 

from Chion, i. e. Snow : and some would have it to be Ma- 
cris and Pityusa. It has a Mountain called Pellenseus, the 
Marble called Chium. Ancient Geographers have written, 
that it is 125 Miles in Circuit ; and Isidorus addeth nine 
more. It is situated between Samos and Lesbos, for the most 
part opposite to Erythrae. Near it lieth Thallusa, which some 
write Dapnusa, QEnussa, Elaphites, Euryanassa, Arginussa 
with a Town. Now all these are about Ephesus, as also 
those called of Pisistratus : and the Anthinae, Myonnesus, and 
Diareusa. In both these the Towns are lost. Poroselenae 
with a Town, Cerciae, Halone, Commone, Illetia, Lepria, 
and Rhespheria, Procusae, Bolbulae, Phariae, Priapos, Syce, 
Melane, ^Enare, Sidusa, Pela, Drymusa, Anydros, Scopelos, 
Sycussa, Marathussa, Psile, Perirheusa, and many others of 
no Importance. But among the illustrious is Teos, in the 
deep Sea, with a Town : distant from Chios fourscore and 
one Miles, and as much from Erythrae. Near Smyrna are 
the Peristerides, Carteria, Alopece, Elaeussa, Bachina, Pys- 
tira, Crommyonnesus, and Megale. Before Troas, the Asca- 
niae, and three Plateae. Then the Lainiae, and two Plitaniae ; 
Plate, Scopelos, Getone, Artheidon, Celse, Lagussae, and 
Didymae. But the most illustrious is Lesbos, which is from 
Chios threescore and five Miles. It was called Hemerte, and 
Lasia, Pelasgia, ^Egira, ^Ethyope, and Macaria : famous for 
eight Towns ; of which Pyrrha is swallowed up by the Sea : 
and Arisbe is overthrown by an Earthquake. Methymna 
was peopled from Antissa, which was united to it, and in it 
were eight Cities, and it is about seven-and-thirty Miles from 
Asia. 1 Also Agamede and Hiera have perished. There 
remain Eresos, Pyrrha, and the free Mitylenae, which hath 
continued powerful for 500 Years. Isidorus saith, that this 
Island is in Circuit 173 Miles : but the old Geographers, 195. 
In it are these Mountains, Lepethymus, Ordymnus, Macistus, 
Creon, and Olympus. It is distant eight Miles and a half from 
the Continent, where it lieth nearest. Islands near it, Sauda- 
lion, and the five Leucse. Of these, Cydonea hath a Foun- 

1 Natolia. 

94 History of Nature. [BOOK V. 

tain of hot Water. The Argenussae are distant from 
four Miles. Then Phellusa and Pedua. Outside the Helles- 
pont, over-against the Sigean Coast, lieth the Isle Tenedus, 
called sometimes Leucophrys, Phoenice, and Lyrnessos. 
From Lesbos it is six-and-fifty Miles, and from Sigaeum 
twelve Miles and a half. 


Hellespontus, Mysia, Phrygia, Galatia, Bithynia, 

THE Hellespont then assumeth its Violence and over- 
cometh the Sea, digging a Way with its Eddies, until it hath 
torn away Asia from Europe. That Promontory we have 
named Trapeza, ten Miles beyond which standeth the Town 
Abydum, where the Straits are seven Stadia over. Be- 
yond it is the Town Percote, and Lampsacum, called for- 
merly Pityusa : the Colony Parium, which Homer called 
Adrastia. The Town Priapos, the River ./Esepus, Zelia, 
Propontus ; as the Place is called where the Sea enlargeth 
itself. The River Granicum, the Harbour Artace, where 
once stood a Town. Beyond it is an Island, which Alexander 
joined to the Continent, in which standeth the Town Cyzi- 
cum, founded by the Milesians, called heretofore Arconne- 
sos ; Dolionis, and Dindymis, near the Top of which is the 
Mountain Dindymus. Presently the Towns Placia, Aviacos, 
Scylace : and behind them, the Mountain Olympus, called 
Msesius. The City Olympena. The Rivers Horisius and 
Rhyndacus, formerly named Lycus. This River taketh its 
Beginning in the Lake Artynia, near to Miletopolis. It 
receiveth the Marestos and many others ; and separateth 
Asia from Bithynia. This Region was called Cronia : after- 
ward Thessalis, then Malianda and Strymonis. These (Na- 
tions) Homer named Halizones, because they are environed 
with the Sea. There was a very great City named Attusa. 
At this Day there are fifteen Cities, among which is Gordiu- 
come, now called Juliopolis ; and on the Coasts Dascylos. 
Then the River Gebes : and within-land, the Town Helgas, 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 95 

the same as Germanicopolis, known also by another Name 
Booscoate, as also Apamea, now called Myrtea of the Colo- 
phonians. The River Etheleum, the ancient limit of Troas, 
and where Mysia beginneth. Afterwards the Gulf into 
which runneth the River Ascanium, the Town Bryllion. 
The Rivers Hylas and Cios, with a Town of that Name : 
which was a Place of Trade, not far off from the Inhabitants 
of Phrygia, and built by the Milesians in a Place called As- 
cania of Phrygia. And therefore we cannot do better than 
here to speak of that Country. Phrygia spreadeth out above 
Troas and the Nations before named, from the Promontory 
Lectus unto the River Etheleus. It bordereth on the 
North upon part of Galatia, southward it boundeth on Ly- 
caonia, Pisidia, and Mygdonia ; and on the east it reacheth 
to Cappadocia. The most celebrated Towns besides those 
before spoken of, are Ancyra, Andria, Celsense, Colossae, Ca- 
rina, Cotiaion, Ceranae, Iconium, and Midaion. Certain 
Authors write, that out of Europe have passed over the 
Mysi, Bryges, and Thyni, from whom are named the Mysi, 
Phryges, and Bithyni. 

At the same time I think it good to write also of Galatia, 
which lying higher than Phrygia, possesseth a greater part of 
its plain Country, and the former Capital of it, called Gordium. 
They who inhabited that Quarter were sprung from the Gauls, 
and were called Tolistobogi, Voturi, and Ambitui : but they 
that occupied the Country of Maeonia and Paphlagonia were 
named Trocmi. Cappadocia is spread along from the North 
and East ; and the most plenteous Tract thereof the Tecto- 
sages and Teutobodiaci kept in their Possession. And thus 
much for these Nations. The People and Tetrarchies are in 
all a hundred and ninety and five. The Towns: of the 
Tectosages, Ancyra : of the Trocmi, Tavium : of the Tolisto- 
bogians, Pesinus. Besides these, there are celebrated the 
Attalenses, Arasenses, Comenses, Dios-Hieronitse, Lystreni, 
Neapolitani, Oeandenses, Seleucenses, Sebasteni, Timmonia- 
censes, and Tebaseni. Galatia extendeth to Gabalia and 
Milyse in Pamphylia; which are situated about Baris : also 
Cyllanticum and Oroandicum, a Tract of Pisidia : likewise 

96 History of Nature. [BooK V. 

Obigene, a part of Lycaonia. Rivers there are in it, beside 
those beforenamed, Sangariura and Gall as, from which the 
Priests of the Mother of the Gods were named. Now to 
speak of what remains ori the Sea-coast : inward from Cios 
is Prusa within Bithynia ; founded by Annibal beneath 
Olympus. From Prusa to Nicaea, five-and-twenty Miles ; 
the Lake Ascanius lying between. Then Nicsea, in the out- 
most part of the Gulf Ascanium, which before was called 
Olbia : also to another Prusa, under the Mountain Hippius. 
There were Pythopolis, Parthenopolis, and Choryphanta. 
Now there are upon the Sea-side the Rivers, ^Esius, Bryazon, 
Plataneus, Areus, Siros, Gendos, named also Chrysorrhoas. 
The Promontory on which stood the Town Megaricum. Then 
the Gulf which was called Craspedites ; because that Town 
stood as it were in a Fold of it. There was also the Town 
Astacum, from which the Bay took the Name of Astacenus. 
There was also the Town Libyssa, where now rernaineth 
nothing but the Tomb of Annibal. In the inmost part of 
the Gulf is the very handsome Town of Bithynia, called 
Nicomedia. The Promontory Leucatas which encloseth the 
Bay of Astarenus, is from Nicomedia forty-two Miles and 
a half. Being past this Bay, the opposite Shores approach- 
ing together, the Straits reach as far as to the Thracian Bos- 
phorus. Upon these Straits standeth the Free (City) Chalce- 
don, seventy-two Miles and a half from Nicomedia. Formerly 
it was called Procerastis : then, Compusa : afterwards, the 
City of the Blind ; because they who founded it were so 
ignorant as not to give a preference to a Place seven Stadia 
from Byzantium, so much more favourable in every respect. 
But within-land, in Bithynia, is the Colony Apamena : also, 
the Agrippenses, Juliopolitse, and they of Bithynium. The 
Rivers, Syrium, Lapsias, Pharmicas, Alces, Crynis, Lylaeus, 
Scopius, Hieras, which parteth Bithynia from Galatia. Be- 
yond Chalcedon, stood Chrysopolis : then, Nicopolis, of 
which the Gulf still retaineth the Name : wherein is the 
Port of Amycus : the Promontory Naulochum : Estia, 
wherein is the Temple of Neptune; and the Bosphorus, 
half-a-mile over, which now again parteth Asia from Europe. 

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 97 

From Chalcedon, it is twelve Miles and a half. There begin 
the) narrow Straits, where it is eight Miles and a quarter 
over: where stood the Town Philopolis. All the Coasts 
are inhabited by the Thyni, but the Inland Parts by 
the Bithyni. This is the end of Asia, and of 282 Nations, 
which are reckoned from the Gulf of Lycia to this place. 
The Space of the Hellespont and Propontis to the Thracian 
Bosphorus containeth in Length 188 Miles, as we have 
before said. From Chalcedon to Sigeum, by the computa- 
tion of Isidorus, it is 372 Miles and a half. Islands lying in 
Propontis before Cyzicum are these ; Elaphonnesus, from 
whence cometh the Cyzicen Marble ; and the same Isle was 
called Neuris, and Proconnesus. Then follow Ophiusa, 
Acanthus, Phoebe, Scopelos, Porphyrione, and Halone, with 
a Town. Delphacia, Polydora : Artaceeon, with the Town. 
And over-against Nicomedia, is Dernonnesos : likewise, be- 
yond Heraclea, over-against Bithynia, is Thynnias, which 
the Barbarians call Bithynia. There is also Antiochia : and 
opposite to the narrow Straits of Rhyndacus, Besbicos, 
eighteen Miles in Circuit. Also there is Elsea, two Rho- 
dussae, Erebinthus, Magale, Chalcitis, and Pityodes. 

VOL. n. 





1. Pontus Euxinus, formerly Ax- 


2. The Nations of the Paphla- 

gones and Cappadocians. 

3. Cappadocia. 

4. The Nations of the Country 


5. The Region Colchica. The 

Achaei, and the rest in that 

6. Bosphorus Cimmerius, and 


7. The People about Mceotis. 

8. The Armenise, both. 

9. Armenia the Greater. 

10. Albania, Iberia. 

11. The Gates Caucasise. 

12. Islands in Pontus. 

13. Nations about the Scythian 


14. Media and the Straits Caspias. 

15. Nations about the Hircanian 


16. Also other Nations bordering 

upon that Country. 

17. People of Scythia. 
. The River Ga 



19. The Nations of India. 

20. The River Indus. 

21. The Arii, and the Nations bor- 

dering upon them. 

22. The Island Taprobane. 

23. Capissene, Carmania. 

24. The Persian and Arabian Gulfs. 

25. The Island Cassandrus, and the 

Kingdoms of the Parthians. 

26. Media, Mesopotamia, Babylon, 


27. The River Tigris. 

28. Arabia, Nomades, Nabathsei, 

Omani, Tylos, and Ogyris, 
two Islands. 

29. The Gulfs of the Red Sea, the 

Troglodite and Ethiopian 

30. Nations of strange and won- 

derful Shapes. 

31. Islands of the Ethiopian Sea. 

32. Of the Fortunate Islands. 

33. The Division of the Earth 

calculated by Measures. 

34. A Division of the Earth by 

Climates, Lines Parallel, 
and Equal Shadows. 

Towns of name, 195. Nations of account, 566. Famous Rivers, 180. 
Notable Mountains, 38. Principal Islands, 108. Cities and Nations 
perished, 195. In sum, there are rehearsed in this Book, of other Things, 
Histories and Observations, 2214. 


M. Agrippa, Varro Atacinus, Cornelius Nepos, Hyginus, Lu. Vetus, Mela 
Pomponius, Domitius Corbulo, Licinius Mutianus, Claudius Ccesar, Aruntius 
Sebosus, Fabricius Thuscus, T. Livius, Seneca, Nigidius. 


King Juba, Polybius, Hecatceus, Hellanicus, Damastes, Eudoxus, jDicce- 
archus, Beto, Timosthenes, Patrocles, Demodamas, Clitarchus, Eratosthenes, 
Alexander the Great, Ephorus, Hipparchus, Pancetius, Cattimachus, Artemi- 
dorus, Apollodorus, Agathocles, Polybius, Eumachus Sicidus, Alexander 
Polyhistor, Amometus, Metrudorus, Posidonius, Onesicritus, Nearchus, 
Megasthenes, Diognetus, Aristocreon, Bion, Dialdon, Simonides the Younger, 
Basiles, and Xenophon Lampsacenus. 





Pontus Euxinus. 

[HE Pontus Euxinus, named in old time Axenos, 
from its inhospitable wildness, is spread between 
Europe and Asia, by a special Envy of Nature, 
and an Eagerness to maintain the Sea in his 
greedy and endless Appetite. It was not enough 
for the Ocean to have environed the whole 
Earth, and to have taken away a great part of it, with 
exceeding Rage ; it sufficed not, to have broken through the 
shattered Mountains, and also having torn Calpe 1 from 
Africa, to have swallowed up a much larger space than it 
left behind : nor to have poured out Propontis through the 
Hellespont, 2 so again devouring the Land : from the Bos- 
phorus also it is spread abroad into a large Space without 

1 Mouth of Gibraltar. 

2 The ideas of the ancients appear to have been confounded in the wide 

100 History of Nature. [ BOOK VI. 

being satisfied, until they are very wide, and the Lake 
Moeotis joiueth its ruin to them. And that this hath 
happened in spite of the Earth, appeareth by so many 
Straits and such narrow Passages of opposing nature, 
considering that at the Hellespont the Breadth is not 
above 875 Paces : and at the two Bosphori even Oxen easily 
pass over : and hereupon they both took their Name : and in 
this disunion appeareth an agreement of relationship. For 
Cocks may be heard to crow, and Dogs to bark from one 
Side to the other : and by the interchange of Human Speech 
Men out of these two Worlds may talk one to another in 
continued discourse, if the Winds do not carry away the 

Some have made the Measure of Pontus from the Bos- 
phorus to the Lake Moeotis to be 1438 Miles. But Erato- 
sthenes reckoneth it less by one hundred. Agrippa saith, 
that from Chalcedon to Phasis is a thousand Miles; and 
onward to Bosphorus Cimmerius, 360 Miles. We will set 
down in general the Distances of Places collected in our own 
Days, when our Armies have carried on War even in the 
very Mouth of the Cimmerian Strait. 

Beyond the Straits of the Bosphorus is the River 
Rhebas, which some have called Rhoesus : and beyond it, 
Psillis : the Port of Calpas ; and Sangarius, one of the prin- 
cipal Rivers : it ariseth in Phrygia, receiveth large Rivers 
into it, and amongst the rest Tembrogius and Gallus. The 
same Sangarius is by many called Coralius ; from which 
begin the Gulfs Mariandini and the Town Heraclea, situated 
upon the River Lycus. It is from the Mouth of Pontus 
200 Miles. There is the Port Acone, cursed with the 
poisonous Aconitum ; and the Cave Acherusia. The Rivers 
Pedopiles, Callichorum, and Sonantes. Towns, Tium, eight- 
and-thirty Miles from Heraclea: the River Bilis. 

expanse of the ocean : in consequence, probably, of the creeping manner 
of their navigation. Homer speaks of 

" All wide Hellespont's unmeasured main." Iliad, b. 24. 

Wern. Club. 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 101 

The Nation of the Paphlagonians, and Cappadocians. 

BEYOND this River Bilis is the Nation of Paphlagonia, 
which some have named Pylaemenia, and it is enclosed with 
Galatia behind it. The Town Mastya of the Milesians : and 
next to it Cromna. In this quarter the Heneti inhabit, as 
Cornelius Nepos saitli, from whom the Veneti in Italy, who 
bear their Name, are descended, as he would have us believe. 
The Town Sesamum, which is now called Amastris. The 
Mountain Cytorus, 64 Miles from Tium. The Towns 
Cimolus and Stephane ; the River Parthenius ; the Pro- 
montory Corambis, which reacheth a mighty way into 
the Sea; and it is from the Mouth of the Pontus 315 
Miles, or as others think, 350. It is also as far from the 
(Strait) Cimmerius, or as some would rather have it, 312 
Miles and a half. A Town there was also of that Name : 
and another beyond it called Arminum : but now there is the 
Colony Sinope, 16'4 Miles from Citorum. The River Vare- 
tum ; the People of the Cappadoces ; the Town Gaziura, 
and Gazelum ; the River Halys, which, issuing out of the 
foot of Taurus, passeth through Cataonia and Cappadocia. 
The Towns, Grangre, Carissa ; the Free City Amisum, distant 
from Sinope 130 Miles. A Gulf, bearing the Name of this 
Town, runneth so far within the Land that it seemeth to 
make Asia almost an Island : for from thence through th)e 
Continent to the Gulf Issicus in Cilicia, is not above 200 
Miles. In all which Tract there are no more than three 
Nations which justly may be called Greeks: which are the 
Dorians, lonians, and ^Eolians : for all the rest are Bar- 
barians. To Amisum there was joined the Town Eupa- 
toria, founded by Mithridates : and when he was vanquished, 
both together took the Name of Pompeiopolis. 1 

1 From Pompey the Great, who conquered him. Wern. Club. 

102 History of Nature. [Boot VI. 


IK the interior of Cappadocia is a Colony founded bj 
Claudius Ccesar, called Archelais, situated upon the River 
Halys. The Town Comana, by which the (River) Saras 
runneth : Neo-Caesarea, washed by the Lycas : and Amasia, 
on the River Iris, in the Country Gazacena. In Colopena, 
also, are Sebastia and Sebastopolis : little Towns, but equal 
with those aboresaid. In the other part (of Cappadocia) is 
the City Melita, built by Queen Semiramit, not far from the 
Euphrates: also, Dio-Caesarea, Tyana, Castabala, Magno- 
polis, Zela : and under the Mountain Argaeus, Mazaca, which 
now is named Caesarea. That part of Cappadocia which lieth 
before Armenia the Greater, is called Melitene : that which 
bordereth upon Comagene, Cataonia: upon Phrygia, Gar- 
sanritis : upon Sargaurasana, Cammanene : and upon Ga- 
latia, Morimene. And there the River Cappadox separateth 
the one from the other. From this River the Cappadocians 
took their Name, having formerly been called Leucosyri. 
The River Lycas divideth the above-named new Armenia 
from Neo-Casarea. Within the Country there runneth also 
the famous Cerannus. But on the Coast beyond Amysmn is 
the Town Lycastum, and the River Chadisia : and still fur- 
ther the Country Themiscyra. The River Iris, bringing 
down the Lycus. In the midland Parts the City Ziela, 
ennobled by the slaughter of Triarias, 1 ami the Victory of 
C. Gesar. In the Coast the River Thermodon, which 
issueth from before a Castle named Phanarcea, and passeth 


defeated by the enemy, at the battle of Zida, with the km of 7000 of his 
men. And at the same place, some years afterwards* Julius Cesar gained 
an important victory over Pharnaees, the son of Mhhridatesy deprived 
him of the kingdom of Pontns, and entirely mined his army. It ms on 
this occiaion that Caesar, when describing the rapidity and despatch he 
had employed in the victory, made use of the well-known sentence, 
" Yeni, vidi, via," I came, I saw, I conquered. Wen. Ckb. 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 103 

by the foot of the Mountain Amazonius. There was a Town 
of the same Name, and five others, namely, Phamizonium, 
Themiscyra, Sotira, Amasia, Comana, now called Manteium. 

The Nations of the Region Themiscyrene. 

THE Nations of the Genetae and Chalybes ; a Town of the 
Cotyi. Nations called Tibareni ; and Mossyni, who mark 
their Bodies with Figures. 1 The Nation of the Macrocephali, 
the Town Cerasus, the Port Cordalae. The Nations Bechires ; 
Buzeti ; the River Melas. The Nation Macrones, Sideni, 
and the River Sydenum, upon which is situated the Town 
Polemonium, distant from Amisum 120 Miles: beyond this 
the Rivers Jasonius and Melanthius : also 80 Miles from 
Amisum, the Town Pharnacea : the Castle and River of 
Tripolis. Also, Philocalia, and Liviopolis without a River: 
also, the Free City Trapezus, environed with a high Moun- 
tain, 100 Miles from Pharnacea. Beyond Trapezus is the 
Nation of the Armenochalybes, and Armenia the Greater : 
which are 30 Miles asunder. On the Coast is the River 
Pyxites that runneth before Trapezus: and beyond it the 
Nation of the Sanni Heniochi. The River Absarus, with a 
Castle likewise so named in its Mouth ; from Trapezus is 
150 Miles. Behind the Mountains of that quarter is Iberia : 
but in the Coast of the same are the Heniochi, Ampreutae, 
and Lazi. The Rivers Campseonysis, Nogrus, Bathys. 
The Nations of the Colchians ; the Town Matium, the 
River Heracleum, and a Promontory of the same Name ; 
and the most renowned (River) of Pontus, called Pkasis. 
This River riseth out of the Moschian Mountains, and for 
38 Miles and a half is Navigable for great Vessels. And 
then for a great way it carrieth smaller Vessels ; having 

1 The practice of tattooing is general through the islands of the 
Southern Ocean ; the inhabitants of which, however, were not known to 
Pliny. But it is also practised, even in our day, by the people of Burma, 
and perhaps in other nations of the East. The same practice is again 
referred to in b. vii. c. 11. Wen. Chb. 

104 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

over it 120 Bridges. It had many Towns upon its Banks; 
the most celebrated being Tyritacen, Cygnus, and Phasis, 
situated at its very Mouth. But the most illustrious was 
JE&, fifteen Miles from the Sea : where Hippos and Cyanos, 
two very great Rivers, coming from different Parts, flow into 
it. Now it possesseth Surium only, which taketh its Name 
from the River Surium, that runneth into it. And thus far 
we said that Phasis was capable of being navigated by great 
Ships. And it receiveth other Rivers, remarkable for size 
and number, among which is the River Glaucus. In the 
Mouth of this River (Phasis) there are Islands without a 
Name. It is distant from Bsarus 75 Miles. Being past 
Phasis, there is another River called Charien ; the Nation of 
the Salae, named in old Time Phthirophagi and Suani ; the 
River Cobus, which issueth out of Caucasus, and runneth 
through the Country of the Suani. Then Rhoas ; the region 
Ecrectice : the Rivers Sigania, Tersos, Atelpos, Chrysorrhoas, 
and the Nation Absilae: the Castle Sebastopolis, a hundred 
Miles from Phasis; the Nation of the Sanigares, the Town 
Cygnus, the River and Town called Pityus. And last of all, 
the Nations of the Heniochae, which have many Names. 


The Region of Colchis, the Ached, and other Nations in 
that Tract. 

NEXT followeth the region of Colchis, which is likewise 
in Pontus : wherein the craggy Summits of the Caucasus 
wind and turn toward the Rhiphaean Mountains, as hath been 
hinted ; on the one side bending down toward the Euxinus 
and Moeotis ; and on the other inclining to the Caspian and 
Hircanian Seas. The remainder of the Coasts are occupied by 
savage Nations, as the Melanchlseni, the Choruxi; Dioscurias, 
a City of the Colchi, near the River Anthemus, now lying 
waste, although it was so renowned in Time past, that by the 
report of Timosthenes there were settled therein 300 Nations 
which used distinct Languages. And afterwards our Ro- 
mans were forced to provide 130 Interpreters for the Traffic 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 105 

with this People. Some think that it was first founded by 
A.mphitus and Telc/iius, who had the charge of the Chariots 
of Castor and Pollux : a for certain it is, that the fierce Nation 
of the Heniochi are from them descended. Being past 
Dioscurias, there is the Town Heraclium, which from Sebas- 
topolis is 80 Miles distant. The Achaei, Mardi, and Car- 
cetse : after them the Serri, and Cephalotomi. Far within 
that Tract stood the very wealthy Town Pitius, which by the 
Heniochians was plundered. On the back part thereof 
inhabit the Epageritse, a People of the Sarmatse, upon the 
tops of the Caucasus : after which the Sauromatse. Hither 
had fled King Mithridates in the time of Prince Claudius, 
and he made report that the Thali dwell thereby, and border 
Eastward upon the very opening of the Caspian Sea : which 
becometh Dry when the Sea ebbeth. But on the Coast 
near to the Cercetse is the River Icarusa, with a Town and 
River called Hierum, 136 Miles from Heracleum. Then 
come ye to the Promontory Cronea, in the steep Ridge 
of which the Toretse inhabit. The City Sindica, 67 Miles 
from Hierum : the River Sceaceriges. 

Mcsotis and the Bosphorus Cimmerius. 

FROM the above-said River to the Entrance of the Cim- 
merian Bosphorus is 88 Miles and a half. But the Length 
of the Peninsula itself, which stretcheth out between the 
Lakes Pontus and Moeotis is not above 87 Miles, and the 
Breadth in no place less than two Acres of Land. They call 
it Eione. The very Coasts of the Bosphorus, both of Asia 
and Europe, are curved towards the Mceotis. The Towns in 

1 There is frequently occasion to remark, that Pliny speaks of the 
deities of his country, as if it was an acknowledged fact that they were 
once living men. ^Eolus, Hercules, and even Jupiter, are so regarded ; 
and as he speaks of the impiety of this opinion, b. vii. c. 47, when applied 
to some particular cases, we are at liberty to believe that his regard for 
the established heathenism of his country was exceedingly slight. 
Wern. Club. 

106 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

the very first Passage of Bosphorus are Hermonassa and then 
Cepi, founded by the Milesians. Close by is Stratilia (or 
Stratoclea), Phanagoria, and Apaturos, which is almost un- 
peopled : and last of all, in the mouth, Cimmerius, formerly 
called Cerberian. 


Nations about Moeotis. 

BEYOND Cimmerium is the Lake Moeotis, spoken of be- 
fore in Europe. Beyond Cimmerium inhabit the Mceotici, 
Vati, Serbi, Archi, Zingi, and Psesii. After this you come 
to the River Tanais, which runneth with two Mouths : and 
on the sides of it dwell the Sarmatae, descended, as they say, 
from the Medi: but themselves divided into many Races. 
And first the Sauromatae, surnamed Gynaecocratumeni, from 
whence the Amazons are provided with Husbands. Next to 
them are the Euazae, Cottse, Cicimeni, Messeniani, Costo- 
bocci, Choatrae, Zigae, Dandari, Thussageae, and Turese, even 
as far as the Wilderness, rough with woody Valleys. Be- 
yond them are the Arimphaei, who live upon the Riphsean 
Mountains. The Tanais itself the Scythians call Silys ; and 
Moeotis they name Temerinda, 1 that is to say, the Mother of 
the Sea. There stood also a Town at the mouth of Tanais. 
The Lares first inhabited the Borders : afterwards the Clazo- 
menii and Mceones: and in process of time the Panti- 
capenses. Some Authors write, that about Moeotis toward 
the higher Mountains Ceraunii, the following Nations inhabit 
on the Coast, the Napaeae : and above them the Essedones, 
joining on the Colchi, and the tops of the Mountains. After 
them the Carmacae, the Orani, Antacse, Mazacae, Ascantici, 
Acapeatae, Agagammatae, Phycari, Rhimosoli, and Asco- 

1 It is easy to discern that many of the names of nations mentioned 
by Pliny are not those which the people themselves would have recog- 
nised; but Greek descriptive designations. But the word " Temerinda" 
is believed to have been " Scythian," and to be rightly interpreted by the 
author. Daleschamp supposes the true expression to be " Themers-end," 
or, in modern terms, " Dess-maers-end." Wern. Club. 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 107 

marci ; and on the Tops of Caucasus, the Icatalae, Imaduchi, 
Rani, Anclacae, Tydii, Charastasci, and Asuciandae. Along 
the River Lagoiis, issuing out of the Mountains Cathei, and 
into which Opharus runneth, are these Nations : the Cau- 
cadse and the Opharitae : the River Menotharus, and Iruitues 
divided from the Mountains Cissii, which passeth among the 
Agedi, Carnapae, Gardei, Accisi, Gabri, and Gregari : and 
about the source of this River Imitues, the Imitui and Apar- 
theni. Others say that the Suitse, Auchetse, Satarnei, and 
Asampatse, overflowed this Part ; the Tanaitae and Ne- 
pheonitae were slain by them to a Man. Some write, that 
the River Opharius runneth through the Canteci and the 
Sapaei: and that the River Tanais traversed through the 
Phatarei, Herticei, Spondolici, Synthietae, Amassi, Issi, 
Catazeti, Tagori, Catoni, Neripi, Agandei, Mandarei, Satur- 
chei, and Spalei. 


WE have gone through the Nations and Inhabitants of 
the Coasts of the Mediterranean Sea. Now are we to speak 
of the People inhabiting the Inland Parts : wherein I shall 
advance many things different from the ancient Geographers : 
because I have made diligent Search into the state of those 
Regions, especially by enquiry of Domitius Corbulo, in regard 
of the things done by himself, and also of the Kings who 
came from thence as Petitioners, and of those King's Sons 
that were Hostages. And we will begin with the Nation of 
the Cappadocians. This is a Country that of all which bound 
upon Pontus, reacheth farthest within the Land : for on the 
left Hand it passeth by the Greater and Less Armenia, and 
Comagene : and on the right, all those Nations in Asia 
before-named : being overflowed with a Multitude of People : 
and with great Might climbing up Eastward to the Tops of 
Taurus, it passeth Lycaonia, Pisidia, and Cilicia : and with 
that quarter which is called Cataonia, it pierceth above the 
Tract of Antiochia, and reacheth as far as to its Region Cyr- 

108 History of Nature. [BOOK VI. 

rhestica. And therefore the Length of Asia there may con- 
tain 1250 Miles, and the Breadth 640. 

Armenia, the Greater and Less. 

THE Greater Armenia, beginning at the Mountains Pa- 
riedri, is divided from Cappadocia by the River Euphrates, as 
hath been said before : and where the River Euphrates 
turneth, from Mesopotamia by the River Tigris, scarcely less 
renowned than the other. It poureth forth both these Rivers, 
and constitutes the beginning of Mesopotamia, which is situ- 
ated between them both. The Land which lieth between is 
possessed by the Arabs Orei. In this manner it extendeth its 
Border to Adiabene. Beyond this, being hemmed in with 
Mountains that stand across it, it spreadeth its Breadth on 
the left Hand to the River Cyrus : and then across to the 
River Araxes : but it carrieth its Length to the Lesser Ar- 
menia, being separated from it by the River Absarus, which 
falleth into the Pontus : and by the Mountains Pariedri, from 
which the River Absarus issueth. The River Cyrus springeth 
in the Mountains Heniochii, which some have called Co- 
raxici. The Araxes issueth out of the same Mountain from 
whence Euphrates cometh, and there is not above the Space 
of six Miles between them. This River Araxes is augmented 
with the River Musis ; and then itself loseth its Name, and, as 
most have thought, is carried by the River Cyrus into the Cas- 
pian Sea. These Towns are famous in the Lesser (Armenia) ; 
Csesarea, Aza, and Nicopolis. In the Greater is Arsamote, 
near the River Euphrates ; and Carcathiocerta, upon the 
Tigris. In the higher Country is Tigranocerta, but in the 
Plain, near the Araxes, Artaxata. Aufidius saith, that both 
the Armenia contain in all 500 Miles. Claudius Ccesar 
reporteth, that in Length from Dascusa to the Confines of 
the Caspian Sea is 1300 Miles, and in Breadth half as much, 
from Tigranocerta to Iberia. This is well known, that it is 
divided into Prefectures, which they call Strategic ; and 
some of them in old time were as large as Kingdoms : the 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 109 

Number being 120, with barbarous Names. It is enclosed 
Eastward with Mountains, but neither the Ceraunii, nor the 
Region Adiabene, do immediately border on it. The Country 
of the Sopherii lieth between : next are the Mountains Ce- 
raunii; and beyond them dwell the Adiabeni. But through 
the flat Valleys the next Neighbours to Armenia are the 
Menobardi and Moscheni. The River Tigris and steep 
Mountains encompass Adiabene. On the left Hand its 
Region is of the Medians, and the Prospect of the Caspian 
Sea. This is poured in from the Ocean (as we shall shew in 
its place), and is enclosed wholly within the Mountains of 
Caucasus. We will now speak of the Inhabitants of these, 
through the Confine of Armenia. 

Albania and Iberia. 

THE Nation of the Albani inhabit all the plain Country 
from the River Cyrus. Beyond it is the Region of the Iberes, 
who are separated from the Albani by the River Alazon, 
which runneth down from the Caucasian Mountains into the 
Cyrus. The strong Towns of Albania : Cabalaca ; of Iberia, 
Harmastis, near the River Neoris : the Region Thasie, and 
Triare, as far as to the Mountains Partedori. Beyond them 
are the Deserts of Colchis : and on the side of them which 
lieth toward the Ceraunii the Armenochalybes inhabit: and 
the Tract of the Moschi to- the River Iberus, that floweth into 
the Cyrus. Beneath them, inhabit the Sacassani, and beyond 
them the Macrones, who reach to the River Absarus. Thus 
the Plain and the hanging of the Hills are inhabited. Again, 
from the Frontiers of Albania, in all the front of the Moun- 
tains are the savage Nations of the Sylvi ; and beneath them, 
of the Lubieni, and so forward the Diduri, and Sodii. 

The Gates of the Caucasus. 

BEYOND the Sodii are the Gates of Caucasus, which many 
have very erroneously called Caspise Portse, or the Caspian 

110 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

Gates : a mighty Piece of Nature's Work, by suddenly cleav- 
ing asunder those Mountains, where the Gates were barred 
up with iron Bars, whilst under the midst thereof, the River 
Dyriodorus runneth : and on this Side of it standeth a formi- 
dable Castle called Cumania, situated upon a Rock, able to 
arrest the Passage of a very numerous Army; so that in this 
Place, by means of these Gates, one Part of the World is 
excluded from the other : and chiefly over-against Harmastis, 
a Town of the Iberi. Beyond the Gates of Caucasus, through 
the Mountains Gordyei, the Valli and Suarni, uncivilised 
Nations, are employed only in the Mines of Gold. Beyond 
them as far as to the Pontic Sea, are many Races of the 
Heniochi ; and soon after, of the Achaei. And thus much 
concerning this Tract of the Lands among the most re- 
nowned. Some have set down, that between Pontus and the 
Caspian Sea, it is not above 375 Miles. Cornelius Nepos 
saith it is but 150; into such Straits is Asia driven again. 
Claudius Ccesar hath reported, that from the Cimmerian 
Bosphorus to the Caspian Sea, is 150 Miles; and that Seleucus 
Nicator purposed to cut the Land through, at the Time 
when he was slain by Ptolomceus Ceraunus. It is almost 
certain, that from the Gates of Caucasus to Pontius is 
200 Miles. 


Islands in the Pontus. 

IN Pontus lie the Islands Planctae, otherwise Cyaneae or 
Symplegades. Then Apollonia, named also Thynnias, for 
Distinction sake from that other so named in Europe : it is 
from the Continent one Mile, and in Circuit three. And 
over-against Pharnacea is Chalceritis, which the Greeks 
called Aria, sacred to Mars ; wherein are Birds which fight 
with a Blow of their Wings against others that come 


Nations on the Scythian Ocean. 

HAVING thus discoursed of all the Countries in the inte- 
rior of Asia, let us now determine to pass over the Rhiphaean 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. Ill 

Mountains, and discover the Coasts of the Ocean which lie 
on the right hand. Asia is washed by this Ocean on three 
Sides : on the North Side is the Scythian : on the East it is 
called Eb'us : and from the South they name it the Indian. 
And according to the various Gulfs, and the Inhabitants, it is 
divided into many Names. But a great part of Asia toward 
the North hath in it extensive Wildernesses, by reason of the 
violence of its frozen Star. From the extreme North to the 
North-east are the Scythians. Beyond whom, and the very 
point of the North Pole, some have placed the Hyperborei ; 
of whom we have spoken at large in the Treatise of Europe. 
The first Promontory that you meet with in the Country 
Celtica is named Lytarmis : and then the River Carambucis, 
where, by the forcible influence of the Stars, the Mountains 
Rhiphaei are deprived of their ragged Tops. And there we 
have heard that there are a People named Arimphaei : a 
Nation not much unlike the Hyperborei. They have their 
Habitations in Forests ; their Food is Berries ; both Women 
and Men count it a shame to have Hair ; mild in their man- 
ners; and therefore, by report, they are held to be sacred, 
and to be inviolable even by those wild People that dwell 
near them ; neither do they respect them only, but also those 
who fly to them. At some distance beyond them are the 
Scythians, 1 as well the Cimmerii, Cicianthi, and Georgi ; 
and the Nation of the Amazons. These reach to the Caspian 
and Hircanian Sea : for it breaketh forth from the Scythian 
Ocean, 2 toward the back parts of Asia, and is called many 
Names by the neighbouring Inhabitants, but especially by 
two of the most celebrated, the Caspian and Hircanian. 
Clitarchus is of opinion that this Sea is full as great as the 

1 At this day, the Moschovites, white and black Russians, Georgians, 
Amazonians, and the less Tartary. Wern. Club. 

2 Strabo (lib. xi.) entertains the same erroneous opinions respecting 
the Caspian Sea. That both these intelligent writers, as well as other 
ancient geographers, should have been so mistaken is the more extraor- 
dinary, as Herodotus (lib. i. 203) had given a just description of it long 
before. " The Caspian Sea," he says, "is a sea of itself, which does not 
mingle with any other." Wern. Club. 

112 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

Pontus Euxinus. And Eratosthenes setteth down the mea- 
sure of it as being from East to South, along the Coast of 
Cadusia and Albania, 5400 Stadia : from thence by the 
Aratiatici, Amarbi, and Hircanii, to the mouth of the River 
Zonus, 4800 Stadia : from it to the mouth of the Jaxartes, 
2400 Stadia: which being put together amount to 1575 
Miles. Artemidorus counteth less by 25 Miles. Agrippa, in 
limiting the Circuit of the Caspian Sea, and the Nations 
around it, and Armenia with them, from the East with the 
Ocean of the Seres, Westward with the Mountains of Cau- 
casus, on the South side with the Mountain Taurus, and on 
the North with the Scythian Ocean, hath written, That the 
whole, so far as is known, may contain in Length 590 Miles, 
and 290 in Breadth. There want not others who say, That 
the whole Circuit of that Sea, from the Strait is 2500 Miles. 
This throat is very narrow where it bursts forth, but exceed- 
ingly long : but where it beginrieth to enlarge it fetcheth a 
Compass withlunated Horns, and after the manner of a Scy- 
thian Bow, as M. Varro saith, it windeth along from its 
Mouth toward the Lake Moeotis. The first Gulf is called 
Scythicus ; for the Scythians inhabit on both Sides, and by 
means of the narrow Straits between have business one with 
another : for on one side are the Nomades and Sauromatse, 
with many Names : and on the other, the Abzoae, who have 
no fewer denominations. At the entry of this Sea on the 
right hand, the Udini, a People of the Scythians, dwell 
upon the very point of these Straits : and then along the 
Coast, the Albani, descended (as they say) from Jason; 
where the Sea that lieth before them is called Albanum. 
This Nation is spread also upon the Mountains of Caucasus 
to the River Cyrus, and descendeth, as hath been said, to the 
border of Armenia and Iberia. Above the Maritime Coasts 
of Albania and the Nation of the Udini, the Sarmatae, called 
Utidorsi, and Atoderes, are planted : and behind them the 
Sauromatides, Amazons, already pointed out. The Rivers of 
Albania, which fall into the Sea, are Cassios and Albanos : 
and then Carnbises, which hath its Head in the Caucasian 
Mountains : and soon after Cyrus, which ariseth out of the 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 113 

Mountains Corax, as is before said. Agrippa write th that 
this whole Coast, from the lofty and inaccessible Mountains 
of Caucasus, cpntaineth 425 Miles. Beyond the Cyrus, the 
Caspian Sea beginneth to take that Name ; and the Caspii 
dwell there. And here the error of many is to be corrected, 
even of those who were lately with Corbulo in Armenia with 
the Army : for they called those Gates of Caucasus, of which 
we spoke before, the Caspian Gates of Iberia : and the Maps 
and Descriptions which are painted and sent from thence, 
have that Name written on them. Likewise the threatening 
of Prince Nero, when he sought to gain those Gates, which 
through Iberia lead into Sarmatia, made mention of the 
Gates Caspiee ; which had scarcely any Passage by reason 
of the Mountains so closely approaching each other. There 
are other Gates near the Caspian Sea, that join upon the 
Caspian Nations, which could not have been distinguished 
from the other but by the relation of those that accompanied 
Alexander the Great in his Expeditions. For the Kingdoms 
of the Persians, which at this day we take to be those of 
the Parthians, are elevated between the Persian and Hir- 
canian Seas upon the Mountains of Caucasus ; in the Descent 
of which on both sides bordering upon Armenia the Greater, 
and on that part of the front which vergeth to Comagene, it 
joineth (as we have said) with Sephenise : and upon it bor- 
dereth Adiabene, the beginning of the Assyrians : Arbelitis, 
which is nearest to Syria, is a part of this : where Alexander 
vanquished Darius. All this Tract the Macedonians surnamed 
Mygdonia, 1 from its resemblance. The Towns Alexandria ; 
and Antiochia, which they call Nisibis : from Artaxata it is 
750 Miles. There was also Ninus, 2 seated upon the Tigris, 
looking towards the West, and in Times past highly re- 
nowned. But on the other Side, where it lieth toward the 
Caspian Sea, the Region Atropatene, separated by the River 
Araxes from Oten in Armenia : its City, Gazse, is 450 Miles 

1 From its resemblance to a part of Greece of that name, with which 
they were well acquainted. Wern. Club. 
* The ancient Nineveh. Wern. Club. 


114 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

from Artaxata : and as many from Ecbatana of the Medes, 
some part of which the Atropateni hold. 


Media, and the Gates Caspia. 

ECBATANA, the head of Media, was founded by King 
Seleucus : and it is from Seleucia the Great 750 Miles : and 
from the Caspian Gates 20. The other Towns of the Medes 
are Phausia, Agamzua, and Apamia, named also Rhaphane. 
The Straits there, (called the Caspian Gates,) have the same 
reason for being so named as the other (by Caucasus) ; be- 
cause the Mountains are broken through with so narrow 
a Passage, that hardly a single line of Carts is able to pass 
it for the Length of Eight Miles : and all done by the hand 
of Man. The Cliffs that hang over on the right Side and on 
the left are as if they were scorched : through a silent Tract 
of 38 Miles ; for all the Moisture running together out of 
those Cliffs, and pouring through the Straits, obstructs the 
Passage. Besides, the Multitude of Serpents prevents Tra- 
velling except in Winter. 


Nations about the Hircanian Sea. 

UNTO Adiabene are joined the Carduchi, so called in 
Times past, and now Cordueni ; along which the Tigris 
runneth ; and on them the Pratitse border, called also Pare- 
doni, who hold the Caspian Gates. On the other side of 
whom you meet with the Deserts of Parthia, and the Moun- 
tains of Cithenus : and beyond these is the most pleasant 
Tract of the same Parthia, called Choara. There stand two 
Cities of the Parthians, formerly opposed against the Me- 
dians : namely, Calliope ; and Issatis, situated in times past 
upon another Rock. The Capital of Parthia itself, lleca- 
tompylos, is from the (Caspian) Gates 133 Miles. Thus the 
Kingdoms of the Parthians are shut up by Doors. When 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 115 

passed out of these Gates, presently we enter on the Cas- 
pian Nation, which reacheth as far as the Sea-shore, and 
gave the Name to the Gates and the Sea. The left hand is 
full of Mountains : and from this Nation backward to the 
River Cyrus, is by report 220 Miles. From that River, if 
you would go higher up to the Gates, it is 700 Miles. And 
from this starting-place began Alexander to reckon his 
Journeys: making from those Gates to the Entrance of 
India, 15,680 Stadia : from thence to the Town of Bactra, 
which they call Zariaspa, 3700, and thence to the River 
Jaxartes five Miles. 


Other Nations also. 

FROM the Caspian Country eastward, lieth the Region 
called ZapanorteneV and in it Daricum, a place celebrated 
for Fertility. Then come the Nations of the Tapyri, Anariaci, 
Stauri, and Hircani, at whose Coasts the same Sea beginneth 
to take the Name Hircanum, from the River Syderis. About 
it are the Rivers Mazeras and Stratos, all issuing out of 
Caucasus. Then follows the Region Margiana, famous for 
its warm Sunshine, and the only place in all that quarter 
which yieldeth Vines. It is environed with pleasant Moun- 
tains, for the compass of 1500 Stadia: difficult of approach 
by reason of the Sandy Deserts for the space of 120 Miles; 
and it is situated over against the Tract of Parthia, wherein 
Alexander had built Alexandria ; which being destroyed by 
the Barbarians, Antiochus the Son of Seleucus rebuilt it in the 
same place, upon the River Margus, which runneth through 
it, together with another River Zotale, and it was called 
Syriana. 2 But he desired rather that it should be named 
Antiochia. This City containeth in Circuit 70 Stadia: 
and into it Orodes, after the Slaughter of Crassus and his 
Army, brought his Roman Prisoners. Being past the high 
Country (Margiana), you come to the Nation of the Mardi, 

' Some copies read Zapauortene and Apauortene. Wern. Club. 

3 Or rather Seleucia. 

116 History of Nature. [BOOK VI. 

a Fierce People, subject to none ; they inhabit the Rocky 
Summits of Caucasus, which reach as far as to the Bac- 
trians. Beyond that Tract are the Nations Ochani, Chomari, 
Berdrigei, Hermatotrophi, Bomarci, Commani, Marucsei, 
Mandrueni and latii. The Rivers Mandrus and Gridinus. 
Beyond, inhabit the Chorasmii, Gandari, Attasini, Paricani, 
Sarangae, Parrasini, Maratiani, Nasotiani, Aorsi, Gelse, whom 
the Greeks called Cadusii, and the Matiani. The Town 
Heraclea, built by Alexander, which afterwards was over- 
thrown : but when it was repaired again by Antiochus, he 
named it Achais. The Derbices, through the midst of whose 
Borders runneth the River Oxus, which hath its Beginning 
from the Lake Oxus : the Syrmatse, Oxii, Tagse, Heniochi, 
Bateni, Saraparss, and the Bactri, with their Town Zariaspe, 
called afterwards Bactrum, from the River (Bactra); this 
Nation inhabiteth the back parts of the Mountain Paropa- 
rnisus, over against the Source of the River Indus; and it is 
inclosed by 'the River Ochus. Beyond are the Sogdiani ; 
the Town Panda ; and in the utmost Borders of their Terri- 
tory is Alexandria, built by Alexander the Great. There are 
the Altars erected by Hercules and Liber Pater, also by 
Cyrus, Semiramis, and Alexander : the very end of all their 
Voyages in that part of the World being included within the 
River Jaxartes, which the Scythians call Silys : Alexander 
and his Soldiers thought it had been the Tanais. Demonax, 
a General of the Kings Seleucus and Antiochus, passed over 
that River, and set up Altars to Apollo Didymceus. And 
this Demonax for the most part we follow. 

The Scythian Nation. 

BEYOND (the Realm Sogdiana) inhabit the People of the 
Scythians. The Persians called them in general Sacas, from 
a People adjoining, and the Ancients Aramei. The Scythians 
for their part called the Persians, Chorsari : and the Moun- 
tain Caucasus, they called Graucasus, that is to say, White 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 117 

with Snow. 1 The People are exceedingly numerous : as 
much so as the Parthians. The principal People of Scythia 
are the Sacse, Massagetae, Dahse, Essedones, Ariacse, Rhym- 
nici, Pesici, Amordi, Histi, Edones, Camse, Camacae, Eu- 
chatse, Corieri, Antariani, Pialae, Arimaspi, formerly called 
Cacidiri, Assei, and Oetei. The Napaei and Apellaei who 
dwelt there, are said to have perished. The noble Rivers of 
those People are Mandagrceus and Caspasius. And surely 
there is not a Region wherein Geographers vary as they do 
in this : and I believe this to proceed from the very great 
number of those Nations, and their wandering to and fro. 
Alexander the Great reporteth that the Water of the Scy- 
thian Sea is fresh and potable ; and M. Varro saith that 
Pompey had such Water brought to him when he carried on 
the War in that Neighbourhood against Mithridates: by 
reason, no doubt, of the great Rivers that fall into it, which 
overcome the Saltness of the Water. Varro saith also, that 
during this Expedition of Pompey to the Bactri it was known 
that it is but seven Days' Journey from India to the River 
Icarus, which runneth into the Oxus : and that the Mer- 
chandise of India, transported by the Caspian Sea, and so 
to the River Cyrus, may be brought in not more than five 
Days by Land as far as to Phasis in Pontus. Many Islands 
lie all over that Sea : but one above the rest is Tazata ; for 
thither all the Shipping from the Caspian Sea and the Scy- 
thian Ocean bend their Course, the Sea-coasts being all 
turned to the East. The first part of this is uninhabitable, 
from the Scythian Promontory, by reason of the Snow : and 
the next Regions to this are left uncultivated because of the 
Fierceness of those Nations that border upon it. The An- 
thropophagi are in Scythia, who live on Man's flesh. 2 This 
is the cause why there are nothing there but vast Deserts, 

1 The Emodus or Imaus of Pliny (a word which in the language of 
the inhabitants signifies snowy,) derived its origin immediately from the 
Himaleh of the Hindoos ; which really signifies in their language " snowy," 
or more strictly speaking, " the seat of snow." Quarterly Review, vol. xxiv. 
p. 103. Worn. Club. 

2 We find a further account of this people, whom the ancients regarded 
with horror, in the 7th Book, c. 2. The nation referred to was probably 

118 History of Nature. [Boox VI. 

with a multitude of Wild Beasts, lying in wait for Men as 
savage as themselves. Then again the Scythians ; and again 
a Wilderness full of Wild Beasts, as far as to the craggy 
Mountain overlook ing the Sea, called Tabis. Almost one-half 
of the length of that Coast, which looketh toward the East, 
is uninhabited. The first of the People that are known are 
the Seres, 1 famous for the fine Silk that their Woods yield. 
They collect from the Leaves of the Trees their hoary Down, 
and when it is steeped in Water they card it ; wherein our 
Women have a double Labour, both of undoing and again of 
weaving this kind of Thread : with so much Labour and so 
far away is it sought after, that our Matrons when they go 
abroad in the street may shine with Transparency. The 
Seres are a mild People, but they resemble Beasts, in that they 
fly the Company of other People 2 when they desire inter- 

the Samoieds, in the north of Russia : their name signifying people who 
eat each other ; but the word has long survived the practice it described. 
Ovid speaks of such a people seated near the place of his exile on the 
Euxine : 

" Illi quos audis hominum gaudere cruore." 

TRIST. 1. 4., explained by AGELL. ix. 4. Wern. Club. 

1 There can be no question that the people here referred to are the 
Chinese, who are again mentioned in the 22d chapter. It was a pardon- 
able error to suppose that silk was the produce of a tree, instead of being 
the production of a creature which fed on it ; but it appears that the 
Romans were at great pains in disentangling the woven texture, that 
it might again be formed into garments which better suited their taste 
or habits. Martial speaks of this material under the name of Bombycina 
(Apophoreta, 24), and from his account it was of very fine texture, and 
probably expensive. When it was worn, the hair was bound up into a 
knot and fastened with a gold pin, in order that it might not soil so 
exquisite a dress. It permitted the beauty of form and colour to be seen 
through its substance. 

" Foemineum lucet sic per bombycina corpus :" 
So female beauty shines through woven silk. 

Epig. B. 8. 68. 

See book ii. c. xxii. where Pliny corrects the errors of this chapter. 
Wern. Club. 

2 Even at this day they set abroad their wares with the prices, upon 
the shore, and go their ways : then the foreign merchants come and lay 
down the money, and have away the merchandise ; and so depart with- 
out any communication at all. 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 119 

course with them. The first River known among them is 
Psitaras : the next Carabi : the third Lanos : beyond which 
the Promontory, the Gulf Chryse, the River Cymaba, the 
Bay Attanos, and the Nation of the Attaci, a kind of People 
secluded from all noisome Wind by pleasant Hills, with the 
same Temperature that the Hyperboreans live in. Of this 
People, Amonetus hath specially written a Book ; as Hera- 
tfEus hath done of the Hyperboreans. Beyond the Attacores 
are the Thyri and Tochari, and then the Casiri, who now 
belong to the Indians. But they withinland, that lie toward 
the Scythians, feed on Man's Flesh. The Nomades of 
India likewise wander to and fro. Some write that they 
border upon the very Ciconians and Brysanians on the North 
Side. But there (as all agree) the Mountains Emodi arise, 
and the Nation of the Indians beginneth, lying not only by 
that Sea, but also on the Southern, which we have named 
the Indian Sea. And this part opposite the East, stretcheth 
straightforward to that place where it beginneth to bend 
toward the Indian Sea ; and it containeth 1875 Miles. 
Then that Tract which is bent towards the South taketh 
2475 Miles (as Eratosthenes hath set down), even to the 
River Indus, which is the utmost limit of India Westward. 
But many others have set down the whole Length of India 
in this manner ; that it requireth 40 Days and Nights' Sail- 
ing ; and also, that from the North to the South is 2750 
Miles. Agrippa saith that it is 3003 Miles Long, and 
2003 Broad. Posidonius hath measured it from the North- 
east to the South-east ; and by this means fixeth it directly 
opposite to Gaul, which he likewise measured along the 
West Coast, from the North-west point where the Sun goeth 
down at Midsummer, to the South-west, where it setteth 
in the midst of Winter. He teacheth also, by very good 
Reasons, that this West Wind, which from opposite bloweth 
upon India, is very healthful for that Country. The Indians 
have a different Aspect of the Sky from us. Other Stars rise 
in their Hemisphere. They have two Summers in the Year ; 
two Harvests : and their Winter between hath the Etesian 
Winds blowing instead of the Northern Blasts with us. The 

120 Histoiy of Kature. [BOOK VI. 

Winds are mild with them, the Sea navigable, the Nations 
and the Cities innumerable, if any one would take in Hand 
to reckon them all. For India hath been discovered, not 
only by the Arms of Alexander the Great, and of other 
Kings his Successors (for Seleucus and Antiochus, and their 
Admiral Patrocles, sailed about it, even to the Hircan and 
Caspian Seas) : but also other Greek Authors, who abode 
with the Kings of India (as Megasthenes, and Dionysius, who 
was sent thither for this purpose by Philadclphus) have 
made relation of the Forces of those Nations. And further 
Diligence is to be employed, considering they wrote of 
Things so various and incredible. They who accompanied 
Alexander the Great in his Indian Voyage have written, 
that in that Quarter of India which he conquered, there 
were 5000 Towns, not one of them less than (the City) Cos : 
and nine Nations. Also that India is a third Part of the 
whole Earth r 1 that the People in it were innumerable. And 
this they delivered with good Appearance of Reason : for the 
Indians were almost the only Men of all others that never 
went out of their own Country. They collect that from the 
Time of Father Liber to Alexander the Great, there reigned 
over them 154 Kings, for the Space of 5402 Years and three 
Months. The Rivers are of wonderful bigness. It is reported 
that Alexander sailed every Day at least 600 Stadia upon the 
River Indus, and yet it took him five Months and some few 
Days to reach the end of that River, although it is allowed to 
be less than the Ganges. Also, Seneca, one of ourselves, who 
laboured to write Commentaries on India, hath made Report 
of 60 Rivers therein, and of Nations, 118. It would be as 
great a Labour to reckon up the Mountains. Imaus, Emo- 
dus, Paropamisus, parts of Caucasus, join together ; from 
which the whole passes into a very extensive Plain, like to 
Egypt. But to shew the Continent, we will follow the Steps 
Q? Alexander the Great. Diognetus and Beton, the Mea- 
surers of the Journeys of that Prince, have written, that from 

1 "India, a third part of the whole earth;" which is near the truth, 
although it contradicts what Pliny says in the 33d chapter of this Book. 
Wern. Club. 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 121 

the Caspian Ports to Hecatompylos of the Parthians, there 
are as many Miles as we have set down already. From 
thence to Alexandria Arion, which City the same King 
founded, 562 Miles : from whence to Prophthasia of the 
Drangse, 199 Miles : and so forward to the Town of the 
Arachosi, 515 Miles. From thence to Orthospanurn, 250 
Miles : thence to the Town of Alexandria in Opianum, 50 
Miles. In some Copies these Numbers are found to differ : 
this City is situated at the very Foot of Caucasus. From 
which to the River Chepta, and Pencolaitis, a Town of the 
Indians, are 227 Miles. From thence to the River Indus 
and the Town Taxila, 60 Miles : to the noble River Hy- 
daspes, 120 Miles: to Hypasis, a River of no less account, 
4900, or 3900 j 1 which was the End of Alexander's Voyage : 
but he passed over the River, and on the opposite Bank he 
dedicated Altars. The Letters also of the King himself 
agree to this. The other Parts of the Country were sur- 
veyed by Seleucus Nicator: to Hesidrus, 168 Miles: to the 
River Joames as much ; and some Copies add five Miles 
more: from thence to the Ganges, 112 Miles: to Rhodapha, 
119; and some say, that between them it is 325 Miles. From 
it to the Town Calinipaxa 167 Miles and a half, others say 
265. Thence the Junction of the Rivers Jomaues and 
Ganges 625 Miles, and many put thereto 13 Miles more: 
from thence to the Town Palibotra 625 Miles. To the Mouth 
of the Ganges 638 Miles. The Nations which it is not irk- 
some to name, from the Mountains Emodi, of which the 
Promontory is called Imaus, which signifieth in the Lan- 
guage of the Inhabitants, Snowy : 2 there are the Isari, Cosyri, 
Izgi, and upon the very Mountains, the Ghisiotosagi : also 
the Brachmanae, 3 a Name common to many Nations, among 
whom are the Maccocalingae. Rivers, Pumas and Cainas, 

1 " Ad Hypasin non ignobiliorem xxix. mill, cccxc. Hoc est novem et 
viginti milliaria cum trecentis et xc. pass." Note in the Regent Edition. 
Wern. Club. 

2 Seep. 117. 

3 If these were a sect of the Gynmosophists, they are referred to by 
Plutarch in his life of Alexander ; but Pliny seems to be of opinion that 

122 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

the latter of which runneth into the Ganges, and both are 
navigable. The Nations called Calingee are close upon the 
Sea; but the Mandei and Malli, among whom is the Moun- 
tain Mallus, are above them ; and then is the Ganges, the 
farthest Bound of all that Tract. 

The River Ganges. 

SOME have said that the Fountains of the Ganges are 
uncertain, like those of the Nilus ; and that it overfloweth the 
neighbouring Countries in the same manner. Others have 
said that it issueth out of the Mountains of Scythia. There 
run into it nineteen Rivers : of which, besides those before- 
named, there are navigable, Canucha, Varna, Erranoboa, 
Cosaogus, and Sonus. Some report that the Ganges pre- 
sently breaketh out to a great Magnitude from its own 
Sources with great Violence, falling down over steep and 
craggy Rocks : and when it is arrived in the flat and even 
Country, that it taketh Shelter in a certain Lake ; and out of 
it carrieth a gentle Stream, 8 Miles broad where it is nar- 
rowest : and 100 Stadia over for the most part, but 160 
where it largest : but in no Place under 20 Paces deep. 

The Nations of India. 

THE first Nation is that of the Gandaridae ; the Region of 
the Calingae is called Parthalis. The King hath in readiness 
for his Wars 80,000 foot, 1000 Horsemen, and 700 Ele- 
phants. The other Nations of the Indians are of different 
Conditions and milder Habits. Some apply themselves to 
Tillage : others are devoted to War : one Sort export their 

several separate people are so denominated. They are probably tbe same 
as those mentioned in the 19th chapter, as being always prepared for a 
voluntary death. Wcrn. Club. 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 123 

own Commodities to other Countries, and bring foreign 
Merchandise into their own. Those that are the richest and 
most worthy manage the affairs of the State, distribute Jus- 
tice, or sit in Council with the Kings. A fifth Kind there is 
besides, in great repute, and given wholly to the Study of 
Wisdom and Religion ; and these make profession of being 
always ready for a voluntary Death: and they end their 
Days on a great funeral Fire, which they have prepared 
beforehand. Besides all these, one Thing there is amongst 
them half Savage, and full of exceeding Toil, and yet by 
which all the Estates abovesaid are maintained ; which is the 
practice of hunting and taming Elephants. It is with them 
they plough their Ground, upon them they ride : these are 
the best Cattle they know : with them they go to War, and 
contend in defence of their Frontiers. In the choice of them 
for War they consider their Strength, their Age, and Bigness 
of Body. There is an Island in the Ganges of great size, 
containing one Nation, named Modogalica. Beyond it are 
seated the Modubae, Molinda3, where standeth the fruitful 
and stately City Molinda ; the Galmodroesi, Preti, Calissae, 
Sasuri, Fassalre, Colubae, Orxulre, Abali, and Taluctae. The 
King of these Countries hath in Arms 50,000 Foot, 3000 
Horsemen, arid 400 Elephants. Then comes the stronger 
Nation of the Andarae, with many Villages, and with 30 
Towns, fortified with Walls and Towers. These maintain 
ready to serve the King 100,000 Foot, 2000 Horsemen, 
and 1000 Elephants. The Dardse are the richest in Gold ; 
and the Setae, in Silver. But above all the Nations of India 
throughout, and not of this Tract only, the Prasii far exceed 
in Power and Reputation ; and the largest and richest City, 
Palibotra, from whence some have named this Nation, yea, 
and all the Country generally beyond Ganges, Palibotros. 
Their King keepeth continually in pay 600,000 Footmen, 
30,000 Horsemen, and 9000 Elephants, every Day. Whereby 
you may guess the mighty Wealth of this Prince. Beyond, 
more within, inhabit the Monedes and Suari, who possess 
the Mountain Maleus : in which, for six Months, the Sha- 
dows in Winter fall northward ; and in Summer, south- 

124 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

ward. 1 The Polar Stars in all that Tract are seen but once 
in the Year, and that only for 15 Days ; as Beton maketh 
report: but Megasthenes writeth, that this is usual in other 
Parts of India also. The South Pole is called hy the Indians 
Dramasa. The River Jomanes runneth into the Ganges 
through Palibotros, between the Towns Methora and Cyriso- 
borca. Beyond the River Ganges, in that quarter which lieth 
southward, the People are coloured by the Sun : but though 
tinted, yet not so burnt as the Ethiopians. And the nearer they 
approach to the Indus, the deeper coloured they are with the 
Sun : for closely beyond the Nation of the Prasii is the In- 
dus : among whose Mountains the Pigmsei are reported to 
inhabit. Artemidorus writeth, that between these two Rivers 
there is a Distance of 21 Miles. 

The River Indus. 

THE Indus, which the People of that Country call Sandus, 
issueth out of that top of the Mountain Caucasus, which is 
called Paropamisus : it taketh its Course against the Sun- 
rising, and receiveth 19 Rivers. Among these the principal 
are Hydaspes, which bringeth with it four more : and Can- 
tabra, conveying three. Moreover, of such as are of them- 
selves navigable, Acesines and Hypasis : and yet so modest 
is the Course of its Waters, that in no place is it either above 
50 Stadia over, or deeper than 15 Paces. 2 This River 
encloseth a very great Island named Prasiane, and another 
that is less, which they call Patale. They that have written 
it with the least, say that it is navigable for 1240 Miles; 
and turning with the Course of the Sun, it keepeth him com- 
pany westward, until it is discharged into the Ocean. The 
Measure of the Coast to it I will set down generally as I find 
it written : although there is no Agreement among Writers 

1 The reader is referred to the concluding chapter of this Book for a 
more particular account of the climates and the direction of the shadows. 
Wern. CM. 

2 That is, seventy-five feet, TFern. Club. 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 125 

concerning it. From the Mouth of the Ganges to the Cape 
Calingon, and the Town Dandagula, are 725 Miles : from 
thence to Tropina, 1225 Miles. Then to the Promontory of 
Perimula, where is the chief Town of Merchandise in all 
India, 750 Miles: from which to the abovesaid Town Patale, 
within the Island, 620 Miles. The Mountain Nations be- 
tween it and Jomanes are the Cesi and the savage Catreboni : 
next to them the Megallse, whose King hath 500 Elephants ; 
and of v Foot and Horsemen an uncertain number. The 
Chrysei, ParasangEe, and Asangee, are full of Tigers : they 
arm 30,000 Foot, 800 Horsemen, and 300 Elephants. The 
Indus shuts them in, and they are enclosed with a crown of 
Mountains and Wildernesses for 025 Miles. Beneath these 
Deserts are the Dari and Suras ; and then again Deserts for 
188 Miles, compassed about for the most part with Banks of 
Sands, like Islands in the Sea. Under these Deserts are the 
Maltecoree, Singoe, Marobse, Rarungee, Moruntes, Masuse, 
and Pagungce. Now for those who inhabit the Mountains, 
which in a continual range without interruption stand upon 
the Coasts of the Ocean, they are free and subject to no 
Kings, and many Cities they hold among these Mountains. 
Then come the Narseae, enclosed within the highest Mountain 
of all the Indian Hills, Capitalia. On the other side of this 
the Inhabitants dig extensively in Gold and Silver Mines. 
Then you enter upon Oratura, whose King hath indeed but 
10 Elephants, but a great abundance of Footmen; and the 
Varetatae, who under their King keep no Elephants, trusting 
to their Horsemen and Footmen. The Odomboerae and 
Salabastrae ; the beautiful City Horata, fortified with Fosses 
and Marshes : through which the Crocodiles, on account of 
their greedy Appetite for Men's Bodies, will suffer none to 
pass into the Town, but over the Bridge. Another Town 
there is among them, of great Name: Automela, standing 
on the Sea-side : a noble resort of Merchants, by reason of 
five great Rivers which meet all there in one confluence. 
Their King possesseth 1600 Elephants, 150,000 Footmen, 
and 5000 Horsemen. The King of the Charmae is poor ; he 
possesseth 60 Elephants, and his Power is otherwise small. 
Beyond them are the Pandse, the only Nation of the Indians 

126 History of Nature. [BOOK VI. 

which is governed by Women. One of this Sex, they say, 
was begotten by Hercules, in which regard she was the better 
accepted, and was appointed over the greatest Kingdom. 
Those who draw their Origin from her have Dominion 
over 300 Towns, and the Command of 150,000 Foot, and 
500 Elephants. Beyond this Realm are the Syrieni, con- 
taining 300 Cities ; the Derangse, Posingae, Buzae, Gogyarei, 
Umbrae, Nereae, Prancosi, Nobundse, Cocondae, Nesei, Peda- 
tritae, Solobriasae, and Olostrse, touching on the Island 1 
Patale : from the utmost Shore of which Island unto the 
Gates Caspiae, are reckoned 18,025 Miles. Again, on this 
side the River Indus, over against them, as appeareth by 
evident Demonstration, there dwell the Amatae, Bolingae, 
Gallitalutae, Dimuri, Megari, Ordabae, and Mesae. Beyond 
them, the Uri and Sileni ; and then Deserts for 250 Miles ; 
which being passed over, there are the Organages, the 
Abaortae, Sibarae, and the Suertae : and beyond these a Wil- 
derness as great as the former. Again, the Sarophages, 
Sorgae, Baraomatae, and the Gumbritae ; of whom there are 
thirteen Nations, and each one hath two Cities. The Aseni 
inhabit three Cities: their capital City is Bucephala, built in 
the very Place where King Alexander's horse, called Buce- 
phalus, was buried. Above them are the Mountaineers 
below the Caucacus, named Soleadae and Sondrse : and hav- 
ing passed the Indus, going along its Banks are the Sama- 
rabriae, the Sambruceni, the Brisabritae, Osii, Antixeni, and 
Taxillae, with a famous City called Amandra : from which all 
that Tract now lying plain within the Country is named 
Amandra. Four Nations there are : the Peucolaitae, Arsa- 
galitae, Geretae, and Asoi : for many set not down the River 
Indus as the limit westward ; but add four Provinces 
(Satrapae): Gedrosi, Arachotae, Arii, and Paropamisadae. 

The Arii and the Nations adjoining. 

OTHER Writers prefer the opinion, that the utmost limit 
is the River Cophetes, all which quarters are within the Ter- 

1 Babul. 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 127 

ritory of the Arii : and most of them affirm that the City 
Nysa, as also the Mountain Merus consecrated to Father 
Liber, belong to India. This is that Mountain from which 
arose the Fable, that he sprung from the Seed of Jupiter. 
Likewise (they assign to India) the Country of the Aspagonae, 
so plentiful in Vines, Laurels, and Box, and generally all 
sorts of Fruits that grow in Greece. Many wonderful, and 
in a manner fabulous things, they report of the Fertility of 
that Land, of the sorts of Fruits, of Trees bearing Cotton, of 
Wild Beasts, of Birds, and other Creatures : which I will 
reserve for their proper places in another part of this Work. 
Those four Satrapies, which I mentioned before, I will speak 
of presently: for now I hasten to the Island Taprobane. 
But there are other Isles first, as Patalse, which we have 
noted to lie in the very Mouth of the River Indus, of a 
Triangular figure, 220 Miles in Breadth. Without the 
Mouth of the Indus, two other Islands, Chryse and Agyre, 
abounding, as I suppose, in Gold and Silver Mines ; for I 
cannot easily believe, that the Soil there is all Gold and 
Silver, as some have reported. Twenty Miles from them is 
Crocala: and twelve Miles further Bibaga, abundant in 
Oysters and other Shell-fishes. Then, nine Miles beyond 
it, Toralliba sheweth itself, and many other petty Islands. 


The Island TaprobanZ. 1 

IT hath been for a long time thought that Taprobane was 
another World under the appellation of the Antichthones. 
But from the time of Alexander the Great, and the inter- 
course in those parts, it was discovered to be an Island. 
Onesicratus, the Admiral of his Fleet, hath written, that the 
Elephants bred in this Island are bigger and better fitted for 
War than those of India. Megasthenes saith, that there is 
a River which divideth it, arid that the Inhabitants are called 

1 This is now generally concluded to be the island of Ceylon, in the 
East Indies, now subject to British dominion. Wern. Club. 

128 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

Palseogoni : that it affordeth more Gold and bigger Pearls 
than the Indian. Eratosthenes also took the Measure 
of it, in length 7000 Stadia, and in breadth 5000 : that 
there are no Cities, but Villages to the number of 700. It 
beginneth at the Sea Eob's, from which it extendeth 
between the East and West of India : and in times 
past was believed to lie out into the Sea from the Prasian 
Nation twenty Days' Sailing. But afterwards, because the 
Vessels and Rigging used upon this Sea in the Passage 
thither were made of Paper Reeds, like those of the River 
Nile, the Voyage was estimated, by comparison with our 
Ships, at about seven Days. All the Sea lying between 
is full of Shallows, no more than five Fathoms Deep ; but in 
certain Channels it is so deep that no Anchors will reach the 
Bottom: and so narrow are these Channel?, that a Ship 
cannot turn within them ; and therefore, to avoid the neces- 
sity of turning, the Ships have Prows at both ends. In 
Sailing, there is no Observation of the Stars. The North 
Pole is never seen : but they carry with them Birds, which 
they send off at intervals and follow their Course, as they 
fly to Land : neither used they go to Sea for more than 
three Months in the Year ; and for one hundred Days from 
the Solstice they take most heed ; for at that time it is Win- 
ter with them. And thus much we know by relation of 
ancient Writers. But we obtain better Intelligence, and 
more accurate Information, by Ambassadors who came out 
of that Island, in the reign of Claudius, which happened 
after this manner. A Freed-man of Annius Plocamus, who 
had Farmed from the Exchequer the Customs of the Red 
Sea, as he sailed about the Coasts of Arabia, was driven with 
the North Winds beyond the Realm of Carmania, and in the 
Space of 15 Days he reached an Harbour of that Country, 
called Hippuros. He found the King of that Country so 
courteous, as to afford him Entertainment for six Months. 
And as he used to discourse with him about the Romans and 
Caesar, he recounted to him at large of all things. But 
among many other Reports that he heard, he wondered most 
at their Justice, because their Denarii of the Money which 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 129 

was taken were always of the same Weight, although the 
different Images shewed that they were made by different 
Persons. And hereupon especially was he moved to seek 
for the Friendship of Rome ; and so despatched four Ambas- 
sadors, of whom Rachias was the chief. From them it be- 
came known that there were five hundred Towns in it ; and 
that there was a Harbour facing the South, lying conve- 
niently near the Town Palesimundum, the principal City of 
all that Realm, and the King's Seat ; that there were 
200,000 common Citizens : that within this Island there was 
a Lake called Magisba, 270 Miles in Circuit, containing in 
it some Islands fruitful in nothing but Pasturage. Out of 
this Lake issued two Rivers ; the one, Palesimundas, pass- 
ing near to the City of the same Name, and running into the 
Harbour with three Streams ; of which the Narrowest was five 
Stadia Broad, and the largest fifteen ; the other Northward 
towards India, by Name Cydara : also that the next Cape of 
this Country to India is called Colaicum, from which to the 
nearest Port (of India) is counted four Days' Sailing : in the 
midst of which Passage, there lieth the Island of the Sun. 
They said, moreover, that the Water of this Sea was of a 
deep green Colour; and, what is still more extraordinary, 
full of Trees growing within it : J so that the Pilots with 
their Helms broke off the Crests of those Trees. They won- 
dered to see the Stars about the North Pole (Septentriones) 
and Vergilise, as if it had been a new Heaven. They confessed 
also they never saw, with them, the Moon above the Earth 
before it was eight Days old, 2 nor after the sixteenth Day. 
That the Canopus, a great and bright Star, used to shine all 
Night with them. But the thing that they were most sur- 
prised at was, that they observed the Shadow of their own 

1 Branched corals, beyond a doubt. Wern. Club. 

a It is surprising to find an author so intelligent as Pliny relating 
such extraordinary circumstances as these ambassadors from Ceylon 
reported without any animadversion ; and particularly that he takes no 
notice of what they said concerning the appearance of the moon, as such 
a phenomenon could not take place in any region of the earth. Wern. 

VOT,. IT. K 

130 History of Nature. [BOOK VI. 

Bodies to fall toward our Hemisphere, and not to theirs ; 
and that the Sun rose on their Left Hand and set on their 
Right, rather than contrary wise. Furthermore they related, 
that the Front of that Island which looked toward India 
contained 10,000 Stadia, and reached from the South-east 
beyond the Mountains Emodi. Also, that the Seres were 
within their Sight, with whom they had Acquaintance by 
Merchandise : and that the Father of Rachias used many 
times to travel thither : affirming, moreover, that if any 
Strangers came thither, they were assailed by Wild Beasts : 
and that the Inhabitants themselves exceeded the ordinary 
Stature of Men, having red Hair, blue Eyes, their Voice 
harsh, their Speech not fitted for any Commerce. In all 
things else their Practice is the same as that of our Mer- 
chants. On the farther side of the River, when Commodi- 
ties are laid down near the Things for Sale, if the Exchange 
please them they take them away, and leave the other Mer- 
chandise in lieu thereof: with a juster Hatred of Luxury 
than if the mind shall consider what and whence it is sought 
for, and to what end. But even this Island Taprobane, 
seeming, as it were, to be separated by Nature from all the 
World, is not without the Vices with which we are tainted. 
For Gold and Silver are even there also highly esteemed : 
and Marble, especially if it be fashioned like a Tortoise-shell. 
Gems and Pearls also, of the better sort, are in great honour : 
and the Abundance of our Luxury. These Ambassadors said 
that their Riches were greater, but that we had more use of 
them. They affirmed, that no Man with them had any 
Slaves ; neither slept they after Day-light, nor in the Day- 
time : that the Manner of Building their Houses is low, that 
the Price of Victuals did not fluctuate ; and there were no 
Courts, or going to Law. Hercules is worshipped. Their 
King is chosen by the People, if he is aged, merciful, and 
childless; but if he should have Children afterward, then he 
is deposed, in order that the Kingdom may not become here- 
ditary. He hath thirty Governors assigned to him by the 
People : and no Person can be condemned to Death unless 
by the Majority of them : and even then he may appeal to 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. ' 131 

the People. Seventy Judges are deputed to sit upon his 
Cause; and if it happen that they acquit him, then the 
thirty who condemned him are ever displaced from their 
Dignity, with a very severe Rebuke. The King is adorned 
like Liber Pater : but others in the habit of Arabians. If 
the King offend in any thing, Death is his Punishment : but 
no Man doeth Execution. All Men turn away from him, 
and deny him any Intercourse, of even a Word. They are 
destroyed during a solemn Hunting, which, it appears, is 
exceedingly agreeable to the Tigers and Elephants. They 
cultivate their Ground diligently. They do not use Vines ; 
but all sorts of Fruits they have in Abundance. They also 
take Pleasure in Fishing, and especially in taking Tortoises : 
and so great are they found there, that one of their Shells 
serves to cover a House. They count a hundred Years no 
long Life. Thus much we have learned concerning Tapro- 
ban. It remaineth now to say somewhat of those four 
Satrapies, which we put off to this Place. 

Capissent!, Carmania. 

BEYOND those Nations which border nearest on the River 
Indus, the Mountain Portions of Capissaene possess the City 
Capissa, which Cyrus destroyed. Arachosia, with a City, 
and a River also of that Name ; which City some have called 
Coph, founded by Queen Semiramis. The River Her- 
mandus, which runneth by Abeste, of the Arachosians. The 
next, which confront Arachosia southward, toward part of the 
Arachotae, are the Gedrosi ; and on the North side the Paro- 
pamisadae. The Town Cartana, named afterwards Tetra- 
gonis, is at the foot of Caucasus. This Region lieth over 
against the Bactriani : then its principal Town Alexandria, 
named from its Founder: Syndraci, Dangulse, Parapiani, 
Cantaces, and Maci. At the Hill Caucasus standeth the 
Town Cadrusi, built likewise by Alexander. Below all these 
Regions lieth the Coast of the Indus. The Region of the 
Arians, scorched with parching Heats, and environed with 

J 32 History of Nature. [ Boo K V f . 

Deserts : but many shadowy Places lie between. Cultivators 
are assembled especially about the two Rivers, Tonderos and 
Arosapes. The Town Artaccana. The River Arius, which 
runneth by Alexandria, built by Alexander. The Town con- 
taineth in Compass 30 Stadia. Artacabane, as much more 
ancient as it is more beautiful, which by Antiochus the King 
was walled the second time, and enlarged to 50 Stadia. 
The Nation of the Dorisci. The Rivers Pharnacotis and 
Ophradus. Prophtasia, a Town of the Zarasparae. The 
Drangae, Argetae, Zarangae, and Gedrusi. Towns Peucolais 
and Lymphorta ; the Desert of the Methoricori ; the River 
Manais ; the Nation of the Augutturi. The River Borru ; 
the People Urbi; the Navigable River Ponamus, in the 
Borders of the Pandse. Also, the River Ceberon, in the 
Country of the Sorarae ; with many Harbours in its Mouth. 
The Town of Condigramma ; the River Cophes ; into which 
run the Navigable Rivers, Sadarus, Parosphus, and Sodinus. 
Some will have the Country Daritus to be a part of Ariana, 
and they set down the Measure of them both to be in Length 
1950 Miles, and in Breadth less by half than India. Others 
have said that the Country of the Gedrusi and Scyri con- 
taineth 183 Miles. Being past which, are the Ichthyophagi, 
surnamed Oritae, who speak not the proper Indian Tongue, 
for 200 Miles. And beyond it are situated the People of the 
Arbians, for 200 Miles. Those Ichthyophagi Alexander for- 
bade to feed on Fish. 1 Beyond them are the Deserts; and 
then comes Carmania, as well as Persis, and Arabia. But 
before we treat distinctly of these Countries, I think it meet 
to set down what Onesicritus (who having the conduct of the 

1 Fish was a favourite diet among the people bordering on the 
Mediterranean Sea ; and therefore the objection of Alexander could not 
be to this, simply as an article of food. It may be supposed that various 
tribes living on the sea-coast were accustomed to feed on this diet alone, 
on the principle of caste or sect, thereby rendering themselves exclusive 
in their communications with others. To remove such barriers to civilis- 
ation may be supposed to have been the prevailing motive with Alex- 
ander in this edict ; which regulated rather than forbade the use of a 
wholesome article of food. Worn. Club. 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 133 

Fleet of Alexander, sailed out of India, about the Mediter- 
ranean parts of Persls) reporteth, according to the Informa- 
tion which came lately from Juba : in like manner this 
Navigation in these years ascertained, is even at this day pre- 
served. The Reports made by Onesicritus and Nearchus of 
their Navigation possess neither the Distance nor the Names 
of the several Resting-places. And to begin with Xylene- 
polis, built by Alexander, from which they entered first on 
their Voyage, it is not satisfactorily put down by them, either 
in what Place it is situated, or near what River. Yet these 
Particulars are by them reported worthy the Remembrance : 
as that in this Voyage Nearchus founded a Town : that 
the River Nabrtis is able to bear great Vessels : overagainst 
which there is an Island, at the Distance of 70 Stadia : 
that Leonatus founded Alexandria in the Frontiers of 
that Nation, by Commandment of Alexander ; Argenus is a 
safe Harbour: that the River Tuberum is navigable, around 
which are the Paritse. After them the Ichthyophagi, who 
occupy so long a Tract, that they were 20 Days in Sailing 
along by their Coasts. The Island of the Sun, named also 
the Bed of the Nymphs, is red, and in which almost every 
Creature is consumed for no certain cause. The Origens : 
Hytanis, a River in Carmania, with many Harbours, and 
Plenty of Gold. And here first they observed that they had 
a sight of the North-pole Star (Septentriones). The Star 
Arcturus they saw not every Night, nor at any Time all 
Night long. Furthermore, the Archsemenides reached thus 
far : and they found Mines of Copper, Iron, Arsenic, and Ver- 
milion : then is the Cape of Carmania : from which to the 
Coast overagainst them of the Macse, a Nation of Arabia, is 
50 Miles. Three Islands, of which Organa only is inhabited, 
having Abundance of Fresh Water, and distant from the Con- 
tinent 25 Miles : four Islands in the very Gulf before Persia. 
About these Islands Sea Serpents, twenty Cubits long, as they 
came swimming toward them, put the Fleet in great Terror. 
The Island Acrotadus : likewise the Gauratse, wherein the 
Nation of the Chiani inhabit. In the middle of the Persian 
Gulf is the River Hiperis, able to bear Ships of Burden. The; 

134 History of Nature. [ BOOK VI. 

River Sitiogagus, upon which a Man may pass in seven Days 
to the Pasargadae. A River that is Navigable called Phir- 
stimus, and an Island without a Name. The River Granius, 
which runneth through Susiane, carrieth but small Vessels. 
Along the Right Bank of this River dwell the Deximontani, 
who prepare Bitumen. The River Oroatis, with a difficult 
Mouth, except to skilful Pilots: two little Islands. Past 
which, the Sea is very shallow, like a Marsh, but there are 
some Channels wherein they may sail. The Mouth of the 
Euphrates. The Lake which the Eulseus and Tigris make, 
near to Characis. Then on the Tigris, Susa. There they 
found Alexander keeping Feast-days of Festivity in the 
seventh Month after he had parted from them at Patalae, 
and the third Month of his Voyage. And thus much con- 
cerning the Voyage of Alexanders Fleet. Afterwards 
from Syagrus, a Promontory in Arabia, it was counted to 
Patale 1332 Miles, and that the West Wind, which the 
people of that Country call Hypalus, was thought most pro- 
per to sail with to the same Place. The Age ensuing dis- 
covered a shorter and safer Course ; namely, if from the said 
Promontory they set their Course directly to the River Zize- 
rus, an Harbour in India. And in truth this Passage was 
sailed for a long time, until at length a Merchant found out 
a more compendious Course, and India was brought near 
for Gain : for every Year they sailed thither, and because 
Pirates very much infest them, they embark in their Ships 
Companies of Archers. And because all these Seas are now 
first certainly discovered, it is not amiss to shew the whole 
Course from Egypt. It is worthy to be observed, that there 
is not a Year but it costs our State to furnish into India, 
500,000 Sesterces, (fifty millions of Sesterces.) For which 
the Indians send back Merchandise, which at Rome is 
sold for a hundred times as much as it cost. From Alex- 
andria it is two Miles to Juliopolis : from whence on the 
Nilus they sail 303 Miles to Coptus, which may be done in 
twelve Days, with the Etesian Winds blowing. From Cop- 
tus they travel upon Camels ; and for the sake of Water 
there are Places appointed for Lodging. The first is called 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 135 

Hydreuma, 32 Miles. The second, one Day's Journey, in a 
Mountain. The third, at another Hydreuma, 95 Miles from 
Coptus. The fourth, again, in a Mountain. Again, at the 
Hydreuma of Apollo, from Coptus, 184 Miles. Again, in a 
Hill. And then to Hydreuma the New, from Coptus, 234 
Miles. 1 There is another called Hydreuma the Old, named 
also Troglodyticum, where, two Miles out of the direct way, is 
a Garrison, four Miles distant from New Hydreuma. From 
thence to the Town Berenice, where is an Harbour of the 
Red Sea, 258 Miles from Coptus. But as the Journey is for 
the most part performed by Night, because of the excessive 
Heat, and Travellers rest all the Day, twelve Days are set 
down for the whole Journey between Coptus and Berenice. 
They begin to sail at Midsummer, before or close upon the 
rising of the Dog-star ; and in about 30 Days they arrive at 
Ocelis in Arabia, or else at Cana, within the Country of In- 
cense. A third Port there is besides, called Muza, to which 
there is no Resort of the Merchants of India : neither by any 
but Merchants that traffic in Incense and Spices of Arabia. 
The Indus hath Towns. 2 Its Region is called Saphar : and 
another called Sabe. But for them that would make a 
Journey to the Indians, the most commodious place from 
whence to set forward is Ocelis : for from thence, and with 
the West Wind called Hypalus, they have a passage of forty 
Days' Sailing to the first Town of Merchandise in India, 
called Muziris. However, this Port is not to be ventured 
in, because of the neighbouring Pirates, which keep ordi- 
narily about a place called Hydrae ; and it is not richly 
stored with Merchandise. And moreover, the Station of the 
Ships is far from the Land, so that they must convey their 
Wares in little Boats which they use for the purpose. At 
the time when this Account was written, the King that 
reigned there was named Celebotkras. There is another 
Harbour that is more commodious, belonging to the Nation 

1 So as it appeareth that every day's journey was about thirty-two 

2 This is an unfinished sentence, perhaps from the author's not being 
able to obtain the names of these towns. Wcrn. Club. 

136 History of Nature, [BooK VI. 

Necanidon, which they call Becare: the King's Name at 
present is Pandion ; far off is another Town of Merchandise 
within the Land, called Modusa. The Region from whence 
they transport Pepper in small Lighters made of one piece 
of Wood to Becare, is named Cotona : of all which Nations, 
Ports, and Towns, there is not a Name found in any of the 
former Writers. By which it appeareth, that there hath 
been great Change in these places. From India, our Mer- 
chants return in the Beginning of our Month December, 
which the ^Egyptians call Tybis : or at farthest before the 
Sixth Day of the .Egyptian Month Machiris, which is before 
our Ides of January : arid by this reckoning they may pass 
and return within the compass of One Year. When they 
sail from India they have the (North-East) Wind, Vulturnus, 
with them : and when they have entered into the Red Sea, 
the South or South-west. Now will we return to our pro- 
posed Discourse concerning Carrnania : the Coast of which, 
after the reckoning of Nearchus, may take in Circuit 12,050 
Miles. From its Beginning to the River Sabis is 100 Miles; 
from whence as far as to the River Andanin, are Vineyards 
and Corn-fields, well cultivated. The Region is called Ar- 
muzia. The Towns of Carmania are Zetis and Alexandria. 
In this part the Sea breaketh into the Land in two Arms ; 
which our Countrymen call the Red Sea, 1 and the Greeks 
Erythraeum, from a King named Erythras: or (as some 
think) because the Sea, by reason of the Reflexion of the Sun, 
seemeth of a reddish colour. Others suppose that this Redness 
is occasioned of the Sand and Ground, which is Red: and others 
again, that the very Water is of its own nature so coloured, 

The Persian and Arabian Gulfs. 

THIS Red Sea is divided into Two Gulfs. That from the 
East is named the Persian Gulf, and is in Circuit 2500 Miles, 

1 Another reason for the name is to be found in Esau, the son of the 
patriarch Isaac, and whose dominion was on its borders. Bruce and others 
have advanced opinions with regard to the origin of the name of this cele- 
brated sea ; but its most ancient name may be rendered the Weedy Sea. 
Wcrn. Club. 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 137 

by the computation of Eratosthenes. Overagainst this Gulf 
is Arabia, which is in Length 1200 Miles. On the other 
side there is another called the Arabian Gulf, which runneth 
into the Ocean, called Azanius. The Mouth of the Persian 
Gulf is Five Miles wide, though some have made it but 
Four. From this to its deepest recess, by a straight Course, 
is known to be 1125 Miles; and it is fashioned like a Man's 
Head. Onesicritus and Nearchus have written, that from 
the River Indus to the Persian Gulf, and from thence to 
Babylon by the Marshes of the Euphrates, is 2500 Miles. 
In an angle of Carmania the Chelonophagi inhabit, who feed 
on the Flesh of Tortoises, and cover their Cottages with their 
Shells. They inhabit from the River Arbis to the very Cape, 
they are Hairy over all their Body except their Heads, and 
wear no other Garment but Fish-skins. 

The Island Cascandrus : and the Kingdoms of the Parthians. 

BEYOND this Tract of the Chelonophagi, toward India, 
there lieth, Fifty Miles within the Sea, the Island Cascan- 
drus, by report all desert ; and near it, with an Arm of the 
Sea between, another Island called Stois ; having a lucrative 
Trade in Pearls. Beyond the Cape of Carmania, you enter 
upon the Armozei. Some say, that the Albii are between 
both ; and that their Coasts contain in the whole 402 Miles. 
There are the Port of the Macedonians, and the Altars of 
Alexander on the very Promontory itself. The Rivers Saga- 
nos, and then Daras, and Salsos : beyond which is the Cape 
Thernistheas, and the Island Aphrodisias, which is inhabited. 
Then beginneth Persis, which extendeth to the River Oroatis, 
that divideth it from Elymais. Overagainst Persis, these 
Islands, Philos, Cassandra, and Aratia, with an exceeding 
high Mountain in it : and this Island is consecrated to Nep- 
tune. Persis itself, westward, hath the Coasts lying out in 
Length 450 Miles. The People are Rich, even to Luxury; 
and long since they are become subject to the Parthians, and 
have lost their own Name. We will briefly now speak of 

138 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

their Empire. The Parthians have in all Eighteen Realms 
under them : for so they divide the Provinces ahout the 
Two Seas, as we have said, the Red Sea lying southward, 
and the Hircan Sea, toward the north. Of these Eleven, 
which are called the Higher Provinces, take their beginning 
from the Border of Armenia, and the Coasts of the Caspian ; 
and they reach to the Scythians, with whom they have equal 
Intercourse on the other side. The other Seven are called 
the Lower Provinces. As for the Parthians, their Land 
always lay at the Foot of those Mountains of which we have 
so often spoken, which enclose all those Nations. It hath 
on the East the Arii, and southward Carmania and the 
Ariani ; on the west side the Pratitae and Medi ; and on 
the North the Hircani ; and is compassed about with Deserts. 
The farthest Nations of the Parthians are called Nomades : 
beyond the Deserts their Cities toward the West, are Issaris 
and Calliope, of which we have written before ; but toward 
the North-east, Europum ; and South-east, Mania. In the 
Midland the City Hecatompylos, and Arsacia. The noble 
Region of Nysaea in Parthyenes, where is Alexandropolis, 
(so called) from its Founder. 

Media, Mesopotamia, Babylon, and Seleucia. 

IT is needful in this place to describe the Situation of the 
Medi, and to discover the Face of those Countries, as far as 
to the Persian Sea, in order that the Description of other 
Regions may be the better understood. For Media on the 
West runneth obliquely, confronteth the Parthiae, and en- 
closeth both these Realms. Therefore on the East side it 
hath the Parthians and Caspians : on the South, Sittacene, 
Susiane, and Persis ; Westward, Adiabene ; and Northward, 
Armenia. The Persians always dwelt about the Red Sea, on 
which account it was called the Persian Gulf. The Mari- 
time Coast thereabout is called Cyropolis, and that part 
which bordereth upon the Medes Elymais. There is a Place 
called Megala, in the ascent of a steep Mountain, through a 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 139 

narrow Passage by Steps to Persepolis, the Head of the 
Kingdom, and destroyed by Alexander. Moreover, in the 
Frontiers standeth Laodicea, built by King Antiochus. 
From thence towards the East the Magi hold the Castle of 
Passagardae, wherein is the Tomb of Cyrus. Also the Town 
Ecbatana belonging to the Magi, which Darius the King 
caused to be translated to the Mountains. 1 Between the 
Parthians and the Ariani are extended the Paraeraceni. 
These Nations and the River Euphrates serve to limit the 
lower Realms. Now are we to discourse of the Parts 
remaining of Mesopotamia ; setting aside one point thereof, 
and the People of Arabia, whereof we spoke in the former 
Book. All Mesopotamia belonged to the Assyrians, dis- 
persed in Villages, except Babylon and Ninus. The Mace- 
donians collected it into Cities on account of the goodness of 
their Soil. Besides the above-named Towns, it hath Seleucia, 
Laodicea, and Artemita : likewise within the Nation of the 
Arabians named Aroei and Mardani, Antiochia : and that 
which, being founded by Nicanor, Governor of Mesopotamia, 
is called Arabis. Upon these join the Arabians, but within 
the Country are the Eldamarii. Above them is the Town 
Bura, situated upon the River Pelloconta ; beyond which are 
the Salmani and Masei, Arabians. Then there join to the 
Gordisei the Aloni, by whom the River Zerbis passeth, and so 
is discharged into the Tigris. The Azones and Silices, Moun- 
taineers, together with the Orentes ; on the side of whom the 
Town Gaugamela. Also Sue among the Rocks ; above are 
the Sylici and Classitae, through whom the Lycus runneth 
out of Armenia. Toward the South-east, Absittis, and the 
Town Azochis. Presently in the Plains the Towns Diospage, 
Polytelia, Stratonicea, and Anthemus. Nicephorion, as we 
have already said, is seated near the River Euphrates, where 
Alexander caused it to be founded, for the convenient Situ- 
ation of the Place. Of the City Apamia we have before 

1 Pliny's statement as to the building of the palace, and indeed the 
whole city of Shushan, by Darius Hystaspes, is contradicted by all Greek 
and Oriental writers, who represent the city as extremely ancient vide 
"Home." Wern. Club. 

1 40 History of Nature. [ BOOK V I . 

spoken in the Description of Zeugma : from which they that 
go eastward meet with a strong fortified Town, formerly 
in Compass 65 Stadia, and called the Royal Palace of their 
Satraps, to which they brought Tributes ; but now it is 
formed into a Castle. But there continue still as they 
were, Hebata and Oruros, unto which, by the Conduct of 
Pompey the Great, the Bounds of the Roman Empire were 
extended ; and it is from Zeugma 250 Miles. Some Writers 
say that the Euphrates was divided by a Governor of Meso- 
potamia, and one Arm of it brought to Gobaris ; which was 
done lest the River should endanger the City of Babylon. 
They affirm, moreover, that the Assyrians generally called it 
Armalchar, 1 which signifieth a Royal River. On the Place 
where it is turned there stood Agrani, one of the greatest 
Towns of that Region, which the Persians utterly destroyed. 
Babylon, 2 the Capital of the Chaldean Nations, for a long 
time possessed an illustrious Name through all the World : in 
regard of which the other Part of Mesopotamia and Assyria 
was named Babylonia : and embracing 60 Miles. The Walls 
were 200 Feet in Height, and 50 broad : reckoning to every 
Foot three Fingers' Breadth more than our ordinary Mea- 
sure. Through the midst passeth the River Euphrates : with 
a wonderful Work, on both Sides. To this Day the Temple 

1 Or rather, Nahal Nalca, i. e. the King's River. 

2 Herodotus, in the first book of his history, describes this most 
splendid of cities ; the walls of which were classed among the wonders of 
the world. But contrary to the report by which Pliny professes to be 
guided, this ancient Greek author represents them to have been built in 
the form of a square ; and although the lapse of time may have caused a 
variety of changes to take place in other particulars regarding this city, 
we can scarcely suppose that these changes can have extended to the 
dimensions or situation of its stupendous walls ; by which alone its form 
would be influenced. It is surprising that among the authors which 
Pliny had consulted in drawing up his account of these regions, he makes 
no mention of this illustrious Greek writer, though he quotes him in 
other places. Philostratus, Solinus, Diodorus, Quintus Curtius, and 
more especially the Bible, may be consulted for a variety of curious par- 
ticulars regarding this eminent and powerful city, whose walls and 
splendour are now burkd in a desert. Wern. Club. 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 141 

of Jupiter J3elus continueth there entire. He was the first 
Discoverer of the Science of the Stars. Nevertheless it is 
reduced to a Desert, having been exhausted by Seleucia, 
which standeth near it : and which was for that very purpose 
built by Nicator within the Fortieth Stone, at the Place of 
meeting of the New Channel of Euphrates with the Tigris : 
nevertheless it is named Babylonia, a free State at this Day, 
of independent Jurisdiction; but they live after the Man- 
ners of the Macedonians. And by report there are 600,000 
common Citizens. The Position of the Walls, by report, is 
in the form of an Eagle spreading out her Wings : and the 
Soil is the most Fertile in all the East. The Parthians, 
again, to exhaust this City, built Ctesiphon within the Third 
Stone from it, in Chalonitis ; which now is the Head 
of the Kingdom. But when it advanced nothing, King 
Vologesus founded another Town near it, called Vologeso 
Certa. There are also in Mesopotamia the Cities Hyp- 
parenum, a City likewise of the Chaldaeans, and ennobled 
for Learning, and, as well as Babylon, situated near the 
River Narraga, which gave the Name to the City. The 
Persians destroyed the Walls of this Hypparenum. There are 
also in this Tract the Orcheni, toward the south ; and a Third 
Sect of the Chaldseans. Beyond this Region are the Notitse, 
Orthophantse, and Graeciochantse. Nearchus and Onesi- 
critus report, That from the Persian Sea to Babylon, by the 
Voyage up the Euphrates, is 412 Miles. But later Writers 
count from Seleucia 490 Miles. Juba writeth, that from 
Babylon to Charax is 175 Miles. Some. affirm that beyond 
Babylon the River Euphrates floweth in one Channel 87 
Miles, before it is divided to water the Country : its entire 
Course being 1200 Miles. This variety in Authors is the cause 
of the Uncertainty of the Measure, considering that even the 
very Persians agree not about the Dimensions of their 
Schceni and Parasangae, but have different Measures of them. 
Where the River Euphrates ceaseth to defend by its own 
Channel, at the portion approaching the Border of Charax, 
there is great danger of the Robbers called Attalae, a Nation 
of the Arabians. Beyond them are the Scenitae. The Arabian 

142 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

Nomades occupy the circuit of the Euphrates, as far as to the 
Deserts of Syria : from which place we said that it turned 
into the South, abandoning the Deserts of Palmyra. 1 From 
the beginning of Mesopotamia to Seleucia, by sailing on the 
Euphrates, is 1125 Miles ; and from the Red Sea, if you go 
by the Tigris, 320 Miles ; from Zeugma 527 Miles ; and to 
Zeugma from Seleucia in Syria, upon the Coast of our Sea, 
is 175 Miles. This is the Breadth there of the Land between 
the two Seas. The Kingdoms of Parthia contain 944 Miles. 
Finally, there is a Town of Mesopotamia on the Bank of the 
Tigris, near where the Rivers meet, which they call Digba. 

The River Tigris. 

IT is also convenient to say somewhat of the River Tigris 
itself. It beginneth in the Region of Armenia the Greater, 
issuing out of a great Source in the Plain. The place beareth 
the Name of Elongosine. The River itself, so long as it run- 
neth slowly, is named Diglito ; but when it beginneth to be 
rapid, it is called Tigris, which in the Median language sig- 
nifieth a Dart. It runneth into the Lake Arethusa, which 
beareth up all that is cast into it; and the Vapours that arise 
out of it carry Clouds of Nitre. In this Lake there is but 
one kind of Fish, and that entereth not into the Channel of 
the Tigris as it passeth through ; as likewise the Fishes of 
the Tigris do not swim out into the Water of the Lake. In 
its Course and Colour it is unlike the other : and when it is 
past the Lake and meeteth the Mountain Taurus, it loseth 
itself in a Cave, and so runneth under, until on the other 

1 This is Tadmor in the wilderness, built by Solomon, king of Israel, 
and further illustrious from being the city where the critic Longinus was 
the prime minister of the Queen Zenobia. It is now truly in a wilder- 
ness, but is still celebrated for its remains of antiquity : chiefly of Greek 
construction. There are many streams coming down from the adjacent 
mountains, and there can be no doubt that if a settled tribe fixed 
themselves there, the tract would become as fine an oasis as ever. 
Wern. Club. 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 143 

Side it breaketh forth again in a Place which is called Zoro- 
anda. That it is the same River is evident by this, that it 
carrieth through whatever was cast into it. After this second 
Spring, it runneth through another Lake, named Thospites, 
and again taketh its Way under the Earth through Gutters, 
and 25 Miles beyond it is returned about Nymphaeum. 
Claudius Ccesar reporteth, that in the Country Arrhene, it 
runneth so near to the River Arsanias, that when they both 
swell they join, but without mingling their Water; for Arsa- 
nias, being the lighter, floateth over the other, for almost the 
Space of four Miles ; but soon after they part asunder, and it 
turneth its Course toward the River Euphrates, into which 
it entereth. But Tigris receiving the famous Rivers out of 
Armenia : Parthenis, Agnice, and Pharion, so dividing the 
Arabians, Aroeans, and the Adiabeni, and by this means 
making, as we have said, Mesopotamia to be an Island, after 
it hath passed by and viewed the Mountains of the Gordiaei, 
near Apamia, a Town of Mesene on this side Seleucia, sur- 
named Babylonia, 125 Miles. Dividing itself into two Chan- 
nels, with the one it runneth southward to Seleucia, watering 
the Country of Mesene ; and with the other it windeth to 
the north, on the back of the said Mesene, and cutteth 
through the Plains of the Cauchians. When these two 
Branches are united again, it is called Pasitigris. After this 
it receiveth out of Media the Coaspes ; and so passing be- 
tween Seleucia and Ctesiphon, as we have said, it poureth 
itself into the Lakes of Chaldeea, which it replenisheth with 
Water for the Compass of threescore and ten Miles : which 
done, it issueth forth, gushing out with a very great Stream, 
and on the right of the Town Charax is discharged into the 
Persian Sea, by a Mouth ten Miles over. Between the 
Mouths of these two Rivers were 25 Miles, or, as some say, 
seven: and both of them were navigable. But the Orcheni 
and other neighbouring Inhabitants long since turned the 
Course of Euphrates aside to water their Fields, insomuch 
that it is conveyed into the Sea, only through the Tigris. 
The next Country bordering upon the Tigris is called Para- 
potamia : in it is Mesene, of which we have spoken. Its 

144 History of Nature. [ BOOK VI. 

Town is Dibitach. Chalonitis is joined with Ctesiphon, noble 
not only with Date-trees, but also with Olive, Apple, and 
Pear-trees, and generally with all sorts of Fruit. Unto this 
Country extendeth the Mountain Zagrus, coming out of Ar- 
menia, between the Medes and Adiabeni, above Pareetacene 
and Persis. Chalonitis is distant from Persis 480 Miles. 
Some write, that by the nearest Way it is so much from the 
Caspian Sea to Assyria. Between these Nations and Mesene 
lieth Sittacene, the same that is called Arbelitis and Palaes- 
tine. The Towns therein are Sittace of the Graecians, toward 
the east, and Sabata ; but on the West, Antiochia, between 
two Rivers, Tigris and Tornadotus. Also Apamia, which 
Antiochus so called after his Mother's Name. This City 
is environed with the River Tigris, and divided by the River 
Archous. Somewhat lower is Susiane, wherein (is) Susa, 
the ancient Region of the Persians, founded by Darius, the 
Son of Hystaspes ; and from Seleucia Babylonia, it is distant 
450 Miles ; and as much from Ecbatana of the Medes, 
through the Mountain Charbanus. Upon that Channel of 
the Tigris which taketh its Course northward, standeth the 
Town Babytace : and from Susa it is 135 Miles. The People 
of this Country are the only Men in the World that hate 
Gold : and they bury it, that it may serve for no use to any 
one. To the Susiani eastward are joined the Cossisei Rob- 
bers, and forty Nations of the Mizeei, free and wild. Above 
these lie the Parthusi, Mardi, Saitae, and Hyi, who are 
spread abroad above Elemais, which joineth to the maritime 
Coasts of Persis, as is above said. Susa is from the Persian 
Sea 250 Miles. On that Side where the Fleet of Alexander 
came up the Pasitigris, there standeth a Village upon the 
Lake Chaldais, named Aphle : from which to Susa is 65| 
Miles by Water. The next that border upon the Susiani 
eastward are the Cossaei ; and above the Cossaei northward 
lieth Mesobatene, under the Mountain Cambiladus, which is 
a Branch of the Caucasus : and from thence is the most easy 
Passage to the Bactri. The River Euleeus maketh a Parti- 
tion between Elimais and Susiane. This River riseth in the 
Country of the Medi, and in the midst of its Course loseth 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 145 

itself in the Ground ; but rising again, and running through 
Mesobatene, it passeth round the Castle of the Susi and the 
Temple of Diana, the most august Temple among those 
Nations : and the very River itself is ceremoniously re- 
garded : so that the Kings drink of no other , and therefore 
they carry it to a great distance. It receiveth the River 
Hedypnus, which cometh along by the Asylum of the Per- 
sians, and one from among the Susiani. A Town there is near 
it, called Magoa, 15 Miles fromCharax. Some place this Town 
in the utmost Borders of Susiana, close to the Deserts. Be- 
neath Eulaeus lieth Elymais, joining to Persis on the Sea- 
coast ; it is 240 Miles from the River Oroates to Charax. The 
Towns in it are Seleucia and Sositare, situated upon the 
Mountain Casyrus. The Coast which lieth before it is, as 
we have said before, no less dangerous than the Lesser Syrtes, 
because of the Mud and Slime which the Rivers Brixia and 
Ortacea bring down ; and Elimais itself is so moist that 
there is no Way to Persis but by taking a Circuit about 
it. It is also much infested with Serpents, which those 
Rivers bring down : but that part of it is the least passable 
which they call Characene, from the Town (Charax), which 
limiteth the Kingdoms of Arabia : of which we will speak 
by and by, after we have set down the Opinion of M.Agrippa; 
for he hath written, that Media, Parthia, and Persis, are 
bounded on the East by the Indus ; on the West, by the 
Tigris ; on the North, by the Taurus and Caucasus ; and on 
the South, by the Red Sea : also, that they extend in Length 
1320 Miles, and in Breadth 840. Moreover, that Mesopo- 
tamia by itself is enclosed eastward by the Tigris, westward by 
the Euphrates ; on the North by the Taurus, and on the South 
by the Persian Sea; being in Length 800 Miles, and in 
Breadth 360. Charax is the inmost Town of the Persian 
Gulf, from which Arabia, called Eudsemon (happy) runneth 
forth in Length ; it is situated upon a Mount artificially 
raised between the Confluence of Tigris on the right Hand, 
and Eulseus on the left : with an Expansion of three Miles. 
It was first founded by Alexander the Great ; who, having 
drawn ColonLts out of the royal City Durine (which then 


1 46 History of Nature. [ BOOK V I . 

was ruined), and leaving there behind him those Soldiers 
which were not fit for service, ordained that this Town should 
be called Alexandria ; and the District about it, Pellseum, 
from his native Country : and he peopled it only with Mace- 
donians. This Town was destroyed by the Rivers. After- 
wards, Antiochus, the fifth of the Kings, rebuilt it, and 
named it from himself. But when it was injured again, 
Spasines, Son of Soadonacus, King of the adjoining Arabians, 
and not (as Juba reporteth) a Lord (Satrap) under Antiochus, 
restored it by Moles opposite each other, and called it after 
his own Name. He thus fortified the Site of it three Miles in 
Length and little less in Breadth. At the beginning it stood 
upon the Sea-coast, being from the Water-side ten Stadia ; 
and even from thence it hath false Galleries : but by the 
Report of Juba, in his Time, 50 Miles. At this Day the 
Arabian Ambassadors, and also our Merchants that come from 
thence, affirm it is from the Sea-shore 125 Miles : so that it 
cannot be found in any Place that the Earth hath gained 
more, or in so short a Time by means of the Mud brought 
down by Rivers. And it is the more wonderful, that the 
Tide which riseth far beyond this Town doth not carry it 
away again. In this very Town I am not ignorant that 
Dionysius, the latest of our modern Geographers, was born : 
whom Divus Augustus sent before into the East to write a 
Description of whatever he found, for the Information of his 
elder Son, who was about to proceed into Armenia, in an 
Expedition against the Parthians and Arabians. It has not 
escaped me, nor is it forgotten, that in my first Entrance into 
this Work, I professed to follow those who had written of 
their own Countries, as being the most diligent in that be- 
half. Nevertheless, in this Place I choose rather to follow 
the Roman Officers that have warred there, and King Juba, 
in Books written to C. Caesar (Caligula) concerning the 
same Arabian Expedition. 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 147 


Arabia, Nomades, JYabatcei, and Omani: the Islands Tylos 
and Ogyris. 

ARABIA cometh behind none of the Nations for its great 
Length and Extent ; for it beginneth at the Descent of the 
Mountain Amanus, overagainst Cilicia and Comagene, as we 
have before said ; where it is peopled with many Nations of 
them, brought by Tigranes the Great to inhabit that Quarter; 
and in old Time it descended naturally as far as to our Sea 
and the Egyptian Coast, as we have shewn : yea, and it 
extendeth into the midland Parts of Syria to the Mountain 
Libanus, where the Hills reach to the very Clouds : to 
which are joined the Ramasi ; then the Taranei, and after 
them the Patami. The Peninsula itself of Arabia runneth 
out between two Seas, the Red and the Persian, by a 
certain Workmanship of Nature, resembling Italy in Form 
and Magnitude, with its Sea-coasts also in the manner of 
Italy. It also regardeth the same Quarter of the Heaven 
without any Difference. This Tract, for the rich Seat it 
hath, is named Felix (happy). The Nations therein dwell- 
ing, from our Sea to the Deserts of Palmyra, we have treated 
of already, therefore we pass them by. The Nomades, and 
those Robbers that trouble the Chaldaeans, the People 
called Scenitse, border on it as we have before said ; they also 
are Wanderers, but are so called from their Tabernacles, 
which they make of Hair-cloths, and they encamp under 
them as they please. Being past them you find the Nabataei, 
who inhabit a Town named Petra, in the Valley, little less 
than two Miles large ; environed with very steep Mountains, 
and having a River running through the midst of it. It 
is distant from Gaza (a Town of our Coast) 600 Miles ; and 
from the Persian Gulf, 122. And here meet both the High- 
ways, that is, the one which Passengers travel to Palmyra in 
Syria, and the other wherein they come from Gaza. Beyond 
Petra the Omani inhabit as far as to Carax, in the celebrated 
Towns built by Semiramis, namely, Abesamis and Soractia. 
But now all is a Wilderness. Then come you to a Town 

148 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

named Forath, situated upon the Bank of the Pasitigris, and 
subject to the King of the Caraceni : to which they resort 
from Petra; and from thence to Charax they sail with a 
favourable Tide for the Space of twelve Miles. But they 
that come by Water out of the Parthian Kingdom, meet with 
a Village called Teredon, below the Place where Euphrates 
and Tigris meet. The Chaldaeans inhabit the left Bank of 
the River, and the Nomades called Scenitse, the right. Some 
affirm, that as you sail on the Tigris, you pass by two other 
Towns, distant from each other : the one called formerly 
Barbatia, and afterwards Thumata, which our Merchants 
report to be ten Days' Sail from Petra, and to be subject to 
the King of the Characeni : and the other named Apamia, 
situated in the Place where the Overflowing of Euphrates 
joineth with the Tigris ; and therefore they prevent the In- 
vasion of the Parthians, by breaking up the Banks and so 
procure an Inundation of the Waters. Now being past Cha- 
rax, we will discourse of the Coast first explored by Epi- 
phanes. The Place where the Mouth of the Euphrates was. 
A River of Salt Water ; the Promontory Chaldone, where the 
Sea is more like a Whirlpool than a Sea, for 50 Miles. The 
River Achana ; Deserts for 100 Miles, until you come to the 
Island Ichara : the Bay Capeus, which the Gaulopes and 
Chateni inhabit : the Bay Gerraicus, and the Town Gerra, 
five Miles in extent ; and fortified with Towers made of square 
Masses of Salt. Fifty Miles from the Sea-side is the Region 
Attene : and overagainst it the Island Tylos, as many Miles 
from the Shore, with a Town bearing the Name of the Island, 
much celebrated for Abundance of Pearls : and not far from 
it is another somewhat less, twelve Miles from the Cape of 
the aforesaid Tylos. Beyond these there are discovered by 
Report some great Islands ; but they have not been visited 
by our Merchants. This last Island is 112 Miles and a half 
in Circuit, and is far from Persis ; and Access to it is only 
by one narrow Channel. The Island Asgilia ; the Nations 
Nocheti, Zurachi, Borgodi, Catarsei, and Nomades : the 
River Cynos. Beyond that, Juba saith, there is no more 
Navigation discovered on that Side, by reason of the Rocks. 
He hath made no mention of the Town Batrasabe of the 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 149 

Omani, nor of Omana, which former Geographers have 
held to be a Harbour of great Importance in Carmania. 
Also, Omne and Athanae, which our Merchants report to be 
at this Day two very famous Towns, frequented from the 
Persian Gulf. Beyond the River Canis, as King Juba 
writeth, there is a Hill which seemeth all scorched. The 
Nations of the Epimaranitae : and soon after the Ichthyo- 
phagi : a desert Island ; the Nations Bathymi. The Moun- 
tains Eblitaei ; the Island Omosnus ; the Port Machorbae, the 
Islands Etaxalos, Onchobrice, the Nation Chadaei. Many 
Islands without a Name : but of Importance, Isura, Rhinnea ; 
and another very near, wherein are Pillars of Stone inscribed 
with unknown Characters. The Port of Gobrca; and the 
desert Islands Bragae. The Nation of the Thaludeei : the 
Region Dabanegoris : the Mountain Orsa, with a Port : 
the Bay Duatus, and many Islands. The Mountain Tricory- 
phus : the Region Cardalena, the Islands Solanidae, Capina. 
Also the Islands of the Ichthyophagi : and after them the 
Glari. The Shore called Hammaeum, where are Gold Mines. 
The Region Canauna. The Nations Apitami and Gasani. 
The Island Deuadae ; the Fountain Goralus ; the Garpheti ; 
the Islands Aleu and Amnamethu. The Nation called 
Darrae, the Islands Chelonitis, and many of the Ichthyo- 
phagi. The Isle Eodanda, which is Desert, and Basage ; 
many others of the Sabaei. The Rivers Thamar and Amnon ; 
the Islands Dolicae ; the Fountains Daulotes and Dora ; the 
Islands, Pteros, Labanis, Coboris, Sambracate, with a Town 
so named on the Continent. On the South side are many 
Islands, but the greatest of them is Camari. The River 
Mysecros ; the Port Leupas, and the Sabaeans, called Sce- 
nitae. Many other Islands ; their Chief Town of Merchandise 
is Acila, where the Merchants embark for their Voyage to 
India. The Region Amithoscuta, and Damnia. The Mizi, 
the Greater and Less : the Drimati and Macae. The Promon- 
tory of these People is overagainst Carmania, and distant 
from it 50 Miles. A wonderful thing is reported there : that 
Ntimenius, Chief Commander under King Antiochus, over 
Mesena, conquered the Navy of the Persians in a Sea-fight, 

150 History of Nature. [Boos VI. 

and on the same Day, with the return of the Tide, sub- 
dued their Horsemen : in memorial of which he erected in 
the same Place two Trophies, one in honour of Jupiter, 
and the other of Neptune. Far out at Sea there lieth an 
Island called Ogyris, distant from the Continent 125 Miles, 
and containing in Circuit 112; much renowned for the 
Sepulchre of King Erythra, who was buried there. Another 
there is no less famous, called Dioscoridu, in the Sea Aza- 
nium; and it is from Syagrum, the extremest Cape, 280 
Miles. There remain yet not spoken of, the Autarides, 
toward the South, in the Mountains, which continue for 
seven Days' journey : the Nations Larendani, Catabani, and 
Gebanitas, who have many Towns, but the greatest are Nagia 
and Tamna, with 65 Temples within it, which is a mark how 
great it is. A Promontory, from which to the Continent of 
the Trogloditae is 50 Miles. The Toani, Acchitae, Chatra- 
motitae, Tomabei, Antidalei, Lexianae, Agrei, Cerbani ; and 
Sabaei, of all the Arabians most famous for their Frankin- 
cense ; their Nations reaching from Sea to Sea. Their Towns 
on the Coast of the Red Sea are Marane, Marma, Corolia, 
and Sabatra; within-land are the Towns Nascus, Cardava, 
Carnus, and Tomala, whence they convey their Commodities 
of Aromatics. One part of them are the Atramitae, whose 
Capital City, Sobotale, had within its Walls Sixty Temples. 
But the Royal City of the whole is Nariaba, situated on a 
Gulf that reacheth into the Land ninety-four Miles, full of 
Islands, having Odoriferous Trees. Upon the Atramitse, 
within the Mainland, are joined the Minoei : but the Ela- 
mitae inhabit the Sea (Coast), where standeth a City also called 
Elamitum. To them are joined the Cagulatae ; and their 
Town is Siby, which the Greeks name A pate. Then the 
Arsicodani, and Vadei, with a great Town : and the Barasei : 
Lichenia, and the Island Sygaros, which Dogs will not enter ; 
and if any be put there, they wander about the Shore until 
they die. A Deep Bay, in which are the Leanitae, who gave 
name to it. Their Royal City is Agra : but Leana, or, as 
others have it, ./Elana, is in the Bay. And hence our 
Writers have called that Bay ^Elaniticum, which others 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 151 

hare termed JElenaticum ; Artemid&rus, Aleniticum ; and 
Juba, Laeniticum. Arabia is reported to take in Circuit from 
Charax to Leana, 4870 Miles ; but Jvba thinketh it some- 
what less than 4000. It is widest in the North Parts, be- 
tween the Towns Herons and Charace. Now it remaineth 
that we speak of other Parts within the Midland thereof. 
The Ancients joined the Nabatsei to the Thimanei ; but at 
this Day there are the Taveni, Suelleni, and Sarraceni : the 
Town is Arra, wherein all Business is assembled. The He- 
mnatae and Analitae ; the Towns Domada and Erage ; the 
Thamusians, with their Town Badanatha ; the Carrei, and 
their Town Chariati ; the Achoali, and their Town Phoda. 
Furthermore, the Minaei, descended, as some think, from 
Minos, King of Crete ; whose Town Charmiei is 14 Miles (in 
Compass); Mariaba, Baramalacnm, a Town not to be de- 
spised ; likewise Carnon, and the Rhamei, who are thought 
to spring from Rhadauumthus, the Brother of Minos. The 
Homeritae, with the Town Massala; the Hamirci, Gedra- 
nitse, Anaprae, Ilisanitae, Bochilitae, Sammei, and Amathei ; 
with the Towns, Nessa and Cennesseri. The Zamareni, with 
the Towns Saiace, Scantate, and Bacascani ; the Town Rhi- 
phearma, which in the Arabian Tongue signifieth Barley ; 
also the Autei, Raui, Gyrei, and Marhataei ; the Helmodones, 
with the Town Ebode ; the Agacturi in the Mountains, hav- 
ing a Town 20 Miles in Circuit, wherein is a Fountain called 
Emischabales, which signifies the Camel's Town ; Ampelone, 
a Colony of the Milesii ; the Town Actrida; the Calingii, 
whose Town is named Mariaba, which signifies Lords of all. 
Towns Pallon and Murannimal, near a River, by which they 
think that the Euphrates springeth forth. The Nations 
Agrei and Ammonii; the Town Athens; the Caurarani, 
which signifieth very rich in Cattle. The Caranitse, Csesani, 
and Choani. There were also Towns in Arabia, held by 
Greeks, as Arethusa, Larissa, and Chalcis, which were 
destroyed in various Wars. The only Roman until this day 
that carried our Arms into those Parts was JElix* Gallus, of 
the Knightly Order. For GUMS C&sar, the Son of Augustus, 
did but look only into Arabia ; but Galbis destroyed Towns, 
not named by Authors that wrote before: Egra, Annestum, 

152 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

Esca, Magusurn, Tammacum, Labecia, and the above-named 
Marieba, in Circuit Six Miles : likewise Caripeta, the furthest 
that he went to. The other matters he made report of were, 
that the Nomades live on Milk and Wild Animals ; the rest 
express Wine, as the Indians do, out of Dates ; and Oil of 
Sesama. That the Homerites are the most Populous ; the 
Minaei have Fruitful Fields, full of Palm-trees and Vine- 
yards, but their Riches is in Cattle. The Cembani and 
Arii excel in Arras, but chiefly the Chatramotitae. The 
Caraeans have the largest Territories and most Fertile 
Fields. The Sabaei are Richest in the Fertility of their 
Woods, that bring forth Aromatic Gums : also in Mines of 
Gold ; having Water to refresh their Lands, and plenty of 
Honey and Wax. Of the Spices that come from thence we 
will speak in a Book by itself. The Arabians wear Mitres, 1 
or go with their Hair long ; their Beards they shave, except 
on the upper Lip ; and yet some there are that suffer their 
Beards to grow long. But one thing is surprising, that out 
of such a very great number of People, the one-half live by 
Robbery, and the other by Merchandise. On the whole 
they are exceedingly rich ; for with them the Romans and 
Parthians leave very large Sums, for the Commodities out 
of their Woods and Seas which they sell them ; and them- 
selves buy nothing of them in return. Now will we speak of 
the other Coast opposite to Arabia. Timosthenes hath set 
down, that the whole Gulf was from one End to the other 
Four Days' Sailing : and from Side to Side, Two Days' ; the 
Breadth of the Straits being Seven Miles over. Eratosthenes 
saith, that taking the Measure at the very Mouth, it is every 
way 1300 Miles. 


The Gulf of the Red Sea : likewise of the Trogloditic and 
^Ethiopian Seas. 

ARTEMIDORUS saith, that the Red Sea toward the side of 
Arabia is 1450 Miles : but on the Coast of the T rogloditse 1 1 82, 

1 It is a question whether these are not rather turbans, as at present 
extensively worn through Asia. Wern. Club. 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 153 

until you come to Ptolemais : but Agrippa 1322, without any 
distinction of the Sides. Most Geographers have set down 
the Breadth to be 462 Miles : and the Mouth of it against 
the Sun-rising in Winter, (i. e. South-west) some say, is 7 
Miles Broad ; and others 12. The Situation of it is this : 
Beyond the Bay called ^Elaniticus there is another Bay 
which the Arabians call TEant, on which standeth the Town 
Heroon. There was also Cambisu, between the Neli and 
Marchandae, into which the sick Soldiers were conveyed. 
The Nation of Tyra ; the Port Daneon, from which Sesostris, 
King of Egypt, was the first that imagined to conduct a 
Navigable Channel into the Nile, in that part where it 
runneth to the Place called Delta, for the Space of 62 
Miles ; which is between the River and the Red Sea. This 
Enterprise was followed by Darius, King of the Persians : 
and afterwards by Ptolomceus, who also made a Channel 
100 Feet in Breadth, and 30 Deep, for Thirty-Seven Miles 
and a Half in Length, even to the Bitter Fountains. But 
this Design went no farther, through fear of an Inundation : 
the Red Sea being found to lie Three Cubits above the Land 
of Egypt. Some allege that this was not the true cause, 
but that if the Sea were let into the Nile the Water thereof 
(of which only they drink) would be corrupted. Never- 
theless the Way is well frequented from the Egyptian Sea ; 
and there are Three ordinary Ways there : one from Pelu- 
sium over the Sands, where, unless Reeds be set up in the 
Ground for direction, no Path would be found, because the 
Wind bloweth the Sand over the Tracts of the Feet. A 
second beginneth Two Miles beyond the Mountain Casius, 
which after sixty Miles returneth into the Pelusiac Way. 
Here the Arabians called Autei inhabit. The Third begin- 
neth at Gereum, which they call Adipson, and passeth 
through these same Arabians, being Sixty Miles nearer, but 
full of craggy Hills, and altogether destitute of Water. All 
these Ways lead to Arsinoe, which was built upon the Gulf 
Charandra by Ptolemaus Philadelphia, and bearing his 
Sister's Name : and he was the first that searched narrowly 
into the Region Trogloditicum ; and the River that passeth 

154 History of Nature. [BOOK VI. 

by Arsinoe he called Ptolemseus. Within a little of this 
Place there is a small Town named Aennum, for which 
some write Philotera. Beyond them are the Azarei : wild 
Arabians from Marriages of the Trogloditse. The Islands 
Sapyrene and Scytala: and within a little, Deserts, unto 
Myros-hormos, where is the Fountain called Tadnos; the 
Mountain Eos ; the Island Lambe, many Harbours ; and 
Berenice, a Town bearing the Name of the Mother of Phila- 
delphus ; to which there is a Way lying from Coptos, as we 
have said : the Arabians called Autei, and Gnebadei. Tro- 
gloditice, which the Ancients called Michoe, and others 
Midoe : the Mountain Pentedactylos. Certain Islands called 
Stenae-de'irae ; and others no fewer in number, named Halon- 
nesi : Cardamine, and Topazos, which gave the Name to the 
precious Stone. A Bay full of Islands, of which that which 
is called Mareu is well supplied with Water : another, called 
Eratonos, is altogether Dry. There were Governors there 
under the King. Within-land inhabit the Candei, whom 
they call Ophiophagi, because they are accustomed to feed 
on Serpents; and in truth there is no other Region that 
breeds them more than this. Juba, who seemeth to have 
very diligently searched into these things, hath omitted in 
this Tract (unless there be some fault in his Original), to 
speak of a second Berenice, which is denominated Pan- 
chrysos ; as also of a third called Epidires, renowned for its 
Situation ; for it stands upon a Neck of Land running a long 
way, where the Mouth of the Red Sea is not above Four 
Miles and a Half from Arabia. There is the Island Cytis, 
itself producing Topazes. Beyond this are Woods, where 
Ptolemceus, surnamed Philadelphus, built a City for Hunt- 
ing the Elephant, near the Lake Monoleus, and named it 
Epitheras. This is the Region mentioned by me in the 
Second Book; wherein for Forty-five Days before Mid- 
Summer, and as many after, at the Sixth Hour of the Day, 
no Shadows are to be seen : which being past, all the Day 
after they fall into the South ; and on other Days they fall 
to the North ; whereas, in Berenice, which we mentioned 
first, on the very Day of the Solstice, at the Sixth Hour, the 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 155 

Shadows are wholly lost; and otherwise there is nothing 
new to be observed for the space of 600 Miles about Ptole- 
mais : a thing worthy of observation, and a place of great 
Curiosity, that gave great Light to the World ; for Erato- 
sthenes, upon this undoubted argument of the Shadows, took 
in hand to deduce the Measure of the Earth. Beyond this 
is the Sea Azanium, and the Promontory which some have 
written by the name of Hispalus ; also the Lake Mandalum ; 
the Island Colocasitis, and in the deep Sea many, wherein 
are numerous Tortoises. The Town Suchae ; the Island 
Daphnis, and the Town Aduliton, built by Egyptian Slaves 
who escaped from their Masters. This is the greatest Town 
of Traffic of the Trogloditse, as well as of the Egyptians : and 
it is (from Ptolemais) Five Days' Sailing. Thither are brought 
very much Ivory and Horns of the Rhinoceros, Skins of the 
Hippopotamus, Tortoise Shells, Monkeys, and Slaves. Above 
are the Ethiopians, called Aroteres : also the Islands named 
Alieeu : and Islands named Bacchias, Antibacchias, and 
Strathonis; beyond them there is a Gulf in the Coast of 
Ethiopia, as yet not known, a thing to be wondered at, con- 
sidering that Merchants search into remoter Parts. Also a 
Promontory, wherein is a Fountain named Cucios, much 
desired by Sailors. Beyond it is the Port of Isis, distant 
from the Town of the Adulitae ten Days rowing with Oars : 
and thither is Myrrh collected by the Trogloditae. Before 
this Harbour are two Islands, named Pseudopylse ; and as 
many further within, called Pylse ; in one of them are some 
Pillars of Stone, engraved with unknown Characters. Be- 
yond this is the Bay Abalites : the Island Diodori, and others 
lying Desert. Also along the Continent there is much Wil- 
derness ; the Town Gaza ; the Promontory and Port Mossy- 
lites, unto which Cinnamon is brought. Thus far marched 
Sesostris with his Army. Some Writers place one Town of 
Ethiopia beyond this, on the Sea-side, called Baradaza. 
Juba would have the Atlantic Sea to begin at the Promon- 
tory Mossylites : on which Sea a Man may Sail with a north- 
west Wind, by the Coasts of his Kingdoms of Mauritania to 
Gades : and the whole of his Opinion cannot be contradicted 

156 History of Nature. [BOOK VI. 

on this point. From a Promontory of the Indians called 
Lepteacra, and by others Drepanum, to the Isle of Malchu, 
he layeth it down that by a straight Course it is 1500 
Miles, beside those Parts that are burnt up. From thence 
to a place called Sceneos is 225 Miles : and from it to the 
Island Sadanum, 150 Miles : and thus it is made to the open 
Sea 1885 Miles. But all other Writers have been of opinion 
that there could not be any Sailing on it, for the exceeding 
Heat of the Sun. Moreover, the Arabians named Ascitse do 
much harm from the Islands to the Trade : for these Ara- 
bians join Bottles made of Ox Leather, two and two toge- 
ther, as if they were a Bridge, and exercise Piracy by 
shooting their Poisoned Arrows. The same Juba writeth, 
that there are Nations of the Trogloditae, named Thero- 
thoes, from their huntings, of wonderful Swiftness : as 
the Ichthyophagi from Swimming, as if they were Water 
Creatures. He narneth also the Bargeni, Zagerae, Chalybae, 
Saxinae, Syrecae, Daremae, and Domazanes. Also he affirmeth, 
that the People inhabiting along the Sides of the Nile, from 
Syene to Meroe, are not ./Ethiopians, but Arabians, who for 
the sake of Fresh Water approached the Nile, and there 
dwelt: as also that the City of the Sun, 1 which we said be- 
fore in the Description of Egypt, standeth not far from Mem- 
phis, was founded by the Arabians. There are some also 
who assign the further side of the Nile to Africa and not to 
Ethiopia. But leaving every Man to his own Pleasure, we 
will set down the Towns on both sides in that order in which 
they are declared. And to begin with that side toward 
Arabia, after you are past Syene, is the Nation of the Cata- 
dupi ; and then the Syenitae. The Towns Tacompson, which 
some have called Thatice, Aranium, Sesanium, Sandura, 
Nasaudum, Anadoma, Cumara, Beda and Bochiana, Leuphi- 

1 " City of the Sun," or Heliopolis. This is the Egyptian city, of 
which the father of the patriarch Joseph's wife was priest. It may have 
proceeded from the Arabian descent of the people of this place, that the 
worship of the sun was more agreeable to the disposition of the minds of 
the inhabitants, than that of any of the animal deities, which obtained so 
much favour in other cities of Egypt. Wern. Club. 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 157 

thorga, Tantarene, Maechindira, Noa, Gophoa, Gystatae, Me- 
geda, Lea, Rherania, Nupsia, Direa, Pataga, Bagada, Du- 
mana, Rhadata, in which a Golden Cat is worshipped as a 
God. Boron in the Midland part, and Mallos, the next 
Town to Meroe. Thus hath Bion set them down. But 
King Juba hath arranged them otherwise. Megatichos, a 
Town on a Mountain between Egypt and Ethiopia, which 
the Arabians call Myrson; next to it Tacompson, Aranium, 
Sesanium, Pide, Mamuda, and Corambis ; near it a Fountain 
of Bitumen : Hammodara, Prosda, Parenta, Mama, Thes- 
sara, Gallae, Zoton, Graucome, Emeum, Pidibotae, Hebdo- 
mecontacomertae, and the Nomades, who live in Tents. 
Cyste, Pemma, Gadagale, Palois, Primmis, Nupsis, Daselis, 
Patis, Gambrenes, Magases, Segasmala, Cranda, Denna, 
Cadeuma, Thena, Batha, Alana, Macum, Scammos, and 
Gora within a Island. Beyond these Abala, Androcalis, 
Seres, Mallos, and Agoce. On the Side of Africa they are 
reckoned in this way : another Tacompsos, with the same 
Name or perhaps a part of the former: then, Magora, Sea, 
Edosa, Pelenaria, Pyndis, Magusa, Bauma, Linitima, Spyn- 
tuma, Sydopta, Gensoa, Pindicitora, Eugoa, Orsima, Suasa, 
Mauma, Rhuma, Urbubuma, Mulona, which Town the 
Greeks call Hypaton ; Pagoargas, Zamnes ; and there begin 
the Elephants to come in; Mamblia, Berresa, Cetuma. 
There was formerly a Town named Epis, overagainst Meroe, 
but destroyed before Bion wrote. These were recorded until 
you come to Meroe ; of which at this Day scarcely anything 
is to be found on either side. The remainder is a Wilder- 
ness, by report made to the Prince Nero by the Praetorian 
Soldiers sent thither from him under the Command of a 
Tribune, to make Discoveries : at the time when amongst 
his other Wars, he thought of an Expedition against the 
Ethiopians. But in the Days of Divus Augustus, the Roman 
Arms penetrated thither under the conduct ofPublius Petro~ 
nius, a Knight of Rome, and Prefect of Egypt. He con- 
quered all those Towns in Ethiopia, which he found in this 
order following; Pselcis, Primis, Aboccis, Phthuris, Can- 
busis, Attena, Stadissis, where the River Nile casteth itself 

158 History of Nature. [BOOK VI. 

down with such a Noise that the Inhabitants living close by 
lose their Hearing. He won also Napata. He marched 
forward a great way into the Country, even 870 Miles be- 
yond Syene ; but this Roman Army laid not all Waste in 
those parts. It was the Egyptian Wars that wasted Ethiopia ; 
sometimes by Ruling, and at others by Servitude ; it was Illus- 
trious and Powerful until the Reign of King Memnon, who 
ruled in the Time of the Trojan War, so that Syria was sub- 
ject to it; as also our own Coast in the Time of King Cepkeus, 
as appeareth by the Fables of Andromeda. In the same 
manner they disagree about the Measure of Ethiopia. And 
first, Dalion passing far beyond Meroe ; after him, Aristo- 
creon, Bion, and Basilis ; also Simonides (the Lesser) who 
dwelt in Meroe Five Years, when he wrote of Ethiopia. 
Timosthenes, the Admiral of the Fleet of Philadelphus, hath 
left in record, that from Syene to Meroe is Sixty Days' 
Journey, without particularizing the Measure. But Erato- 
sthenes precisely noteth, that it is 625 Miles : Artemidorus, 
600. Sebostus affirmeth, that from the Frontiers of Egypt it 
is 1675 Miles ; from whence the last rehearsed Writers count 
1270. But all this difference is lately determined by the 
Report of those Travellers whom Nero sent to Discover those 
Countries, who have related that it is 862 Miles from Syene 
in this manner : from Syen to Hiera-Sycaminon, Fifty-four 
Miles ; from thence to Tama, Seventy-five Miles ; from Tama 
to the Euonymites Country, the first of the Ethiopians, 120 ; 
to Acina, Fifty-four; to Pitara, Twenty-five; to Tergedum, 
106 Miles. That in the midst of this Tract lieth the Island 
Gagandus, where they first saw the Birds called Parrots ; 
and beyond another Island called Attigula they saw Monkeys ; 
beyond Tergedum they met with the Creatures Cynocephali. 
From thence to Napata Eighty Miles, which is the only 
little Town among all the beforenamed ; from which to the 
Island Meroe is 360 Miles. They reported, moreover, that 
about Meroe, and not before, the Herbs appeared greener ; 
and the Woods shewed somewhat in comparison of all the 
way besides ; and they espied the Tracts of Elephants and 
Rhinoceroses. The Town itself of Meroe was from the 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 159 

Entry of the Island Seventy Miles, and just by, there was 
another Island called Tatu, which formed a Port for them 
that approached by the Channel on the Right. The Buildings 
within the Town were few ; the Isle was subject to a Queen 
named Candaoce, 1 a name that for many years already hath 
passed in succession from one Queen to another, Within 
this Town is the Shrine of Hammon for Devotion ; and in all 
that Tract many Chapels. Finally, so long as the Ethiopians 
were powerful this Island was very famous. For by report, 
they were accustomed to furnish of Armed Men 250,000, and 
to maintain of Artisans 400,000. Also it is at this day reported 
that there have been Forty-five Kings of the Ethiopians. 

The Manifold and Wonderful Forms of Men* 

BUT the Nation in general was in old time called 
^Etheria ; 3 afterwards Atlantia ; and finally from Vulcan's 
Son ^Ethiops, it took the name of Ethiopia. It is no won- 
der, that about the remote Borders of it there are produced 
both Men and Beasts of monstrous Shapes, considering the 
Agility of the Fiery Heat to frame Bodies and carve them 
into strange Shapes. It is reported by some, that far within 
the Country eastward there are Nations without Noses, but 
having their Visage all Plain and Flat: that others are 
without any Upper Lip, and some without Tongues ; also, 
there is a kind of them that have the Mouth grown to- 
gether, and are without Nostrils ; so that at the same Orifice 
only they take in Breath, receive Drink by drawing it in 
through an Oaten Straw, and Feed themselves with the 
Grains of Oats which grow of their own accord for their 
Food. Others there are, who instead of Speech make Signs 
by nodding their Heads, and moving their Limbs. There 
are also some that before the Time of Ptolemceus Lathyrus 

1 See Acts of Apostles, viii. 27. 
1 See further, Book vii. c. 2. 

3 As all Pliny's authors were Greek or Roman, he was ignorant that 
a much more ancient name was Gush. Wern. Club* 

160 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

King of Egypt, knew no use of Fire. Some Writers have 
reported, that in the Country near the Marshes from whence 
the Nile hath its Source there inhabit a Nation of Pygmei. 
But where we left off there is a continual range of Moun- 
tains, all Red, as if they were Burning. Beyond Meroe 
there is a Country lying above the Trogloditae and the Red 
Sea ; where Three Days' Journey from Napata toward the 
Red Sea, in most places they save Rain Water for their ordi- 
nary Use ; all the Country between is very abundant in 
Gold. All beyond this Region is Inhabited by the Atabuli, 
a People of Ethiopia. The Megabari, whom some have 
named Adiabarse, lie overagainst Meroe, and have a Town 
bearing the Name of Apollo. Part of them are Nomades, 
who live on Elephant's Flesh. Just against them in a part 
of Africa are the Macrobii. Again, beyond the Megabari 
are the Memnones and Daveli ; and Twenty Days' Journey 
from them the Critensi. Beyond them are the Dochi and 
the Gymnites, who are always naked. Soon after you find the 
Anderae, Mathitse, Mesagebes, Hipporeae, of a Black Colour, 
but who paint their Bodies with a kind of Red Chalk called 
Rubrica. But upon a part of Africa are the Medimni ; be- 
yond then are Nomades, who feed on the Milk of Cynoce- 
phali : and the Olabi and Syrbotse, who are reported to be 
Eight Cubits high. Aristocreon saith, that on the side of 
Libya, Five Days' Journey from Meroe, there is a Town 
called Tole ; and Twelve Days' Journey from thence is Esar, 
a Town of the Egyptians, who fled from Psammeticus. It is 
reported, that they have lived in it for 300 Years; another 
Town of theirs called Daronis, on the opposite side, on the 
Coast of Arabia. But that which Aristocreon nameth Esar, 
Bion calleth Sapa; and he saith, the very word signifieth 
Strangers come from other parts. Their Capital City is 
within the Island Sembobitis ; and Sai in Arabia is the Third. 
Between the Mountains and the Nile are the Symbari and 
the Phalanges ; but upon the Mountains themselves live 
the Asachae, with many Nations ; and they are by report 
Seven Days' Journey from the Sea. They live by Hunting 
Elephants. The Island in the Nile, of the Semberritse, is 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 161 

subject to a Queen. Eight Days' Journey from thence lieth 
the Country of the Ethiopians, named Nubaei. Their Town 
Tenupsis is seated upon the Nile. The Sambri, where all 
the Four-footed Beasts, and even the very Elephants, are 
without Ears. Upon the Border of Africa inhabit the 
Ptceambati and Ptoemphanae, who have a Dog for their 
King, and they judge of his imperial Commands by his Motion. 
Their City is Auruspi, far distant from the Nile. Beyond 
them are the Achisarmi, Phaliges, Marigeri, and Casamarri. 
Bion says, that beyond Psembobitis, there are other Towns in 
the Islands toward Meroc, for Twenty Days' Journey. The 
Town of the next Island is Semberritartim, under a Queen; 
another called Asar ; and there is a second Island having in 
it the Town Daron ; they call the third Medo'e, wherein 
standeth the Town Asel ; and a fourth named Garode, as 
the Town is also. Then along the Bank?, the Towns, Navos, 
Modunda, Andatis, Setundum, Colligat, Secande, Navectabe, 
Cumi, Agrospi, jEgipa, Candrogari, Araba, and Summara. 
The Region above Sirbitum, where the Mountains end, is 
reported by some to have upon the Sea-coast Ethiopians 
called Nisicastes and Nisitas, which means Men with Three 
and Four Eyes ; not because they are so furnished, but be- 
cause they are excellent Archers. Bion affirmeth, moreover, 
that from that part of the Nile which stretcheth above the 
Greater Syrtes, toward the Southern Ocean, they are called 
Dalion, who use Rain-water only; and the Cisori and Lon- 
gopori. Beyond Oecalices for Five Days' Journey, the 
Usibalci, Isueles, Pharusi, Valii, and Cispii. The rest is 
desert. But then he telleth fabulous Tales : as that westward 
there are People called Nigrce, whose King hath but one 
Eye, and that in the midst of his Forehead : also, there are 
the Agriophagi, who live chiefly on the Flesh of Panthers 
and Lions ; the Pornphagi, who Eat all things ; the Anthro- 
pophagi, that Feed on Man's Flesh ; the Cynamolgi, who 
have Heads like Dogs ; the Artabatitae, who wander about 
like Four-footed Savage Beasts. Beyond whom are the 
Hesperii and Peroesi, who, as we said before, are planted in 


162 History of Nature. [BOOK VI. 

the Confines of Mauritania. In certain parts of Ethiopia 
the People live on Locusts only, 1 which they preserve with 
Salt, and hang up in Smoke to harden, for their yearly Pro- 
vision ; and these live not above Forty Years at the most. 
Agrippa saith that all the Land of Ethiopia, with the Red 
Sea, containeth in Length 2170 Miles: and in Breadth, 
together with the higher Egypt, 1291. Some have taken 
the Breadth in this manner; from Meroe to Sirbitum, 
Twelve Days' Navigation ; from thence to the Davelli, Twelve ; 
and from them to the Ethiopian Ocean, a Journey of Six 
Days. But on the whole all Writers in a manner agree 
that between the Ocean and Meroe it is 725 Miles ; and 
from thence to Syenc, as much as we have set down before. 
The Situation of Ethiopia lieth South-east and South-west. 
In the exact South, Woods of Ebony chiefly flourish ; toward 
the midst of this Region, there is a lofty Mountain looking 
over the Sea, that burneth continually, which the Greeks 
call Theon-ochema ; from which it is counted Four Days' Sail 
to the Promontory called Hesperion-Ceras, 2 on the border of 
Africa, near to the Hesperian Ethiopians. Some Writers 
hold, that this Tract is beautified with little Hills, pleasantly 
clad with shady Groves, wherein are the jEgipanes and 

1 That locusts should form a portion of the food of the people who 
live where they abound, cannot be regarded as surprising. John 
the Baptist fed on them, Matt. iii. 4, and Mark, i. G. They are still 
occasionally used for food in the East. When Khosru Punvis (Chosroes), 
the Sassanian king of Persia, was summoned by Mohammed to adopt his 
doctrine, he contemptuously dismissed the messengers of a chief of "naked 
locust-eaters." The Arabs eat the different species of the migratory 
locusts, and are very fond of them, especially of the red locust, which 
when fat is called Jerad mikhcn. They eat them either fried or broiled, 
or dried in an oven, or boiled with a sprinkle of salt ; the locusts taste 
like dried sprats. The female locust when fat and full of eggs, is a great 
dainty, and greatly esteemed by the male population on account of its 
aphrodisiac qualities. (Niebuhr, Beschreibung von Aralien, p. 170, &c.) 
Wern. Club. 

2 Cap de Bonne Esperance. 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 163 

The Islands of the Ethiopian Sea. 

EPHORUS, Eudoxus, and Timosthenes agree, that there 
are very many Islands in all that Sea. Clitarchus wit- 
nesseth, that report was made to Alexander the King, of one 
which was so rich, that for Horses the Inhabitants would 
give Talents of Gold ; also of another, wherein was a sacred 
Mountain adorned with a shady Wood, where the Trees 
distilled Odours of wonderful Sweetness. Overagainst the 
Persian Gulf lieth the Island named Cerne, opposite to 
Ethiopia; but how large it is, or how far off from the Con- 
tinent, is not certainly known : but this is reported, that 
the Ethiopians only inhabit it. Euphorus writeth, that they 
who would Sail thither from the Red Sea, are not able, from 
the extreme Heat, to pass beyond certain Columns ; for so 
they call the little Islands there. But Polybius affirmeth, 
that this Island Cerne, where it lieth in the utmost Coast of 
Mauritania, overagainst the Mountain Atlas, is but Eight 
Stadia from the Land. On the other hand, Nepos Cornelius 
affirmeth, that it is not above a Mile from the Land, 
overagainst Carthage ; and that it is not above Two Miles 
in Circuit. There is mention made also of another Island 
before the Mountain Atlas, and which is named Atlantis. 
And Five Days' Sailing from it are the Deserts of the 
Ethiopian Hesperians, and a Promontory, which we have 
named Hesperion-Ceras ; where the Coasts of the Land begin 
first to turn about their front to the westward, and the 
Atlantic Sea. Overagainst this Promontory, as Xenophon 
Lampsacenus reporteth, lie the Islands called Gorgates, 
where formerly the Gorgani kept their Habitation, two 
Days' Sailing from the Continent. Hanno, Commander of 
the Carthaginians (Poeni), penetrated to them, and reported 
that the Women were all over their Bodies hairy ; and that 
the Men were so Swift of Foot that they escaped from him ; 
but he placed the Skins of two of these Gorgon Women in 
the Temple of Juno, for aTestimonial, and as a Wonder, and 

164 History of Nature. [BooK VI. 

they were seen there until Carthage was taken. Beyond 
these Isles also there are said to he two Islands of Hesperides. 
But so uncertain are all things concerning these parts, that 
Statins Sebosus affirmeth, it is Forty Days' Sailing from the 
Islands of the Gorgones along the Coast of Atlas, to the 
Isles of the Hesperides ; and from thence to Hesperion- 
Ceras, one. As little certainty there is concerning the 
Islands of Mauritania. In this only they all agree, that Juba 
discovered some few of them over against the Autololes, in 
which he purposed to dye Gsetulian Purple. 1 

Of the Fortunate Islands. 

SOME Authors think, that the Fortunate Islands, and 
some others besides them, are beyond the Autololes ; among 
whom the same Sebosus spoke of their Distances : and parti- 
cularly that the Island Junonia is from Gades 750 Miles ; 
and that from it westward the Isles Pluvialia and Capraria 
are as much : also that in the Island Pluvialia there is no 
Water but what they have by Showers. From them to the 
Fortunate Islands is 250 Miles ; they lie eight Miles from the 
Coast of Mauritania to the Left Hand, called the Coast of 
the Sun, in a Valley, because it is like a Valley or Hollow ; 
and it is also called Planaria, as resembling an even Plain. 
This Valley containeth in Circuit 300 Miles: wherein are 
Trees so luxuriant that they grow to the Height of 144 
Feet. Concerning the Islands named Fortunate, Juba 
learned by diligent inquiry, that they lie from the South 
near to the West 625 Miles from the Islands Purpurarise : 
so that to Sail thither a Man must pass 250 Miles above the 
West, and then for 75 Miles bend his course Eastward. He 
saith, moreover, that the first of these Islands is called Om- 
brion, wherein are no Tokens of Houses. Also that among 
the Mountains it hath a Marsh ; and Trees resembling the 
Plant Ferula, out of which they press Water : that which 

1 On which account in the next chapter these islands are called 
Purpurese. Wern. Club> 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 165 

issueth out of the Black Trees being bitter, and that from 
the Whiter sort sweet and potable. He saith that a second 
Island is named Jimonia, in which there is one little House, 
or Chapel, made of Stone : beyond it, but near by there is a 
third of the same Name, but less in size : and then you come 
to one called Capraria, full of great Lizards. Within sight 
of these is the Island Nivaria, which took this Name from 
the Snow that lieth there continually ; it is also full of Mists. 
The next to it is Canaria, so called from the great number of 
very large Dogs, of which Juba brought away two : and in 
this Island there are some marks remaining of Buildings. 
And as all these Islands abound plentifully with fruitful 
Trees and Birds of all sorts, so this is replenished with 
Palm-trees that bear Abundance of Dates, and likewise with 
Trees that yield Pine Nuts. There is also great plenty of 
Honey : and the Rivers produce the Papyrus Reed, and are 
well stored with the Fish Silurus : and in conclusion he 
saith, that these Islands are much infested with great Ani- 
mals, that are very often cast out in a Putrid Condition. 
Thus having at large gone through the Description of the 
Globe of the Earth, as well without as within, it remaineth 
now to collect into a small space the measure of the Seas. 


A Summary of the Earth, digested according to its 

POLYBIUS layeth it down, that from the Straits of Gib- 
raltar by a straight Course to the Mouth of Moeotis is 3437| 
Miles. From the same starting-place by a right Course east- 
ward to Sicily, it is 1260J Miles ; to Crete, 375 Miles ; to 
Rhodes, 146| Miles ; to the Chelidonian Islands as much ; 
to Cyprus, 325 Miles ; from whence to Seleucia Pieria in 
Syria, 115 Miles. Which computation makes the sum of 
2340 Miles. Agrippa also counteth 3440 Miles for all this 
distance from the Straits of Gibraltar directly forward to the 
Gulf of Issa. In which reckoning I scarcely know whether 
there be an error in the number, because the same Writer 

166 History of Nature. [BOOK VI. 

hath set down the passage from the Sicilian Strait to Alex- 
andria at 1250 Miles. But the whole Circuit through the 
above-said Gulfs, from the point where we began to the Lake 
Moaotis, summed together, is 15,600 Miles. Artemidorus 
added thereto 756 Miles. And the same Geographer 
writeth, that with Mceotis it cometh to 17,390 Miles. This 
is the measure of unarmed Men, and the peaceful boldness 
of such as have not feared to provoke Fortune. Now 
are we to compare the greatness of each part, in spite of 
the Difficulty produced by the Disagreement of Authors. 
But most easily will this appear if we join Longitude and 
Latitude together. According to this prescribed rule the 
Magnitude of Europe is 8148 Miles. Africa (taking the 
middle Computation between them all that have set it down) 
containeth in Length 3748 Miles. The Breadth of so much 
as is inhabited in no Place exceedeth 250 Miles. Agrippa 
would have it to contain 910 Miles in Breadth, beginning at 
the Bounds of Cyrene, and comprehending in this Measure 
the Deserts thereof as far as to the Garamantae, so far as 
they are known ; and then the whole Measure collected into 
one sum amounted to 4608 Miles. Asia 1 is allowed to be in 
Length 63,750 Miles; and its Breadth is truly reckoned 
from the Ethiopian Sea to Alexandria, situated near the 
Nile, so that the Measurement runs through Meroe and 
Syrene, 1875 Miles; whereby it appeareth that Europe is 
little wanting of being half as large again as Asia : and the 
same Europe is twice as much again as all Africa, and a 
sixth part over. Reduce now all these sums together, and it 
will be found clear that Europe is a third part of the whole 
Earth, and something more than an eighth Portion over; 
Asia a fourth part, with a fourteenth; and Africa a fifth, 
with an over-plus of a sixtieth portion. To this Calculation 
we will add one sentence of Greek invention, which shevveth 

1 Pliny's ignorance of the extent of Africa is pardonable, for he knew 
no more of it than the small portion which had come under the Roman 
dominion ; but in his account of Asia he contradicts what he has already 
assigned to India, which is only a part of it, but which he truly repre- 
sented to be larger than Europe. Wern. Club, 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 167 

their exquisite subtilty, in order that we may omit nothing 
in this view of the Situation of the Earth ; that when the 
Position of every Region is known, a Man may likewise come 
to the knowledge of what Society there is between one and 
the other, either of the agreement of the Length of Days and 
Nights, by the Shadows at Noonday, or by the equal Con- 
vexity of the World. To bring this about effectually, I must 
arrange the whole Earth into certain Portions of the Heaven ; 
for there are very many of those Divisions of the World which 
our Astronomers call Circles, and the Greeks, Parallels. 


The Arrangement of the Earth into Parallels and equal 

THE beginning is at that part of India which turns to the 
South. It extends as far as Arabia and the Inhabitants of 
the Red Sea. Under it are comprised the Gedrosi, Persse, 
Carmani, and Elimeei; Parthyene, Aria, Susiane, Mesopo- 
tamia, Seleucia, surnamed Babylonia ; Arabia, so far as 
Petrae, Ccele-Syria, and Pelusium in Egypt ; the Lower 
Coasts, which are called of Alexandria ; the Maritime Parts 
of Africa; all the Towns of Cyrenaica, Thapsus, Adrume- 
tum, Clupea, Carthago, Utica, both Hippoes, Numidia, both 
Realms of Mauritania, the Atlantic Sea, and Hercules' Pil- 
lars. In all the Circumference of this Heaven, at Noon-tide 
of an Equinoctial Day, the Umbilicus, which they call Gno- 
mon, seven Feet Long, casteth a Shadow not above the 
Length of four Feet. The Longest Night or Day is fourteen 
Hours; and the shortest, ten. The following Circle begin- 
neth from India, tending westward, and passeth through 
the midst of Parthia, Persepolis, the nearest parts of Persis, 
the nearer Arabia, Judaea, and the Borders of the Mountain 
Libanus. It embraceth Babylon, Idumaea, Samaria, Hieru- 
solyma, Ascalon, Joppe, Csesarea, Phcenice, Ptolemais, 
Sydon, Tyrus, Berytrus, Botrys, Tripolis, Byblus, Antiochia, 
Laodicea, Seleucia, the Sea-coasts of Cilicia, Cyprus, the 
South Part of Creta, Lilybeum in Sinalia, the North Parts 

168 History of Nature. [BOOK VI. 

of Africa and Numidia. The Gnomon upon the Equi- 
noctial Day, thirty-five Feet in Length, maketh a Shadow 
twenty-four Feet Long. The Longest Day or Night is four- 
teen Hours Equinoctial, and the fifth part of an Hour. The 
third Circle beginneth at the Indians next to the Iinaus, and 
goeth by the Caspian Gates very near to Media, Cataonia, 
Cappadocia, Taurus, Amanus, Issus, the Cilician Gates, 
Soli, Tarsus, Cyprus, Pisidia, Syde in Pamphilia, Lycaonia, 
Patara in Lycia, Xanthus, Caunus, Rhodus, Cou's, Halicar- 
nassus, Gnidus, Doris, Chius, Delus, the Middle Cyclades, 
Gytthium, Malea, Argos, Laconia, Elis, Olympia, Messene, 
Peloponnesus, Syracusa, Catina, the Midst of Sicily, the 
South Part of Sardinia, Carteia, and Gades. The Gnomon 
of one hundred Inches yieldeth a Shadow of seventy-seven 
Inches. The Longest Day hath Equinoctial Hours fourteen 
and a half, with the thirtieth part of an Hour. Under the 
fourth Circle lie those who are on the other Side of Imaus, 
the South Parts of Cappadocia, Galatia, Mysia, Sardis, 
Smyrna, Sipylus, the Mountain Tmolus in Lydia, Caria, 
Ionia, Trallis, Colophon, Ephesus, Miletus, Samos, Chios, 
the Icarian Sea, the Northern Cyclades, Athens, Megara, 
Corinthus, Sicyon, Achsea, Patrse, Isthuios, Epirus, the 
North Parts of Sicily, Narbonensis Gallia toward the East, 1 
the Maritime Parts of Spain beyond New Carthage, and so 
to the West. To a Gnomon of twenty-one feet the Shadows 
answer of seventeen Feet. The Longest Day is fourteen 
Equinoctial Hours, and two-third parts of an Hour. The 
fifth Division containeth from the Entrance of the Caspian 
Sea, Bactra, Iberia, Armenia, Mysia, Phrygia, Hellespontus, 
Troas, Tenedus, Abydus, Scepsis, Ilium, the Mountain Ida, 
Cyzicum, Lampsacum, Sinope, Amisum, Heraclea in Pontus, 
Paphlagonia, Lemnus, Imbrus, Tliasus, Cassandria, Thes- 
salia, Macedonia, Larissa, Amphipolis, Thessalonice, Pella, 
Edessa, Bersea, Pharsalia, Carystum, Euboea, Breotia, 
Chaicis, Delphi, Acarnania, ,/Etolia, Apollonia, Brundisium, 
Tarentum, Thurii, Locri, Rhegium, Lucani, Neapolis, Pu- 

1 Languedoc. 

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 169 

teoli, the Tuscan Sea, Corsica, the Baleares, the Middle of 
Spain. A Gnomon of seven Feet giveth six of Shadow. 
The Longest Day is fifteen Equinoctial Hours. The sixth 
Parallel compriseth the City of Rome, and containeth the 
Caspian Nations, Caucasus, the North Parts of Armenia, 
Apollonia upon Rhindacus, Nicomedia, Nicaea, Chalcedon, 
Byzantium, Lysimachia, Cherrhonesus, the Gulf Melane, 
Abdera, Samothracia, Maronea, jEnus, Bessica, the Mid- 
land Parts of Thracia, Pceonia, the Illyrii, Dyrrhachium, 
Canusium, the utmost Coasts of Apulia, Campania, Hetruria, 
Pisae, Luna, Luca, Genua, Liguria, Antipolis, Massilia, Nar- 
bon, Tarracon, the Middle of Spain called Tarraconensis, 
and thence through Lusitania. To a Gnomon of nine Feet 
the Shadow is eight Feet. The Longest Day hath fifteen 
Equinoctial Hours and the ninth part of an Hour, or the 
fifth, as Nigidlus is of opinion. The seventh Division be- 
ginneth at the other Coast of the Caspian Sea, and falleth 
upon Callatis, Bosphorus, Borysthenes, Tomos, the Back 
Parts of Thracia, the Tribali, the rest of Illyricum, the 
Adriatic Sea, Aquileia, Altinum, Venetia, Vicetia, Patavium, 
Verona, Cremona, Ravenna, Ancona, Picenum, Marsi, 
Peligni, Sabini, Umbria, Ariminum, Bononia, Placentia, 
Mediolanum, and all beyond Apenninum : also over the 
Alps, Aquitaine in Gaul, Vienna, Pyrena&um, and Celtiberia. 
The Gnomon of thirty-five Feet casteth a Shadow thirty-six 
Feet in Length ; yet so, that in some part of Venetia the 
Shadow is equal to the Gnomon. The Longest Day is fif- 
teen Equinoctial Hours, and three-fifth parts of an hour. 
Hitherto we have reported the exact Labours of the Ancients. 
But the most diligent Modern Writers have assigned the rest 
of the Earth not as yet specified, to three Sections. (The 
first) from Tanais through the Lake Maotis and the Sar- 
matae, all the way to Borysthenes, and so by the Daci and a 
part of Germany, the Galliae, and the Coasts of the sur- 
rounding Ocean, where the Day is sixteen Hours long. A 
second, through the Hyperborei and Britannia, where the 
Day is seventeen Hours long. Last of all, is the Scythian 
Parallel, from the Rhiphean Hills unto Thule : in which (as 

170 History of Nature. [BoOK VI. 

we have said) it is Day and Night continually by turns. 
The same Writers have set down two Circles, before those 
Points where the others began, and which we set down. 
The first through the Island Meroe, and Ptolemais upon the 
Red Sea, built for the Hunting of Elephants ; where the 
Longest Day is but twelve Hours and an half: the second 
passing through Syene in Egypt, where the Day hath thir- 
teen Hours. And the same Authors have put to every 
one of the other Circles, even to the very last, half an Hour 





1. Strange Forms of many Na- 


2. Of the Scythians, and other 

People of different Coun- 

3. Of Monstrosities. 

4. The Transmutation of the 

Sexes and of Twins. 

5. De Hominis Generando. 

6. De Conceptions, et Signa 

Sexus in gravidis prseve- 
nientia Partum. 

7. De Conceptu Hominum et Ge- 


8. De Agrippis. 

9 . Monstruosi Partus excisi Utero. 

10. Qui sunt Yopisci. 

1 1 . Exempla numerosac Sobolis. 

12. Examples of those that were 

like one to another. 

13. Qua? sit Generandi Ratio. 

14. De eodem multiplicius. 

15. De Menstruis Mulierum. 

16. Item de llatione Partuum. 

17. The Proportion of the Parts 

of Man's Body, and Things 
therein observed. 

18. Examples of extraordinary 

19. Remarkable Natures of Men. 

20. Of bodily Strength and Swift- 


21. Of excellent Sight. 

22. Who excelled in Hearing. 

23. Examples of Patience. 

24. Examples of Memory. 

25. The Praise of C. Julius Caesar. 

26. The Praise of Pompey the 


27. The Praise of Cato the Elder. 

28. Of Valour and Fortitude. 

29. Of notable Abilities, or the 

Praises of some for their 
singular Talents. 

30. Of Plato, Enniw, Virgil, M. 

Varro, and M. Cicero. 

31. Of Majesty in Behaviour. 

32. Of Authority. 

33. Of certain Divine Persons. 

34. Of (Scipio) Nasica. 

35. Of Chastity. 

36. Of Piety (Natural Kind- 


37. Of Excellency in many Sci- 

ences; in Astrology, Gram- 
mar, Geometry, &c. 

38. Also, Rare Pieces of Work 

made by Artificers. 

39. Of Servants and Slaves. 

40. The Excellency of Nations. 

41. Of perfect Contentment. 

42. Examples of the Variety of 


43. Of those that were twice out- 

lawed and banished : of L. 
Sylla and Q. Metellus. 

44. Of another Metellus. 

45. Of the Emperor Augustus. 


Contents of the Seventh Booh. 


46. Of Men deemed most happy 

by the Gods. 

47. Who was ordered to be wor- 

shipped as a God while he 

48. Of those that lived longer 

than others. 

49. Of different Nativities of 


50. Many Examples of strange 

Accidents in Sickness. 

51. Of the Signs of Death. 

52. Of those that revived when 

they were carried forth (to 
be buried). 

53. Of sudden Death. 

54. Of Sepulchres and Burials. 

55. Of the Soul : or the Manes. 

56. The first Inventors of many 


57. Wherein all Nations first 


58. Of ancient Letters. 

59. The Beginning of Barbers at 


60. When first Dials. 

In sum, there are in this Book, of Histories and Observations, 747. 


Verrius Flaccus, Cn. Gellius, Licinius Mutianus, Mutius, Massurius, 
Agrippina wife of Claudius, M. Cicero, Asinius Pollio, Messala, Rufus, 
Cornelius Nepos, Virgil, Livy, Cordus, Melissus, Sebosus, Cornelius Celsus, 
MaximusValerius, Trogus, Nigidius Figulus, Pomponius Atticus, Pedianus 
Asconius, Salinus, Cato Censorius, Fdbius Vestalis. 


Herodotus, Aristeas, Beta, Isigonus, Crates, Agatharcides, Calliphanes, 
Aristotle, Nymphodorus, Apollonides, Philarchus, Damon, Megasthcnes, 
Ctesias, Tauron, Eudoxus, Onesicritus, Clitarchus, Duris, Artemidorus, 
Hippocrates the Physician, Asclepiander the Physician, Hesiodus, Anacreon, 
Theopompus, Hellanicus, Damasthes, Ephorus, Epigenes, Berosus, Pessiris, 
Necepsus, Alexander Polyhistor, Xenophon, Callimachus, Democritus, DuU- 
lius, Polyhistor the Historian, Strato who wrote against the Propositions and 
Theorems of Ephorus, Heraclides Ponticus, Asclepiades who wrote Trago- 
damena, Philostephanus, Hegesias, Archimachus, Thucydides, Mnesigiton, 
Xenagoras, Metrodorus Scepsius, Anticlides, and Critodemus. 






US we have in the former Books treated of 
the World, and of the Lands, Nations, Seas, 
Islands, and remarkable Cities therein con- 
tained. It remainetli now to discourse of the 
Nature of the Living Creatures comprised within 
the same : a point which would require as deep 
a Contemplation as any other Part whatsoever, if the Mind 
of Man were able to comprehend all the Things. By right 
the chief place is assigned to Man, for whose sake it appears 
that Nature produced all other Creatures ; though this great 
favour of hers is severe as set against all her other Gifts : so 
that it is hard to judge whether she is a kinder Parent to 
Man, or a cruel Step-mother. For, in preference to all other 
Living Creatures, the one she hath clothed with the Riches of 
others : to the rest she hath assigned a variety of Coverings : 
as Shells, Barks, Hard Hides, Spines, Shag, Bristles, Hair, 
Feathers, Quills, Scales, and Fleeces. The Trunks and 

174 History of Nature. [BOOK VII. 

Stems of Trees she hath defended with Bark, which is some- 
times double, against the injuries both of Heat and Cold ! 
Man alone she hath cast all Naked upon the bare Earth, 
even on his Birth-day, immediately to cry and lament : so 
that among so many Living Creatures there is none subject 
to shed Tears and Weep like him from the very onset of his 
Existence. And verily, however forward and active we may 
be, to no one is it given to laugh before he is Forty Days old. 
From this glimmering of Light he is bound fast, and hath 
no Member at liberty ; a thing which is not practised upon 
the Young of any Wild Beast among us. The Child thus 
unhappily born, and who is to rule all other, lieth bound 1 
Hand and Foot, weeping and crying ; and receiveth the 
auspices of Life with Punishments, to make satisfaction for 
this only Fault, that he is born Alive. What madness in 
such as think this the proper Beginning of those who are 
born to be proud ! The first Hope of our Strength, the first 
gift that Time affordeth us, maketh us no better than four- 
footed Beasts. How long ere we can go alone ! How long- 
before we can speak, feed ourselves ! How long continueth 
the Crown of our Heads to palpitate, the mark of our ex- 
ceeding great weakness above all other Creatures ! Then 
the Sicknesses, and so many Medicines devised against these 
Maladies : besides the new Diseases that spring up to 
overcome us. Other Living Creatures understand their 
own Nature ; some assume the use of their swift Feet, 
others of their Wings ; some are Strong ; others able to 
Swim ; but Man knoweth nothing unless he be taught : 
not even to speak, or go, or eat: and, in short, he is 
naturally good at nothing but to weep. And hence some 
have insisted on it, that it is best for a man never to have 
been born, or else speedily to die. To one only, of living 

1 The artificial bandages inflicted on new-born children are the swad- 
dling-clothes referred to in St. Luke's Gospel, c. ii. v. 7 ; but they can 
scarcely be numbered among the necessary evils of humanity, for they 
have long since been abolished in England. In the seventh chapter of 
this Book the Author dwells again on the littleness and misery of the 
human race. Wern, Club. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 175 

Creatures is it given to mourn, one only is guilty of excess, 
and that in a vast variety of ways, and through every Mem- 
ber that he has. Who but we are ambitious ? Who but 
we are avaricious ? None but we possess the extravagant 
desire of living, are superstitious, anxious for our burial, 
and what shall be our fate when we are gone. To none is 
Life more frail ; yet to no Creature is there a greater craving- 
after every thing ; none suflfereth under a more terrifying 
Fear ; and none more furious in his Rage. To conclude, other 
Animals live orderly according to their kind : we see them 
flock together, and stand against others of a contrary kind ; 
the Lions, though savage, fight not one with another ; 
Serpents sting not Serpents : and even the very Beasts and 
Fishes of the Sea war not upon their own kind : but, by Her- 
cules ! the greatest part of the evils that happen to Men are 
from the hand of Man himself. 

The wonderful Forms of Nations. 

IN our reports of Nations we have spoken in general of 
the Human Race spread over the Face of the Earth. Neither 
is it our purpose at present to describe particularly all their 
numberless Customs and Manners of Life, which are as 
many as there are Assemblies of Men. However, I think it 
good not to omit all, but to make relation of some things 
concerning those People especially who live furthest from 
the Sea; among whom, I doubt not but I shall find such 
matter as to most Men will seem both prodigious and 
incredible. For whoever believed that there were Ethio- 
pians before he saw them? what is it that seemeth not a 
Wonder at the First Sight? how many things are judged 
impossible before they are done? and the Power and Ma- 
jesty of Nature in every particular action seemeth incre- 
dible, if we consider the same severally, and do not em- 
brace the whole at once in the Mind. For, to say nothing 
of the Peacocks' Feathers, of the Spots of Tigers and Pan- 
thers, of the Colours that ornament so many Creatures 

176 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

besides : let us come to one only point, which to speak of 
seemeth small, but being deeply weighed, is a matter of 
exceeding great regard ; and that is, the Speech of so 
many Nations ; so many Tongues ; so much Variety of 
Utterance, that a Foreigner seems to be something different 
from a Man. Then to view the variety that appeareth in 
our Face and Countenance; although there be not more 
than Ten Members or a few more, among so many thousand 
of these, not Two Persons are to be found who are not 
distinct in Likeness: a thing which no Art can perform, in 
a small number out of so many. And yet thus much must 
I advertise my Readers, that I will not pawn my credit 
for many things that I shall deliver ; but I will rather 
direct them to the Authors, who will answer them in 
all doubtful points : only let them not think much to follow 
the Greeks, whose Diligence hath been greater, and their 
Attention of longer standing. 

Of the Scythians, and the Diversity of othei* Nations. 1 

THAT there are Scythians, and even many kinds of 
them, who feed ordinarily on Man's Flesh, we have shewn 

1 The belief of the ancients in the existence of many anomalous races 
of mankind, was a portion of the science of the age ; and not to have 
given it credit, and a place in his work, would have subjected the author 
to as much reproach for scepticism, as the notice he has taken of them 
has done for his alledged credulity. And so far as Greek authority ex- 
tended, the degree of credit which Pliny assigned to these strange races, 
appears to have been well founded ; for except in one or two instances, 
the errors appear to have sprung from misinterpretation, rather than 
from a positive departure from truth. Aristotle is sufficient authority 
for the existence of a race of pigmies, who are also mentioned by Hero- 
dotus ; and in more modern times that excellent naturalist Belon is satis- 
fied concerning them. Nor can we, even now, refuse to admit the possi- 
bility of finding their representatives in the Bushmen still existing in 
Southern Africa. On the other hand, the existence of men of enormous 
stature, of which some stupendous instances are given by Pliny (b. vii. 
c. xvi.), is attested by profane as well as by sacred history. Thus Pau- 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 177 

already, (Bookiv. 12; vi.l.) The thing itself would be thought 
incredible, if we did not consider that in the very Middle of 
the World, even in Sicily and Italy, there have been Nations of 
such Monsters, as the Cyclopae and Lystrigonse : and also very 

sanias (in his " Atticks," quoted by Bishop Cumberland in his translation 
of Sanchoniatho) says, that he saw in the Upper Lydia bones whose 
figure would satisfy any man that they were men's bones, but their big- 
ness was above the now known size of men. He also mentions the bones 
of Asterius, in the neighbouring country of the Milesians ; giving the 
dimensions of his body to be no less than ten cubits long, and that he 
was the son of Anax ; a name singularly corresponding with a race men- 
tioned by Moses, and the sight of whom terrified and humbled the Is- 
raelitish spies. It is not a little strange, as Bishop Cumberland remarks, 
quoting from Cicero " de Natura Deorum," that there is reason to believe, 
one of the very ancient and gigantic persons known under the name of 
Hercules had six fingers on each hand, as is also noticed of the last de- 
scendants of this mighty race, in the second book of Samuel, c. xxi. The 
tradition that such enormous people existed in the early ages of the 
world is often referred to by Homer, and other ancient writers, who 
drew from thence the erroneous conclusion, that the whole human race 
had, since their day, become gradually weaker and more diminutive ; 
whereas, in the only authentic history of these remote ages it is clearly 
intimated, that this vast stature was limited to particular families or 
nations, who even at that time were thought remarkable by all besides ; 
and who were finally exterminated by their neighbours, perhaps as the 
only resource against their violence. The Macrocephali, or long heads, 
(mentioned b. vi. c. 4) may be supposed to have owed their peculiarity to 
the habit of employing pressure to mould their heads in early infancy 
into the compressed and elevated form, as is now practised by some tribes 
on the continent of America ; and such as are mentioned with exceedingly 
short necks may, perhaps, have been marked only with a personal de- 
formity ; but the people with intensely black skin, to all of whom, how- 
ever otherwise different, the ancients seem to have assigned indiscrimi- 
nately the name of Ethiopians, are judged by Pliny to display a more 
remarkable phenomenon than all the strange forms he has occasion to 
notice ; as we also should probably do, if living instances had not ren- 
dered it common. We may include in another section those singular 
examples of the human race, which the author supposes to be comprised 
in nations, but which are more probably reported as of rare or casual 
occurrence, or perhaps nothing beyond an accidental monstrosity. Such 
we know to be the case with the Albinoes, with white hair and tender 
eyes ; and perhaps also the monoculous king, and the Arimaspians, who 
are mentioned also by Herodotus, together with the other Cyclopaean 


178 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

lately, on the other side of the Alps, 1 there are those that 
kill Men for Sacrifice, after the manner of those (Scythian) 
people, which differs but little from eating their Flesh. 
Moreover, near to those Scythians that inhabit Northward, 
not far from the very rising of the North-east Wind, and 

people, whose singularities may have referred to some manner in the 
habitual use of the organ, rather than to an actual deformity. A third 
section of these supposed anomalous people may obviously be referred to 
the quadrumanous tribes: a class of creatures so nearly approaching to 
the external form of humanity, that we cannot feel surprised if ignorant 
travellers, who viewed only at a distance, and with minds prepared to 
welcome every wonder the oran outang and pongo were not able to 
discern a generic difference between them and the truly human race. 
Such were the hairy men and women mentioned in the 31st chapter of 
this book, the satyrs, Choromandae, and people with no noses, or having 
tails, a figure of the latter being found on an abraxis, or amulet, engraved 
by Montfau9on ; but through the whole of his narrative we observe that 
the author is careful to give his authorities, as being aware that what 
appeared so strange must be made to rest upon the credit of those who 
had originally reported it. Some of these instances, indeed, admit of no 
interpretation that we are able to afford them ; but in regard to one of 
the strangest of them, Purchas gives the authority of Fitch, an English- 
man : " I went from Bengala into the country of Couche, not far from 
Cauchin China. The people have ears which be marvellous great, of a 
span long, which they draw out in length by devices when they be 
young." In addition to the strange forms of men mentioned by Pliny, 
Diodorus Siculus mentions some in an island discovered by Jambulus, 
whose bones were as flexible as nerves (tendons) : the holes of their ears 
far wider than ours ; and with tongues deeply cloven, so that they imi- 
tate the song of birds, and can ordinarily speak to two men at once. 
Wern. Club. 

1 The people here referred to are the Gauls. Caesar (de Bell. Gall. 
lib. vi.) says, " The whole nation of the Gauls is much addicted to reli- 
gious observances, and on that account, those who are attacked by any of 
the more serious diseases, and those who are involved in the danger of 
warfare, either offer human sacrifices or make a vow that they will offer 
them, and they employ the Druids to officiate at their sacrifices ; for they 
consider that the favour of the immortal gods cannot be conciliated, 
unless the life of one man be offered up for that of another : they have also 
sacrifices of the same kind appointed on behalf of the state. Some have 
images of enormous size, the limbs of which they make of wicker-work, 
and fill with living men, and setting them on fire, the men are destroyed 
by the flames." Wern. Club. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 1 79 

about that Cave out of which that Wind is said to issue, 
which place they call Gesclithron, the Arimaspi are reported 
to dwell, who, as we have said, 1 are distinguished by having 
One Eye in the midst of their Forehead, and who are in 
constant War about the Mines with the Griffins, 2 a flying 
kind of Wild Beasts, which used to fetch Gold out of the 
Veins of those Mines ; which savage Beasts (as many Authors 
have recorded, and particularly Herodotus and Aristeas the 
Proconnesian, two Writers of greatest Name) strive as 
eagerly to keep the Gold as the Arimaspi to snatch it from 
them. Above those other Scythians called Anthropophagi, 
there is a Country named Abarimon, within a certain 
extensive Valley of the Mountain Imaus, in which are 
Wild Men, wandering about among brute Beasts, and 
having their Feet directed backward behind the Calves 
of their Legs, but able to run very swiftly. This kind 
of Men cannot live in any other Climate than their own, 
which is the reason that they cannot be conveyed to the 
Kings that border upon them ; nor could they be brought 
to Alexander the Great, as Beton hath reported, who was 
the Surveyor of the Journeys of that Prince. The former 
Anthropophagi whom we have placed in the North, Ten 
Days' Journey above the River Borysthenes, are accustomed 
to drink out of the Skulls of Men, and to wear the Skins 
with the Hair for Mantles before their Breasts, according 
to Isigonus the Nicean. The same Writer affirmeth, that 
in Albania there are produced certain Individuals who have 
the Sight of their Eyes of a bluish-grey Colour, who from 
their Childhood are grey-headed, and can see better by 
Night than by Day. He reporteth also that Ten Days' 
Journey above the Borysthenes, there are the Sauromatse, 
who never eat but once in Three Days. Crates of Per- 
gamus saith, that in Hellespont about Pariuni there was 
a kind of Men, whom he nameth Ophiogenes, who, if one 
were stung by a Serpent, with touching only will ease it; 
and if they lay their Hand upon the Wound, are able to 

1 Lib. iv. 12, and lib. vi. 17. 

* The griffins are again mentioned, book x. chap. 49. Wern. Club. 

180 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

draw forth all the Poison from the Body. Varro also testi- 
fieth, that even at this Day there are a few who cure the 
Stinging of Serpents with their Spittle. Agatharcides 
writeth, that in Africa the Psylli, 1 who are so called from 
king Psyllus, whose Sepulchre is in a part of the Greater 

1 The earliest existing reference that we have to the Psylli, or serpent- 
charmers, is found in the 58th Psalm, the 8th verse ; and the art is yet 
practised in the East. These men were, and still are, distinct tribes in 
their several countries, professing the power they claim to be an inherent 
and natural function. Lucan, in the 5th book of his " Pharsalia," gives a 
complete exposition of the ancient belief concerning the charming of ser- 
pents. He chiefly describes the measures which were taken to protect 
the Roman camp. When the encampment was marked out, the serpent- 
charmers marched around it chanting their charms, the mystic sounds of 
which chased the serpents far away. But not trusting entirely to this, 
fires of different kinds of wood were kept up beyond the furthest tents, 
the smell of which prevented the serpents from approaching. Thus the 
camp was protected during the night. But if any soldier when abroad in 
the day time happened to be bitten, the Psylli exerted their power to 
effect a cure. First they rubbed the wounded part around with saliva, 
to prevent, as they said, the poison from spreading while they assayed 
their arts to extract it : 

" Then sudden he begins the magic song, 

And rolls the numbers hasty o'er his tongue ; 

Swift he runs on, nor pauses once for breath, 

To stop the progress of approaching death ; 

He fears the cure might suffer by delay, 

And life be lost but for a moment's stay. 

Thus oft, though deep within the veins it lies, 

By magic numbers chased, the mischief flies : 

But if it hear too slow, if still it stay, 

And scorn the potent charmer to obey ; 

With forceful lips he fastens on the wound, 

Drains out and spits the venom to the ground." HOWE. 
Lane (" Modern Egyptian") gives a particular account of the different 
methods made use of by the Psylli of the present day when exhibiting 
their supposed powers. As to the pretensions of ancient as well as mo- 
dern serpent-charmers, of being in their own persons insensible to the 
poison of the reptiles, there is no satisfactory proof of it : indeed numerous 
instances to the contrary have occurred ; and where they escape unharmed, 
it is to be attributed to the poison fangs having been previously extracted, 
or to their fearless handling of the deadly creatures. See the note on 
Ps. Iviii. 5, in the " Pictorial Bible," by Dr. Kitto. Wern. Club. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 181 

Syrtes, could do the like. These Men had naturally in 
their Bodies a Poison fatal to Serpents, so that by the 
Smell of it they were able to stupify them. And by 
this means they used to try the Chastity of their Wives. 
For as soon as their Children were born, they exposed 
them to the most furious Serpents ; for these would not fly 
from them if they were begotten in Adultery. This Nation, 
in general, hath been almost entirely extirpated by the 
Nasamones, who now inhabit those parts; but a kind of 
these Men remaineth still, descended from those who fled, 
or else who were not present when the Battle was fought; but 
they exist in small Companies. In like manner, the Nation 
of the Marsi continue in Italy, who preserve the Reputa- 
tion of being descended from a Son of Circe, and therefore 
possess the same natural faculty. Yet so it is that all Men 
possess within them that which is Poison to Serpents : for 
it is reported they flee from Man's Spittle, as they do from 
the touch of Scalding Water ; but if it penetrate into their 
Mouth, especially if it come from a Man that is fasting, it is 
present Death. Beyond the Nasamonse, and their Neigh- 
bours the Machlyse, there are Androgyni, of a double Nature, 
inter se vicibus coeuntes, as Calliphanes reporteth. Aristotle 
adds, that their Right Breast is like that of a Man, and the 
Left that of a Woman. In the same Africa Isigonus and Nym- 
phodorus avouch that there are certain Families of Charmers: 
who, if they praise, destroy the Sheep, cause the Trees to 
wither, and Infants to pine away to death. Isigonus addeth 
further, that there are People of the same kind among the Tri- 
balli and Illyrii, who charm with their Eyesight, and kill those 
whom they look upon for a long time, especially if their Eyes 
look angry : which Evil of theirs is more quickly felt by those 
who are above the age of Puberty. It is worthy of remark, 
that they have two Pupils in each Eye. Of this kind Apol- 
lonides saith, there are also Women in Scythia named Bithyse. 
PJdlarchus witnesseth, that in Pontus also the Race of 
the Thibii, and many others, have the same Quality : of 
whom he giveth these marks, that in one of their Eyes they 
have two Pupils, and in the other the Resemblance of a 

182 History of Nature. [BOOK VII. 

Horse. He reporteth also, that they cannot sink in the 
Water, not even if weighed down with Apparel. Damon 
reports that there is a sort of People not unlike these in 
Ethiopia, called Pharnaces, whose Sweat, if it chance to 
touch a Man's Body, presently causeth him to waste away. 
And Cicero, 1 a Writer of our own, testifieth, that all Women 
everywhere who have double Pupils in their Eyes inflict 
Injury with their Sight. In such manner Nature, having 
generated in Man this custom of Wild Beasts, to feed upon 
the Bowels of Men, hath taken Delight also to generate 
Poisons in their whole Body, and even in the very Eyes of 
some ; that there should be no evil in the whole World, that 
might not be likewise found in Man. Not far from the City 
of Rome, within the Territory of the Falisci, there are a few 
Families called Hirpiae, which at their Yearly Sacrifice cele- 
brated to Apollo upon the Mount Soracte, walk upon the 
pile of Wood as it is on Fire without being burnt. 2 On 
which account, by a perpetual Act of the Senate, they possess 
an Immunity from War and all other Public Services. 
Some men have certain Parts of their Bodies naturally 
working surprising Effects. As for example, King Pyrrhus, 3 
whose Great Toe of his Right Foot was a Remedy by its 

1 This must have been in some of the lost works of Cicero, as no 
such opinion is found in any of his extant writings. Wern. Club. 

1 The art of treading bare-foot on burning embers, red-hot iron, &c., 
which has its professors in the present day, is from this passage shewn to 
be of great antiquity ; Virgil also alludes to the same when he speaks of 
the annual festival of the Hirpi on Mount Soracte, in Etruria, where 
Chlorcus, the priest of Cybele, thus addresses Apollo (/En. xi. 785) : 
" O patron of Soracte's high abodes ! 
Phoebus, the ruling power among the gods ! 
Whom first we serve : whole woods of unctuous pine 
Are fell'd for thee, and to thy glory shine ; 
By thee protected^ with our naked soles, 

Through flames unsinged we march, and tread the kindled coals." 

DRYDEN. Wern. Club. 

3 According to Plutarch, in his life of Pyrrhus, the person of this king 
was very extraordinary : " Instead of teeth in his upper jaw, he had one 
continued bone, marked with small lines resembling the divisions of a row 

BOOK V 1 1 .] History of Nature, 1 83 

Touch for them that had Diseased Spleens. And they say, that 
when the rest of his Body was Burned that Great Toe could 
not be consumed : so that it was preserved in a little Case in 
the Temple. But principally India and the whole Tract of 
Ethiopia is full of these wonderful Things. The greatest Ani- 
mals are bred in India, as will appear by their Dogs, 1 which 
are much greater than those of other Parts. And there are 
Trees growing in that Country to such a Height, that a 
Man cannot shoot an Arrow over them. The reason of this 
is the Goodness of the Soil, the Temperature of the Air, and 
the Abundance of Water: which is the cause also that under 
a single Fig-tree, 2 if it can be believed, Squadrons of Horse- 
men may stand. There are Reeds also of such Length 3 that 
between every Joint they will yield sufficient to make Boats 
able to receive three Men. There are many Men there who 
are above five Cubits in Height : never do they Spit : they 
are not troubled with Pain in the Head, Toothache, or any 
Disease of the Eyes, and seldom of any other Parts of the 
Body; so hardy are they through the Moderate Heat of the 
Sun. There are certain Philosophers, whom they call Gym- 
nosophistae, 4 who from Sunrising to its setting persevere in 
standing and looking full against the Sun without once 

of teeth. It was believed that he cured the swelling of the spleen, by 
sacrificing a white cock, and with his right foot gently pressing the part 
affected, the patients lying on their backs for that purpose. There was 
no person, however poor or mean, to whom he refused this relief, if 
requested. He received no reward, except the cock for sacrifice ; and this 
present was very agreeable to him. It is also said that the great toe of 
that foot had a divine virtue in it ; for, after his death, when the rest of 
his body was consumed, that toe was found entire and untouched by the 
flames." LANGHORNE. The reader will here be reminded of the royal 
touch for the cure of scrofulous diseases once exercised by our own kings. 
Wern. Club. 

1 Pliny (lib. viii. 40) tells us of one of these Indian dogs that con- 
quered a lion. Wern. Club. 

3 The Ficus Religiosa, well known to modern travellers. Wern. Club. 

3 Lib. xvi. 36. 

4 It is remarkable to observe how exactly the austerities of these 
ancient gymnosophists are still practised by the Fakirs of India. Wern. 

184 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

moving their Eyes : and from Morning to Night stand some- 
times on one Leg, and sometimes on the other, on the Burn- 
ing Sand. Meyasthenes writeth, that on a Mountain named 
Milo, there are Men whose Feet are turned backward, and 
on each Foot they have eight Toes. And in many other 
Mountains there is a kind of Men with Heads like Dogs, clad 
all over with the Skins of Wild Beasts, and who instead of 
Speech used to Bark : they are armed with Nails, and they live 
on the Prey which they get by Hunting Beasts, and Fowling. 
Ctesias writeth that there were known of them above 
120,000 in number ; and that in a certain Country of 
India the Women bear but once in their Life, and their 
Infants presently become Grey. Likewise, that there is a 
kind of People named Monoscelli, which have but one Leg, 
but they are exceedingly Swift, and proceed by Hopping. 
These same Men are also called Sciopodse, because in the 
hottest Season they lie along on their Back on the Ground, 
and defend themselves with the Shadow of their Feet : and 
these People are not far from the Trogloditae. Again, be- 
yond these westward, some there are without a Neck, but 
carrying their Eyes in their Shoulders. Among the Western 
Mountains of India there are the Satyri (the Country where 
they are is called the Region of the Cartaduli), the swiftest 
of all Animals : which sometimes run on four Legs, at 
others on two Feet like Men : but so light-footed are they, 
that unless they are very Old or Sick they cannot be taken. 
Tauron writeth, that the Choromandee are a wild People, 
without any Voice, but uttering a horrible Noise : their 
Bodies Hairy, their Eyes bluish-grey, their Teeth like Dogs. 
Eudoxus saith, that in the South Parts of India the Men 
have Feet a Cubit long, but those of the Women 1 are 
so small that they are called Struthopodes. Megasthenes 
writeth, that among the Indian Nomadse there is a Nation 

1 This character is so applicable to Chinese women, that it seems to 
point out the great antiquity to which the strange custom of binding their 
feet can be traced. The name of Struthopodes, or ostrich-footed, can only 
have been applied to them by foreigners, but is not badly descriptive of 
the figure of this artificial deformity. Wern. Club. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 185 

that instead of Noses have only two small Orifices, and after 
the manner of Snakes have wiry Legs, and are named 
Syrictse. In the utmost Borders of India, eastward, about 
the Source of the Ganges, there is a Nation called the 
Asthomes, having no Mouths : hairy over the whole Body, 
but clothed with the Down of the Branches of Trees : they 
live only by the Vapour and Smell which they draw in at 
their Nostrils : no Meat or Drink do they take, but only 
various pleasant Odours from Roots, Flowers, and Wild 
Fruits ; which they carry with them when they take a Long 
Journey, because they would not miss their Smelling; but if 
the Scent be a little too strong they are soon deprived of 
Life. Higher in the Country, in the Edge of the Mountains, 
the Pygmaei Spithamei are reported to be ; which are three 
Spans in Length, that is, not exceeding three times nine 
Inches. The Climate is healthy, and ever like the Spring, 
by reason that the Mountains are on the North side of them. 
And these People Homer* also hath reported to be much 
annoyed by Cranes. The report goeth, that in the Time of 
Spring they set out all in a great Troop, mounted upon the 
Backs of Rams and Goats, armed with Darts, to go down to 
the Sea-side, and devour the Eggs and Young of their 
Winged prey. For three Months this Expedition continueth, 
for otherwise they would not be able to withstand their future 
Flocks. Their Cottages are made of Clay, Feathers, and 
Egg-shells. Aristotle 2 writeth, that the Pygmsei live in 
Caves. For all the other matters he reported the same as 
all the rest. Isigonus saith, that the kind of Indians named 
Cyrni live a hundred and forty Years. The like he thinketh 
of the Ethiopian Macrobii and the Serse, and those who 

1 Iliad, lib. iii. 6 : 

" So when inclement winters vex the plain 
With piercing frosts, or thick descending rain, 
To warmer seas the cranes embodied fly, 
With noise, and order, through the mid- way sky : 
To pygmy nations wounds and death they bring, 
And all the war descends upon the wing." POPE. 

a Hist. Anim. lib. viii. 15. 

186 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

dwell upon Mount Athos : and of these last, because they 
Feed on Vipers' 1 Flesh, and therefore it is that no offensive 
Creatures are found on their Heads, nor on their Clothes. 
Onesicritus affirmeth, that in those Parts of India there are 
no Shadows, that the Men are five Cubits and two Palms in 
Stature, that they live one hundred and thirty Years : and 
never bear the Marks of Age, but die as if they were in the 
middle of their age. Crates of Pergamus nameth those 
Indians, who live above an hundred Years, Gymnetae : but 
not a few call them Macrobii. Ctesias saith there is a Race 
of Indians, named Pandore, inhabiting certain Valleys, who 
live two hundred Years : in their youthful Time their Hair is 
White, but as they grow old it becometh Black. On the 
other hand, there are some who are Neighbours to the 
Macrobii, who exceed not forty Years, and their Women 
bear but once in their Lifetime. And this also is avouched 
by Agatharcides, who addeth, that they feed on Locusts, and 
are swift of Foot. Clitarchus and Megasthenes name them 
Mandri, and number up three hundred Villages in their 
Country : also, that the Women bear Children when they 
are but seven Years old, and are aged at forty. Artemi- 
dorus affirmeth, that in the Island Taprobana the People 
live exceeding long without any Bodily Infirmity. Duris 
maketh report, that certain Indians have fellowship witli 
Beasts, of which acquaintance are bred a mixed and half 
Savage Race ; that among the Calingi, a Nation of India, 
the Women conceive at five Years of Age, and live not above 
eight. In another Tract of that Country, there are Men with 
shaggy Tails and of great Swiftness : and some again that 
with their Ears cover their whole Body. The Orites are 
divided from the Indians by the River Arbis. They are 
acquainted with no other Food but Fish, which they split 
in Pieces with their Nails, and Roast against the Sun, 
and then make Bread of it, as Clitarchus makes Report. 
Crates of Pergamus saith, that the Trogloditae above Ethiopia 
are swifter than Horses, and that there are Ethiopians above 

1 Lib. xxix. 6. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 187 

eight Cubits High : that this Nation of Ethiopian Nomades 
is called Syrbotse, and dwelleth along the River Astapus, 
toward the North. The Nation called Menismini dwell 
Twenty Days' Journey from the Ocean, and live on the Milk 
of certain Animals which we call Cynocephali, 1 of which 
they keep Flocks of the Females, but they kill the Males, 
except only enough to preserve the Race. In the Deserts of 
Africa you will meet oftentimes with Appearances in the 
shape of Men, but they vanish in an instant. Ingenious 
Nature disposes this and such-like things, as a Pastime to 
her, but which are Miracles to us. And indeed, who is able 
to recount every one of her Sports, which she accomplishes 
daily and even hourly ? Let it suffice therefore, in order to 
declare her Power, that we have set down those prodigious 
Works of hers, as displayed in whole Nations. And now we 
proceed to a few Particulars that are well known in regard 
to Man. 


Of Prodigious Births* 

THAT Women may bring forth three at one Birth, ap- 
peareth evidently by the example of the Horatii and Curiatii. 
But to exceed that number is reputed to be among the Por- 
tents ; except in Egypt, where Women are more fruitful by 
drinking the Water of the Nile. Of late Years, about the 
latter end of the Reign of Divus Augustus, a Woman at Ostia 
named Fausta, of ordinary Rank, was delivered of two 
Boys and as many Girls ; but this was a Portent beyond 

1 The cynocephalus anubis of modern zoologists is without doubt here 
intended. Wern. Club. 

2 " Prodigious births :" that is, not simply out of the common course 
of nature, but such as were believed to be prophetic of some remarkable 
events, and so reported by augurs to the proper authorities. What, at the 
end of this chapter, Pliny reports that he had himself seen, is of no uncom- 
mon occurrence, and would be regarded among us as nothing beyond a 
monstrous birth, an irregular formation of nature ; but the incident he 
mentions last can only be regarded as a proof of the great agitation of the 
public mind, at a period when the danger was a sufficient motive to raise 
and propagate the strangest reports. Wern. Club. 

1 88 History of Nature. [ BOOK VII. 

doubt of the Famine that ensued. In Peloponnesus also 
there is found a Woman, who brought forth at four Births 
twenty Children, and the greater Part of them lived. 
Trogus is the authority, that in Egypt a Woman hath borne 
seven at a Birth. It falleth out, moreover, that there come 
into the World Children of both Sexes in one, whom we call 
Hermaphrodites. In old Time they were known by the 
Name of Androgyni, and reputed for Prodigies ; but now 
Men take Pleasure in them. Pompey the Great, in the 
Theatre which he adorned with remarkable Ornaments, as 
well for the subject as the most exquisite Hand of the great 
Artists, among other Images represented Euticht, a Woman 
of Tralles, who after she had borne thirty Births, was carried 
by twenty of her Children to the Funeral Fire for to be 
burnt. Alcippb was delivered of an Elephant, and that 
certainly was a monstrous Token. Also in the beginning of 
the Marsian War a Bondwoman brought forth a Serpent. 1 

1 We know how prone vulgar ignorance or superstition is to compare 
an ordinary monstrous birth to some fancied animal. Such is within the 
knowledge of living observers. But what shall we say to the following? 
" Lemnius tells us of a monster, that a certain woman was delivered of, 
and to whom he himself was physician and present at the sight, which at 
the appearing of the day filled all the chamber with roaring and crying, 
running all about to find some hole to creep into ; but the women at the 
length stifled and smothered it with pillows." Wanleys Wonders of the 
Little World. And from the same authority : " Johannes Naborowsky, 
a noble Polonian, and my great friend, (says Barth olini, " Hist. Anat.") 
told me at Basil, that he had seen in his country two little fishes without 
scales, which were brought forth by a woman, and as soon as they came 
out of her womb did swim in the water as other fish." The story given 
by Wormius, concerning the birth of an egg from a woman (and of which 
he gives a figure in his " Museum Wormianum,") is illustrated, and per- 
haps explained, as may all the others on the same principle, by another 
given in Wanley's book, of a woman " of good quality, who had made 
great preparations for her lying-in, but in the last month her distension 
subsided, and it is confessed that she plumped herself up with a stuffing of 
garments. However, the time must come at last, and she was delivered 
of a creature, very like unto a dormouse of the greater size, which to the 
amazement of the women who were present, with marvellous celerity 
sought out and found a hole in the chamber, into which it crept and was 
never seen after." Instances somewhat similar have occurred in very 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 189 

Many misshapen Creatures of various kinds are produced as 
Monsters in the World. Claudius Ccesar writeth, that in Thes- 
saly an Hippocentaur was born, and that it died on the very 
same Day. And when he was Sovereign we ourselves saw the 
like sent to him out of Egypt, preserved in Honey. Among 
the Instances there is one of a Child in Saguntum, in the Year 
in which that Town was destroyed by Annibal, which, as soon 
as it was born, presently returned again into the Womb. 

Of the Change of the Sex ; T and of Double Births. 

IT is no fable, that Females may be turned to Males ; 
for we have found it recorded in the Annals, that in the Year 
when Pub. Licinius Crassus and C. Cassius Longinus were 
Consuls, there was at Cassinum a Maid who, under her 
Parents, became a Boy : and by the order of the Aruspices 
he was conveyed to a Desert Island. Lucinius Mutianus re- 
porteth, that himself saw at Argos a Person named Arescon, 
who had borne the Name of Arescusa, and even had been 
Married : but afterwards came to have a Beard, and the 
general Properties of a Man, and thereupon married a Wife. 
After the same sort he saw at Smyrna a Boy changed. I 
myself was an Eye-witness, that in Africa L. Cossicius, a 

recent times, to the great disappointment of expecting friends : and the 
laugh could only have been rendered the louder if, instead of a simple dis- 
appointment, an egg or dormouse, an elephant or serpent had been the 
result. By law, " Ut monstrosos partus necare parentibus liceret," that 
" it should be lawful to parents to put to death children that were born 
monstrous;" but Dionysius Halicarnasseus adds, that it was necessary 
they should call witnesses to prove that they were monstrous : although 
the latter stipulation can scarcely be reconciled with another law, which 
gave to parents the right of life and death over their children. Accord- 
ing to the law of Tullus Hostilius, third king of Rome, when three chil- 
dren were born at one birth, they were to be brought up to the age of 
maturity at the public charge. Wern. Club. 

1 Instances similar to these are scarcely uncommon, and the causes 
are well known to anatomists. The remarks concerning the fate of twins 
are so contrary to experience, that Pliny's error can scarcely be accounted 
for. Wern. Club. 

190 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

Citizen of Tisdrita, was turned from a Woman to a Man 
upon the very Marriage-day. If a Woman bring Twins, it 
is rare for them all to live, but either the Mother dieth, or 
one of the Babes, if not both. But if the Twins be of both 
Sexes, it is rare for both of them to escape. Women grow 
old sooner than Men ; arid they grow to their Maturity more 
speedily than Men. It is certain that a Male Child stirreth 
oftener in the Womb, and lieth commonly more to the right 
Side ; whereas Females incline to the left. 1 

CAP. V. 

De Hominis Generando, et Pariendi Tempore per illustria 
Exempla a Mensibus septem ad undecim? 

C.ETERIS animantibus statum, et pariendi, et partus 
gerendi tempus est ; homo toto anno, et incerto gignitur 
spatio. Alius septimo mense, alius octavo, et usque ad iuitia 
decimi undecimique. Ante septimum mensem haud unquam 
vitalis est. Septimo non nisi pridie posterove plenilunii die, 
aut interlunio concepti nascuntur. Translatitium in ^Egypto 
est et octavo gigni. Jam quidem et in Italia tales partus 
esse vitales, contra priscorum opiniones. Variant hsec plu- 
ribus modis. Vestilia C. Herditii ac postea Pomponii atque 
Orfiti, clarissimorum civium, conjunx, ex his quatuor partus 
enixa, Sempronium septimo mensi genuit, Suillium Rufum 
undecimo, Corbulonem septimo, utrunque Consulem : postea 
Cffisoniam Caii 3 principis conjugem, octavo. In quo men- 
sium numero genitis, intra quadragesimum diem maximus 

1 No signs are known by which the sex of the child before birth is in 
the least indicated. Wern Club. 

* The term of pregnancy natural to the human female is 280 days ; 
by the Prussian laws, 300 days ; by the French, 301 days are considered 
to mark the extreme limit. From physiological reasons it is extremely 
improbable if the usual term of nine calendar, or ten lunar months, is 
ever exceeded by more than one lunar month. Wern. Club. 

J The emperor so named is better known by the name of Caligula, 
which was imposed upon him on account of the military shoe which, 
when a child, he wore in the camp. The wife's father here spoken of 
was the Emperor Augustus. Wern. Club. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 191 

labor. Gravidis autem quarto et octavo mense, letalesque in 
iis abortus. Massurius auctor est, L. Papyrium Praetorem, 
secundo hserede lege agente, bonorum possessionem coutra 
eum dedisse, cum mater partum se 13 mensibus diceret 
tulisse, quoniam nullum certum tempus pariendi statutum 
videretur. 1 


De Conceptibus, et Signa Sexus in gravidis pravenientia 

A CONCEPTU decimo die, doloris capitis, oculorum verti- 
ginis tenebraeque, fastidium in cibis, redundatio stomachi, 
indices sunt hominis inchoati. Melior color raarem ferenti, 
et facilior partus : motus in utero quadragesimo die. Con- 
traria omnia in altero sexu : ingestabile onus, crurum et 
inguinum levis tumor. Primus autem nonagesimo die 
motus. Sed plurimum languoris in utroque sexu, capil- 
lum germinante partu, et in plenilunio ; quod tempus editos 
quoque infantes praecipue infestat. Adeoque incessus, atque 
omne, quicquid dici potest, in gravida refert : ut salsioribus 
cibis usae, carentem unguiculis partum edant, et, si respi- 
ravere, difficilius enitantur. Oscitatio quidem in enixu letalis 
est : sicut sternuisse a co'itu abortivum. 

De Conceptu Hominwn et Generatione. 

MISERET atque etiam pudet aestimantem quam sit frivola 
animalium superbissimi origo, cum plerunque abortus causa 
fiat odor a lucernarum extinctu. His principiis nascuntur 
tyranni, his carnifex animus. Tu qui corporis viribus fidis, 

1 According to the Eoman law : " Sei qua molier post virei mortem 
in decem proximeis mensebos pariat, quei, quave ex ea nascatur, sonus, 
suave, in verei familia heres estod :" "If a woman is delivered of a 
child ten months after the death of her husband, let the child born, either 
boy or girl, be heir to his father." Ulpian's opinion is, that a child born 
eleven months after the death of his father is not able to inherit. The 
Emperor Adrian allowed a legitimate birth in the eleventh month ; but 
this is explained by saying, that the eleventh month may be begun, but 
not ended. Wern. Club. 

192 History of Nature. [Booic VII. 

tu qui fortunae raunera amplexaris, et te ne alumnum qui- 
dem ejus existiajas, sed partum : tu cujus semper in victoria 
est mens, tu qui te Deum credis, aliquo successu tumens, 
tanti perire potuisti : atque etiam hodie minoris potes, quan- 
tulo serpentis ictus dente : aut etiam, ut Anacreon Poeta, 
acino uvae passae : ut Fabius Senator Praetor, in lactis haustu 
uno pilo strangulatus. Is deuium profecto vitam aequa lance 
pensitabat, qui semper fragilitatis hu manse mernor fuerit. 

De Agrippls. 

IN pedes procedere nascentem contra naturam est ; quo 
argumento eos appellavere agrippas, ut aegre partos : qua- 
liter M. Agrippam ferunt genitum unico prope felicitatis 
exemplo in omnibus ad hunc modum genitis. Quanquam is 
quoque adversa pedum valetudine, misera juventa, exercito 
aevo inter arma mortesque, ad noxia successu, infelici terris 
stirpi omni, sed per utrasque Agrippinas maxime, quae Caium 
et Domitium jNeronem Principes genuere, totidem faces 
generis human! : praeterea brevitate aevi quinquagesimo uno 
raptus anno, in tormentis adulteriorum conjugis, socerique 
praegravi servitio, luisse augurium praeposteri natalis existi- 
matur. Neronem, quoque paulo ante Principem, et toto Prin- 
cipatu suo hostem generis humani, pedibus genituin parens 
ejus scribit Agrippina. Ritu naturae capite hominem gigni 
mos est, pedibus efferri. 

Monstruosi Partus excisi Utero. 

AUSPICATIUS enecta parente gignuntur, sicut Scipio Afri- 
canus prior natus, primusque Caesarum a caeso matris utero 
dictus: qua de causa et Caesones appellati. 1 Simili modo 
natus et Manlius, qui Carthaginem cum exercitu intravit. 

1 The Caesarian operation, as it is now called, has been an unsuccessful 
one in modern times ; but this arises from the fact that it is now performed 
on the living mother to preserve her life, perhaps at the risk of that of 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 193 

CAP. X. 

Qui sint Vopisci. 

VOPISOOS appellabant e geminis, qui retenti utero nasce- 
rentur, altero interempto abortu. Namque maxima et rara 
circa hoc miracula existunt. 

Exempla Numerosce Sobolis. 

PRATER mulierem pauca animalia coiturn novere gra- 
vida. Unum quidem omnino, aut alterum, superfoetat. 1 
Extat in monurnentis etiam medicorum, et quibus talia con- 
sectari curse fuit, uno abortu duodecim puerperia egesta. 
Sed ubi paululum temporis inter duos conceptus intercessit, 
uterque perfertur : ut in Hercule et Iphiclo fratre ejus apparuit, 
et in ea quee gemino partu, altero marito similem, alterum 
adultero genuit ; Item in Proconnesia ancilla, quse ejusdem 
diei coitu, alterum domino similem, alterum procurator! 
ejus; et in alia, quse unum justo partu quinque mensium 
alterum edidit. Rursus in alia, quse septem mensium edito 
puerperio, insecutis mensibus geminos enixa est. Jam ilia 
vulgata, varie ex integris truncos gigni, ex truncis integros, 
eademque parte truncos: signa qusedam, naevosque et cica- 
trices etiam regenerari. Quarto partus Dacorum originis Nota 
in brachio redditur. 

Examples of those who have closely resembled one another.* 

IN the Race of the Lepidi it is said there were three, not 
successively one after another, who had when they were 

the child ; whereas it appears that anciently it was had recourse to only 
after the mother had expired, to save the child which still gave signs of 
life. Cornelius Gamma says, that he performed it six times on as many 
women, and that the children were preserved ; but he says nothing of the 
fate of the mothers. Wern. Club. 

1 Superfoetation is an exceedingly rare occurrence in women; but some 
modern instances place the certainty of this fact on certain grounds. 
Wern. Club. 

* This chapter is borrowed from Aristotle's " History of Animals," 
b. xvii. c. 6. Wern. CM. 


1 94 History of Nature. [ BOOK VII. 

Born, a Membrane growing over the Eye. Some have 
resembled their Grandfathers : and of Twins, one hath been 
like the Father, the other the Mother: but he that was 
Born a year after hath been so like his elder Brother as if he 
had been one of the Twins. Some Women bring all their 
Children like themselves ; others again resembling their 
Husbands, and some like neither the one nor the other. 
Some Women bring all their Daughters like their Fathers, 
and their Sons like the Mothers. The Example is undoubted, 
of Nicceus, a famous Painter of Byzantium, who having to 
his Mother a Woman begotten in Adultery by an Ethiopian, 
and nothing different in Colour from other Women, was 
himself begotten an Ethiopian. Indeed, the Consideration 
of the Likenesses is in the Mind ; in which likewise many 
other Accidents are thought to be very strong, whether they 
come by Sight, Hearing, and Memory, or Imaginations 
drunk in in the very instant of Conception. 1 The thought of 
either Father or Mother flying to and fro transporting the 
Soul in a moment, is supposed to stamp this Likeness, or to 
mix it. On this account it is that Men are more unlike one 
another than other Creatures : for the Quickness of the 
Thoughts, the Agility of the Mind, the very great variety 
of our Dispositions, imprint the great Multiplicity of Marks ; 
whereas the Minds of other Creatures is immovable, being 
alike in all, and in every one according to its own Kind. 
Artenon, a Man of the common Rank, was so like in all 
points to Antiochus King of Syria, that Laodict; the Queen, 
after Antiochus was killed, effected the Succession of the 
Kingdom through his acting the part of Recommendation. 
Vibius, a certain Commoner of Rome, and Publicius, one 
from a Bondslave made a Freeman, were both of them so 
like Pompey the Great, that the one could scarcely be 
discerned from the other : so closely did they represent that 
open Countenance, and the singular Majesty which appeared 
in his Forehead. The like cause it was that gave his Father 
also the Surname of Menogenes, from his Cook ; although he 

1 The reader will scarcely fail to remember Jacob's singular stratagem 
with Laban's flock Genesis, xxx. and xxxi. Wern. Club. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 195 

was already surnamed Strabo, because of his Squint Eyes : 
imitating a defect that existed in his Servant. So was one 
of the Scipios surnamed Serapio upon such an occasion, 
after the name of one Serapio, who was a base Slave of his, 
and the dealer in buying and selling his Swine. Another 
Scipio after him, of the same House, was surnamed Salutio, 
because of a certain Jester of that Name. After the same 
manner one Spinfer, a Player of the second Place, 1 and 
Pamphilus, a Player of the third Part, resembled Lentulus 
and Metellus, who were Consuls together. And this fell 
out very untowardly, that such resemblances of the two 
Consuls should be seen together on the Stage. On the other 
hand, Rubrbis the Player was surnamed Plancus, because 
he was so like Plancus the Orator. Again, JBurbuleius and 
Menogenes, both Players, gave name, the one to Curio the 
Father, as did the other to Messala Censorius. There 
was in Sicily a Fisherman who resembled Sura the Pro- 
consul, not in general likeness only, but also in the grin 
when he spoke, in drawing his Tongue short, and in his 
thick Speech. Cassias Severus, the famous Orator, was 
reproached for being like Mirmillo, a Keeper of Cattle. 
Toranius sold to Marcus Antonius, at that time Triumvir, 
two very beautiful Boys as Twins, so like they were one to 
the other : although one was born in Asia, and the other 
beyond the Alps. But when Antony afterwards came to 
the knowledge of the fraud, which was detected by the Lan- 
guage of the Boys, he threatened him in great Anger : 
Among other things complaining of the high Price that he 
had made him pay, for they cost him two hundred Sesterces. 
But the cunning Merchant answered, That this was the very 
cause why he had sold them at so great a rate : for it would 
not have been so wonderful if two Brothers of the same 
Mother had resembled one another ; but that there should 
be any found, who were born in different Countries, so like 
in all respects, was above every thing deserving of a high 
Price. This answer of his produced a well-timed admiration, 

' That is, he who supported the second or the third rate of characters 
on the ancient stage. Wern. Club. 

196 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

so that the Proscriptor, whose mind was enraged and uttered 
reproaches, was not only appeased, but also induced to be 
well pleased with his good Fortune. 

Quce sit Generandi Ratio. 

EST quaedam privatim dissociatio corporum ; et inter se 
steriles, ubi cum aliis junxere, gignunt : sicut Augustus et 
Livia. Item alii aliaeque foeminas tantum generant, aut 
mares ; plerunque et alternant : sicut Gracchorum mater duo- 
decies, et Agrippina Germanici novies. Aliis sterilis est 
juventa, aliis semel in vita datur gignere. Quaedam non 
perferunt partus : quales, si quando medicina et cura vicere, 
fceminam fere gignunt. Divus Augustus in reliqua exemplo- 
rum raritate, neptis suae nepotem vidit genitum quo excessit 
anno, M. Syllanum ; qui cum Asiam obtineret post Consu- 
latum, Neronis Principis successione, venerio ejus interemptus 
est. Q. Metellus Macedonicus, cum sex liberos relinqueret, 
undecim nepotes reliquit, minis vero generosque et omnes 
qui se patris appellatione salntarent, viginti septem. In Actis 
temporum Divi Augusti invenitur, XII. Consulatu ejus L. 
qnae Sylla Collega, ad III. Idus Aprilis, C. Crispinum Hila- 
rum ex ingenua plebe Fesulana, cum liberis novem (in quo 
numero filise duae fuerunt) nepotibus XXVII., pronepotibus 
XXIX., neptibus IX., praelata pompa, cum omnibus in 
Capitolio immolasse. 1 

1 These instances are more than equalled by some which are men- 
tioned in the preface to " Hearne's Edition of Leland," vol. vi. p. 4. 
Mary, wife of Richard Honiwood, of Charinge, in Kent, died at the age 
of ninety-eight, in the year 1620, leaving by one husband sixteen children, 
114 grand-children, 228 great-grand-children, and nine in the fourth de- 
gree : in all 367 persons. Thomas Urqhart, laird and sheriff of Cromarty, 
had by one wife twenty-five sons and eleven daughters : all of whom he 
lived to see of considerable eminence in the world. "In Dunstable 
church," says Hakewell (Apol.) " is an epitaph on a woman, testifying 
that she bore three children at a birth three several times, and five at a 
birth two other times." In the year 1553 the wife of John Gissger, an 
Italian, had twins, and before the year was out she produced five children, 
three sons and two daughters. Thomas Fazel writes that " Jane Pancica, 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 197 

De eodem multiplicius. 

MULIER post quinquagesimum annum non gignit, rnajor- 
que pars quadragesimo profluvium genitale sistit. Nam in 
viris Massinissam Regem, post LXXXVI. annum generasse 
filium, quern Methymnatum appellaverit, clarum est: Cato- 
nem Censorium octogesimo exacto, a filia Salonii clientis sui. 
Qua de causa, aliorum ejus liberorum propago, Liciniani 
sunt cognominati, hi Saloniani, ex quibus Uticensis fuit. 
Nuper etiam L. Volusio Saturnine in urbis praefectura ex- 
tincto, notum est Corneliae Scipionum gentis Volusium Sa- 
turninum, qui fuit Consul, genitum post LXII. annum. 
Et usque ad LXXXV. apud ignobiles vulgaris reperitur 

De Menstruis Mulierum. 

SOLUM autem animal menstruale mulier est : inde unius 
utero, quas appellarunt molas. Ea est caro informis, 
inanima, ferri ictum et aciem respuens. Movetur, sistitque 
menses; ut et partus, alias lethalis, alias una senescens, 
aliquando alvo citatiore excidens. Simile quiddam et viris 
in ventre gignitur, quod vocant scirron : sic ut Oppio Capi- 
toni prsetorio viro. Sed nihil facile reperiatur mulierum 
profluvio magis monstrificum. Acescunt superventu inusta, 
sterilescunt tactae fruges, moriuntur insita, exuruntur horto- 
rum germina, et fructus arboriun, quibus insidere, decidunt ; 
speculorum fulgor aspectu ipso hebetatur, acies ferri prae- 
stringitur, eborisque nitor ; alvei apum emoriuntur ; 333 
etiam ac ferrum rubigo protinus corripit, odorque dirus 
aera ; et in rabiem aguntur gustato eo canes, atque insanabili 
veneno morsus inficitur. Quin et bituminum sequax alio- 

wife of Bernard, a Sicilian, in thirty births produced seventy-three 
children." The latter instances are from Wanley's " Wonders of the 
Little World," where his authorities are given. Wern. Club. 

198 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

quin ac lenta Natura, in Lacu Judaeae (qui vocatur Asphal- 
tites), certo tempore anni supernatans, nequit sibi avelli, ad 
omnein contactum adhaerens, praeterquatn filo quod tale 
virus infecerit. Etiam formicis animali minitno, inesse sen- 
sum ejus ferunt; abjicique gustatas fruges, nee postea repeti. 
Et hoc tale tantumque omnibus tricenis diebus malum in 
muliere exsistit, et trimestri spatio largius. Quibusdam vero 
saepius mense ; sicut aliquibus nunquam ; sed tales non gig- 
nunt, quando haec est generando homini uiateria semine e 
maribus coaguli modo hoc in sese glomerante, quod deinde 
tempore ipso animatur, corporaturque. Ergo cum gravidis 
fluxit, invalidi aut non vitales partus eduntur, aut saniosi, ut 
autor est Negidius. 1 

Item de Ratione Partuum. 

IDEM, lac fbeminae non corrumpi alenti partum si ex 
eodein viro rursus conceperit, arbitratur. Incipiente autem 
hoc statu, aut desinente, couceptus facillimi traduntur. 
Faecunditatis in foeminis praerogativain accepiraus, inunctis 
medicamine oculis, salivam infici. Caeterum editis primores 
septimo mense gigni denies prinsque in supera fere parte,haud 
dubium est. Septimo eosdem decidere anno, aliosque suffici. 
Quosdam et cum dentibus nasci, 2 sicut M. Curium, quod ob 
id Dentatus cognominatus est, et Cn. Papyrium Carbonem, 
praeclaros viros. In Women the same thing was counted 
inauspicious in the times of the Kings, for when Valeria 
was born toothed in this manner, the Augurs (Aruspices) 
being consulted about it, answered by way of Prophecy, 
that she would be the ruin of that City to which she might 
be conveyed ; whereupon she was conveyed to Suessa Pometia, 

1 Much that is here stated is erroneous, and mere fable ; the recondite 
subject of generation abounding in the marvellous. Wern. Club. 

2 However this might have been regarded in ancient times, on a super- 
stitious account, it is not an uncommon circumstance. The editor is 
acquainted with the fact, that in an instance of three children being born 
at one birth, all of them were furnished with teeth. Wern. Club. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 199 

which at that time was very flourishing: and the ruin of the 
place certainly followed. Cornelia, the Mother of the Grac- 
chi, is suflficient proof that it is an adverse omen, when 
Women are born with the Genital Parts grown together. 
Some Children are born with a continued edge of Bone 
instead of a row of distinct Teeth ; x as a Son of Prusius King 
of the Bythinians, who had such a Bone in his Upper Jaw. 
But Teeth are the only parts that are not subdued by the 
Fires ; so that they are not consumed with the rest of the 
Body; but the same parts that are not conquered by the 
Flames are hollowed out and wasted by a Waterish Rheum. 
They may be made White by some Medicines. They are 
worn away by use ; and sometimes they fall first out of the 
Head ; they serve not only to grind our Meat for our Nourish- 
ment, but they are necessary for the framing of our Speech. 
The Fore-teeth hold the Government over our Voice and 
Words by a peculiar accord, answering to the Stroke of the 
Tongue, and the series of their Formation, with their Size, 
cutting up, softening, or restraining the Words ; but when 
they are fallen out all explanation of Words is lost. 
Moreover, it may be believed, that some Augury can be 
gathered from the Teeth. Men are in possession of two-and- 
thirty in all, except the Nation of the Turduli ; and those 
who have above this Number suppose that they may calcu- 
late on longer Life. Women have not so many : they that 
have on the right Side in the upper Jaw two Eye-teeth, 
named Canine, may promise themselves the Favours of For- 
tune ; as was the case in Agrippinu, the Mother of Domitius 
Aero : but it is the contrary in the Left Side. It is not the Cus- 
tom in any Country to burn in a Funeral Fire the dead Body 
of an Infant before the Teeth are come up : but of this we will 
write more, when our History will take in the individual 
Members. Zoroastres was the only Man we have heard of, 
who laughed the same day he was born : his Brain did so 
evidently pulsate, that it would lift up the Hand that was 
laid on it: a Presage of his future Learning. It is certain 

1 This was also the case with King Pyrrhus. See note, lib. vii. 2. 
Wern. Club. 

200 History of Nature. [BoOK VII. 

that a Man at three years of Age is come to one-half of the 
Measure of his Height. This also is observed for a Truth, that 
generally all Men fall short of the full Stature in Times past ; 
and seldom are they taller than their Fathers : the Exube- 
rance of the Seeds being consumed by the burning, in the 
Changes of which the World now vergeth toward the latter 
End. In Crete, a Mountain being cloven asunder by an 
Earthquake, a Body was found standing, forty-six Cubits 
high ; which some judged to be the Body of Orion, and 
others, of Otus. It is believed from Records that the Body 
of Orestes, when taken up by direction of the Oracle, was 
seven Cubits long. 1 And that great Poet, Homer, who lived 
almost a thousand Years ago, did not cease to complain that 
Men's Bodies were less of Stature even then, than in old 
Time. The Annals do not deliver down the Bulk of N&mus 
Pollio; but that he was of great size appeareth by this, that 
it was taken for a Wonder, that in a great Crowd of People 
running together he was almost killed. The tallest Man 
that hath been seen in our Age was one named Gabbara, 
who in the Days of Prince Claudius was brought out of 
Arabia; he was nine Feet high, and as many Inches. There 
were in the Time of Divus Augustus two others, named 
Pmio and Secundilla, higher than Gabbara by half a Foot, 
whose Bodies were preserved for a Wonder in a Vault in the 
Gardens of the Salustiani. While the same (Augustus) was 
President, his Niece Julia had a very little Man, two Feet 
and a Hand-breadth high, called Canopas, whom she mnde 
much of; and also a Woman named Andromeda, 2 the Freed 
Woman of Julia Augusta. M. Varro reporteth that Manius 
Maximus, and M. Tullius, Roman Knights, were but two 
Cubits high : and we ourselves have seen their Bodies em- 
balmed in Presses. It is well known that there are some 

1 Ten feet and an half. 

a The instance of the American who exhibited himself through Eu- 
rope is of recent occurrence. John Duck, an Englishman, was carried 
about forashow in 1610, being two feet and ahalf high at forty-five years 
of age. Cardan says he saw a man in Italy, of full age, not above a cubit 
high. He was carried about in a parrot- cage. Wern. Club. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 201 

born a Foot and a half high ; others again somewhat longer : 
filling up the Course of their Life in three Years. We find 
in the Chronicles, that in Salamis the Son of Euthimenes 1 in 
three Years grew to be three Cubits high ; but he was in 
his Pace slow and in his Understanding dull ; but having 
attained the State of Puberty, and his Voice having become 
strong, at Three Years' end he died suddenly of a Contraction 
of all the Parts of his Body. Some while since I saw myself 
the like in almost all respects, except the Puberty, in a Son 
of Cornelius Tacitus, a Roman Knight, and a Procurator for 
the State in Belgic Gaul. Such the Greeks call Ectrapelos ; 
in Latin they have no Name. 

Observations of Bodies. 

WE see that the Length of a Man from the Sole of the 
Foot to the Crown of the Head is equal to the Extent of his 
longest Fingers when his Arms and Hands are stretched out. 
As also, that most People are stronger on the right Side ; 
others are as strong on one Side as on the other : and there are 
some that are altogether Left-handed; but that is never seen 
in Women. Men weigh heavier than Women : and in every 
kind of Creature, the bodies, when dead, are more heavy than 
when alive ; and the same Parties sleeping weigh more than 
when awake. The dead Bodies of Men float with the Face 

1 In the year 1747, Mr. Dawkes, a surgeon at St. Ives, near Hun- 
tingdon, published a small tract called " Prodigium Willinghamense," or 
an account of a surprising boy, who was buried at Willingham, near 
Cambridge, upon whom he wrote the following epitaph : " Stop, tra- 
veller, and wondering know, here buried lie the remains of Thomas, son 
of Thomas and Margaret Hall, who, not one year old, had the signs of 
manhood ; not three, was almost four feet high ; endued with uncommon 
strength, a just proportion of parts, and a stupendous voice; before six he 
died, as it were, of advanced age. He was born at this village, October 31 , 
1741, and the same departed this life, September 3, 1747." (See also 
"Philosophical Transactions," 1744-45.) As Dr. Elliotson has observed 
(Blumenbach's " Physiology "), this perfectly authentic case removes all 
doubts respecting the boy at Salamis mentioned by Pliny. Wern. Club. 

202 History of Nature. [ BOOK VII. 

upward, and Women with the Face downward, as if Nature 
had provided to save their Modesty even when dead. 

Examples of a Variety of Forms. 

WE have heard that some Men's Bones are solid, and so 
live without any Marrow. They are known by the Signs, that 
they never feel Thirst, nor put forth any Sweat : and yet we 
know that a Man may conquer his Thirst by his Will; and 
Julius Viator, a Roman Knight, descended from the Race of 
the Confederate Voconti, in his younger Years being ill with 
an Effusion of Water beneath the Skin, and forbidden by 
the Physicians to use Fluids in any way, obtained a Nature 
by Custom, so that in his old Age he forbore to drink. 
Others also have been able to command their Nature in 
many Cases. 

Examples of Diversity of Habits. 

IT is said, that Crassus, Grandfather to that Crassus who 
was slain in Parthia, never laughed, and on that account 
was called Agelastus: and also that, many have been found 
to have never wept. Socrates, who was illustrious for his 
Wisdom, was seen always to carry the same Countenance, 
never being more cheerful nor more disturbed at one Time 
than another. But this tendency of the Mind turneth now 
and then in the End into a certain Rigour and Sternness 
of Nature, so hard and inflexible that it cannot be ruled ; 
and so despoileth Men of the humane Affections; and such 
are called by the Greeks Apathes. who had the Experience 
of many such : and, what is surprising, some of them were 
very eminent for Wisdom, as Dioyenes the Cynic, Pyrrho, 
Heraclitus, and Timo ; the latter being carried away so far 
as to hate the whole Human Race. But these were Ex- 
amples of depraved Nature. Various remarkable Things are 
known ; as in Antonia, the Wife of Drusus, who was never 

BOOK VI I.] History of Nature. 203 

seen to spit ; and Pomponius the Poet, a Consular Man, who 
never belched. Such as naturally have their Bones solid, 
who are seldom met with, are called Cornel (hard as Horn). 

Of Strength and Swiftness. 1 

VARRO, in his Treatise of prodigious Strength, maketh 
Report of Tritanus, who was little in Person, but of incom- 
parable Strength, much renowned in the Gladiatorial Play, 
with the Armature of the Samnites. He maketh mention 
also of a Son of his, a Soldier under Pompey the Great ; and 
that he had all over his Body, as well as through his Arms 
and Hands, Sinews running straight and across like Net- 
work : and when an Enemy challenged him to a Combat, 
he overcame him with his right Hand unarmed, and in the 
End caught hold of him, and brought him into the Camp 
with one Finger. Junius Valens, a Centurion in the Praeto- 
rium of Divus Augustus, was accustomed to bear up Waggons 
laden with Sacks, until they were discharged : with one Hand 
he would hold back a Chariot, standing firm against all the 
Force of the Horses. He did also other wonderful Things, 
which are to be seen engraved on his Tomb : and therefore 
Varro saith that being called Hercules Rusticellus, he took 
up his Mule and carried him away. Fusius Salvius carried 
up over the Stairs two hundred Pounds' weight on his Feet, 
as many in his Hands, and twice as much upon his Shoul- 
ders. Myself have seen a Man named Athanatus, with a 
great deal of Ostentation walk upon the Stage clothed in a 

1 It is observable that in this, and chap, xxiii., Pliny's instances apply 
only to animal endurance. Martial took a more correct view of the mental 
property, when he said : 

" Rebus in angustis facile est contemnere vitam : 
Fortiter ille facit, qui miser esse potest." B. xi. Ep. 35. 

When Fortune frowns, 'tis easy life to hate ; 
But real courage is not crush'd by fate. 

Wern. Club. 

204 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

Cuirass of Lead weighing five hundred Pounds, and wearing 
high Shoes of the same Weight. When Milu, the great 
Wrestler of Crotone, stood firm upon his Feet, no Man was 
able to make him stir in the least Degree : if he held an 
Apple, no Man was able to stretch out his Finger. 1 It was a 
great matter, that Philippides ran 1140 Stadia, from Athens 
to Lacedaemon, in two Days ; until Anistis, a Runner of 
Lacedeemon, and Pkilonides, belonging to Alexander the 
Great, ran from Sicyone to Elis in one Day, 1200 Stadia. 
But now, indeed, we know some in the Circus able to endure 
the running of 160 Miles. And lately when Fonteius and 
Vipsanus were Consuls, a young Boy, only nine Years old, 
between Noon and Evening ran 75 Miles. And a Man may 
wonder the more at this Matter, if he consider, that it was 
counted an exceeding great Journey that Tiberius Nero made 
in three Chariots in a Day and a Night, when he hasted to 
his Brother Drusus, then lying sick in Germany, which was 
but 200 Miles. 2 

1 Two persons, successively porters to Kings James I. and Charles, 
his son, were of great size and strength. The first, particularly, was able 
to take two of the tallest yeomen of the guard, one under each arm, and 
he ordered them as he pleased. The Emperor Maximinus, who was eight 
feet and a half in height, was of enormous strength, even in proportion to 
his magnitude. Wern. Club. 

* We have less examples of swiftness of foot, since more rapid convey- 
ance is common. Pliny's instances are the more surprising, as they imply 
continuance ; but the English King Henry V. was so swift of foot, that 
with two of his lords, without any weapons, he would catch a wild buck 
in a large park. In Baker's " Chronicle " we are informed, that John 
Lepton, of Kepwick, in the county of York, one of the grooms of the 
Privy Chamber to James I., for a wager rode for six days successively 
between York and London : which is 150 miles. He accomplished the 
work of each day, beginning May 20, IGOTJ^before it was dark ; and hav- 
ing finished his wager at York on Saturday, on the following Monday he 
rode back to London, and on Tuesday to the court at Greenwich : being 
as fresh and well as when he began. In the year 1619, July 17, Bernard 
Calvert rode from St. George's church, in Southwark, to Dover : thence 
by barge to Calais, and from thence back to St. George's church, on the 
same day ; beginning at three o'clock in the morning, and ending at eight 
in the evening, fresh and lusty, although roads were then less perfect 
than now. Wern. Club. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 205 

Examples of good Eyesight. 

WE find in Histories almost incredible Examples of 
Sharpness of the Eyes. Cicero hath recorded, that the Poem 
of Homer called the Iliad, written on Parchment, was en- 
closed within a Nutshell. The same Writer maketh mention 
of one who could see to the Distance of 135 Miles. And 
M.Varro nameth the Man, saying that he was called Strabo; 
and that during the Carthaginian War he was accustomed to 
stand upon Lilybaeum, a Promontory of Sicily, and discover 
the Fleet coming out of the Harbour of Carthage ; he was 
also able to tell even the Number of the Ships. Callicrates 
made Emmets, and other equally small Creatures, out of 
Ivory, so that other Men could not discern the Parts of their 
Bodies. A certain Myrmecides was excellent in that kind of 
Workmanship ; who of the same Material carved a Chariot 
with four Wheels, which a Fly might cover with her Wings. 
Also he made a Ship that a little Bee might hide with her 
Wings. 1 

Of Hearing. 

OF Hearing there is one Example which is wonderful : 
that the Battle in which Sybaris was destroyed was heard at 
Olympia on the very same Day it was fought. For the Cim- 

1 Peculiarities of eyesight are also recorded in ancient authors. The 
Emperor Tiberius was able to see better than other men by night ; and 
contrary to the usual habit, best when he first opened his eyes from sleep. 
Such was also the case with the philosopher Cardan. Fabricius ab Aqua- 
pendente knew a man who could see well by night, but not by day; and 
the Editor was acquainted with two brothers, whose vision was of this 
kind ; and it may be accounted for by the fact, that they were destitute of 
eyebrows, and had very little eyelashes. Wern. Club. 

206 History of Nature. [BOOK VIT. 

brian Victories and the Report of the Victory over the Per- 
sians made at Rome by the Castors, on the same Day that it 
was achieved, were Visions and the Presages of Divine 

Examples of Patience. 

MANY are the Calamities incident to Mankind, which 
have afforded innumerable Trials of Patience, in suffering 
Pains of the Body. The most illustrious among Women is 
the Example of Leana the Courtesan, who, when she was 
tortured, did not betray Harmodius and Aristogiton, who 
slew the Tyrant. Among Men is the Example of Anaxar- 
c/ius, who, being tortured for a like Cause, bit off his Tongue 
with his Teeth, and spat his only Hope of Discovery into the 
Face of the Tyrant. 

Examples of Memory. 1 

MEMORY is the greatest Gift of Nature, and most neces- 
sary of all others for Life ; it is hard to say who deserved the 

1 The orator Hortensius was famous for an extensive and accurate 
memory; which Cicero speaks of with admiration. It is said of him, 
that once sitting at a place where things were exposed to public sale for a 
whole day, he recited in order all the things that had been sold, their 
price, and the names of the buyers ; and it was afterwards found that he 
was minutely correct. Cicero, comparing him with Lucullus, says, that 
Hortensius's memory was greater for words, and that of Lucullus for 
things, an important distinction, for it is commonly found that those who 
best remember the one, are deficient in the other. Seneca had a remark- 
able memory for words ; so that he was able to repeat two thousand names 
in the order they were pronounced. The art of memory, to which some 
moderns have made great pretensions, is very ancient ; and it was much 
in use in the middle ages. But it applies to words rather than things ; 
and it requires to be studied as an individual object, and not as means to 
an end. Wern. Club. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 207 

chief honour therein, considering how many have excelled 
in its Glory. King Cyrus called every Soldier in his Army 
by his own Name. L. Scipio could do the like by all the 
Citizens of Rome. Cineas, Ambassador of King Pyrrhus, 
the next Day after he came to Rome, saluted by Name the 
Senate and Equestrian Order. Mithridates, the King of two- 
and-twenty Nations of different Languages, ministered Justice 
to them in that Number of Tongues: and when he made a 
Speech in the public Assembly respectively to every Nation, he 
performed it without an Interpreter. A certain Charmidas,* 
a Grecian, rehearsed as if he was reading whatever any Man 
would call for out of any of the Volumes in the Libraries. 
At length the Practice of this was reduced into an Art of 
Memory, which was invented by Simonides Melicus, and 
afterwards brought to Perfection by Metrodorus Scepsius; by 
which a Man might learn to rehearse the same Words of any 
Discourse after once hearing. And yet there is nothing in 
Man so frail ; for it is injured by Diseases, Accidents, and by 
Fear, sometimes in part, and at other Times entirely. One 
who was struck with a Stone forgot his Letters only. Ano- 
ther, by a Fall from the Roof of a very high House, lost 
the Remembrance of his own Mother, his near Relations, 
and Neighbours. Another when sick forgot his own Ser- 
vants ; and Messala Corvinus, the Orator, forgot even his 
own Name. 2 So also it often erideavoureth to lose itself, even 
while the Body is otherwise quiet and in Health. But let 
Sleep creep upon us, and it reckoneth, as an empty Mind 
inquireth, what place it is in. 

1 Carneades, according to Cicero and Quintilian. 

2 A sudden loss of memory on a particular subject is common, though 
unaccountable. We are told that Curio, the orator, was much given to 
this ; so that, offering to divide a subject into three heads, he would forget 
one of them, or perhaps make four. He was to plead on behalf of Sextus 
Nsevius, opposed to Cicero, who was on the side of Titania Corta ; when 
he suddenly forgot the whole cause, and ascribed the fact to the witchcraft 
of Titania. Wern. Club. 


History of Nature. 

[BooK VII. 

Julius Caesar and Augustus. 

The Praise of C. Julius Casar. 

FOR Vigour of Spirit I judge that C. Ceesar, the Dictator, 
was the most excellent. 1 speak not now of his Courage 
and Constancy, nor of his lofty Understanding of all Things 
under the Expanse of Heaven ; but of that proper Strength 
and Quickness of his, as active as the very Fire. We have 
heard it reported of him, that he was accustomed to write 
and read at one Time, to dictate and hear. He would dic- 
tate Letters of the utmost Importance to four Secretaries at 
once : and when he was free from other Business, he would 
dictate seven Letters at one Time. The same Man fought 
fifty Battles with Banners displayed : in which Point he 
alone exceeded M. Marcellus, who fought thirty-nine Battles. 
For, besides his Victories in the Civil Wars, he slew in Battle 
1,192,000 of his Enemies ; but this, for my own Part, I hold 
no special Glory of his, considering the great Injury so in- 
flicted on Mankind : and this, indeed, he hath himself con- 
fessed, by avoiding to set down the Slaughter that occurred 
during the Civil Wars. Pompey the Great deserveth honour 
more justly for taking from the Pirates 846 Sail of Ships. 
But what is proper and peculiar to Ceesar, besides what is 
said above, was his remarkable Clemency, in which he so far 
surpassed all others, that he himself regretted it. The Example 
of his Magnanimity was such, that nothing besides can be com- 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 209 

pared to it. For to reckon up the Spectacles exhibited, with 
the lavish Expense, with the Magnificence in this Portion of 
his Works, is to lend a countenance to Luxury. But herein 
appeared the true and incomparable Loftiness of his un- 
conquered Mind, that when at the Battle of Pharsalia, the 
Writing-case containing the Letters of Pompey was taken, 
as also those of Scipio at Thapsus, he burnt them all with 
the utmost Fidelity, without having read them. 


The Praise of Pompey the Great, 

To relate all the Titles, Victories, and Triumphs of Pompey 
the Great, wherein he was equal in the splendour of his 
Exploits not only to Alexander the Great, 1 but even almost 
to Hercules and Liber Pater, would redound, not to the 
Honour only of that one Man, but also to the Grandeur of 
the Roman Empire. In the first place then, after he had 
recovered Sicily, from whence his first rising was as a follower 
of Sylla in the cause of the Republic, he appeared auspiciously 

1 It is clear from various ancient authorities, that it was the ambition 
of Pompey to imitate and be compared to Alexander ; and it was with this 
view that the title of Great was highly acceptable to him. It was per- 
haps to humour this foible, and through it to secure him the more effec- 
tually to his party, that Sylla was accustomed to pay him extraordinary 
personal honours : returning his salutation of Iraperator with the same 
title, rising from his seat to salute him when Pompey dismounted from 
his horse, and uncovering his head at the same time. Daleschampim. 
In honour of Pompey's having restored the sovereignty of the sea, the 
reverse of a Roman denarius bears the figure of a Dolphin and Eagle, 
separated by a Sceptre, with the inscription, Magn. Procos. Wern. Club. 

210 History of Nature. [BOOK VII. 

fortunate. Having also wholly subdued Africa, and brought 
it under obedience, he was brought back in a Triumphal 
Chariot, with the name of Great, by reason of the Pillage 
there captured, being then only a Roman Knight : a thing 
that was never seen before. Immediately passing into the 
West, and having brought under obedience 876 Towns, 
between the Alps and the borders of S,pain, he erected 
Trophies on the Pyrenees, with the inscription of his Victory ; 
and with more nobleness of Mind, said nothing concerning 
Sertorius. And after the Civil War was put an end to 
(which drew after it all Foreign matters), this Roman Knight 
triumphed the second time : being so many times a General 
(Imperator), before he was a Soldier (Miles). Afterward 
he was sent out on an Expedition to all the Seas, and then 
into the East parts : From whence he returned with more 
Titles to his Country, after the manner of those who win 
Victories at the Sacred Games. 1 Neither, indeed, are those 
Crowned, but they Crown their Native Countries; and 
so Pompey gave as a Tribute to the City these honours 
which he dedicated to Minerva,* out of (manubiis) his own 
share of the Spoils, with an inscription in this manner : 
CN. POMPEIUS the Great, Imperator, having finished the 
War of Thirty Years: having discomfited, put tofiight, slain, 
received to submission, 2,183,000 Men : sunk or taken 846 
Ships : brought under his authority Towns and Castles to the 
number of 1538 : subdued the Lands from the Lake Mceotis 
to the Red Sea, hath dedicated of right this Vow to MINERVA. 
This is the Summary of his Services in the East. But of the 
Triumph which he led on the Third Day before the Calends 
of October, when M. Messala and M. Piso were Consuls, 
the Title ran thus : When he bad freed the Sea-coast from 
Pirates, had restored to the People of Rome the Sovereignty 
of the Sea, he hath triumphed for Asia ; Pontus, Armenia, 
Paphlagonia, Cappadocia, Cilicia, Syria, the Scythians, Jews, 
and the Albani ; the Island Iberia, Crete, the Bastarni ; 
and above these, over the Kings Mithridates and Tigranes. 
But the greatest Glory of all in him was this, (as himself 

1 Olympia, Neraaea, Pythia, Isthmia. * Or Victory. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 211 

said in an Assembly, when he discoursed of his own Ex- 
ploits) : that whereas Asia, when he received it, was the 
remotest Province of his Country, he left it in the centre. 
If a man would set Ccesar on the other side against him, 
and review his actions, who of the two seemed greater, 
he might indeed reckon up the whole World, which would 
amount to an infinite matter. 

The praise of the First Cato. 

MANY Men have differently excelled in various other 
kinds of virtues. But Cato, 1 the First of the Porcian House, 
was thought to have been the most excellent in three 
things which are in the highest degree commendable in 
Man. He was the best Orator; the best General ; and the 
best Senator. And yet, in my opinion, all these excellencies 
shone out more brightly, although he was not first, in Scipio 
JEmilianus : To say nothing besides of the absence of the 
Hatred of so many Men, which Cato laboured under. But 
if you seek for one especial thing in Cato, this is, that he 
was judicially called to his answer Forty-four times, and 
never was there a Man accused oftener than he ; yet he was 
always acquitted. 


Of Valour. 
IT is a very extensive inquiry, to discover in whom the 

1 This Cato appears to have been more successful in obtaining the 
esteem than the love of the people ; and, indeed, from the evidence of his 
" Treatise on Agriculture," he appears to have been a niggardly and 
shrewd master, whom no one could defraud, and who was ready to 
secure every advantage in a bargain. He recommends, with the same 
indifference, the sale of an ox that was past labour, his rusty iron, and 
sickly or worn-out slave. 

Narratur et prisci Catonis, 

Saepe mero caluisse Virtus. Wern. Club. 

212 History of Nature. [BOOK VII. 

greatest degree of hardy Courage existed ; and more espe- 
cially if we admit the fabulous tales of Poets. Q. Ennius 
had in greatest admiration T. Ccecilius Teucer, and his 
brother; and in regard of those Two he added to the others 
the Sixth Book of his Annals. But L. Siccius Dentatus, a 
Tribune of the Commons, not long after the Banishment of 
the Kings, when Sp. Tarpeius and A. JEternius were Con- 
suls, by most Voices surpasseth in this kind, having Fought 
120 Battles; having been Conqueror in Eight Combats with 
a Challenge ; being marked with 45 Scars on the front 
of his Body, and none behind. Also he won the Spoils of 
33 Enemies; he had been presented with 18 Spears; 25 
trappings for Horses ; 83 Chains ; 160 Bracelets ; 26 
Crowns, of which 14 were Civic, eight of Gold : three 
Mural ; and one Obsidional ; together with a Pension from 
the Treasury ; and ten Captives with twenty Oxen ; and 
thus he followed nine Imperators, who chiefly by his means 
triumphed. Besides these things, he accused in open court 
before the body of the People, which I suppose was the 
worthiest act he ever did, T. Romulius, one of the lead- 
ing Generals (who had been a Consul) and convicted him for 
his ill management of his military command. Scarcely 
inferior to these were the exploits of Manlius Capitolinus, if 
he had not forfeited them again with such an end of his life. 1 
Before he was seventeen years of age, he had gained two 
spoils of his Enemies. He was the first Roman Knight that 
received a Mural Crown ; with six Civic Crowns ; 37 Dona- 
tions; and he carried the Scars in the forepart of his Body 
of 33 Wounds. He rescued P. Servilius, Master of the 
Horse, and (in the rescue) was himself wounded in the Arm 

1 Marcus Manlius was the means of preserving the Capitol when it was 
nearly taken by the Gauls ; from which exploit he obtained the surname 
of Capitolinus. Becoming afterwards a warm supporter of the popular 
party against the patrician order, he was accused of aiming at the kingly 
power, and condemned to death. According to Livy (lib. vi.) "the 
tribunes cast him down from the Tarpeian rock ; thus the same spot, in 
the case of one man, became a monument of distinguished glory and of 
the cruellest punishment." Wern. Club. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 213 

and Thigh. Above all other actions, he alone saved the 
Capitol, and thereby the whole State, from the Gauls: if he 
had not saved it for his own Kingdom ! In these examples 
there is indeed much of courage, but yet Fortune hath had the 
greater share; and in my judgment no one may justly prefer 
any Man before M. Sergius, although Catiline, his Nephew's 
Son, discredited his Name. In the second Year of his Service 
he lost his Right Hand ; and in two Services he was wounded 
three and twenty times : by which means he had little use 
of either his Hands or Feet. But although thus disabled 
as a Soldier, he went many a Time after to the Wars, 
attended only by one Slave. Twice he was taken Prisoner 
by Hannibal (for he did not serve against ordinary Enemies), 
and twice he escaped from his bonds, although for twenty 
Months he was every Day kept Bound with Chains or 
Shackles. Four times he fought with his Left Hand only, 
until two Horses were killed under him. He made himself 
a Right Hand of Iron, and he fought with it fastened to his 
Arm. He delivered Cremona from Siege, and saved Pla- 
centia. In Gallia, he took twelve Camps of the Enemies: 
All which Exploits appear from that Oration of his which he 
made in his Praetorship, when his Colleagues repelled him 
from the solemn Sacrifices because he was maimed. 1 What 
heaps of Crowns would he have built up if he had been 
matched with any other Enemy ! For it is very important, 
in our estimate of Courage, to consider in what Time the 
Persons lived. For what Civic Crowns yielded either Trebia 
and Ticinus, or Thrasyrnenus? what Crown could have been 
gained at Cannaa, where the best service of Courage was to 
have made an escape 1 Others, truly, have vanquished Men ; 
but Sergius conquered Fortune herself. 

1 The ancients were cautious not to admit a mutilated person to the 
celebration of sacred rites, observing that such a defect was to be regarded 
as a thing of ill-omen ; and that, if the victim must be perfect, how much 
more does it become the priest to be so ! How careful the Jews were 
commanded to be in this respect, appears from the Law of Moses, 
Levit. xx. xxi. Wern. Club. 

214 History of Nature. [BOOK VII. 


Of Ingenuities, or the Commendations of some Men for their 

WHO is able to make a muster of them that have been 
excellent in Ingenuity through so many kinds of Sciences, 
and such a variety of Works and Things? Unless perhaps 
we agree that Homer, the Greek Prophet, excelled all others, 
considering either the subject matter or the happy fortune 
of his Work. And therefore Alexander the Great (for in so 
proud a decision I shall cite the Judgment of the highest, 
and of those that are beyond Envy), having found among 
the Spoils of Darius, king of the Persians, his Casket of 
sweet Ointments, which was richly embellished with Gold, 
Pearls, and precious Stones ; when his friends shewed him 
many uses to which the Cabinet might be put, considering 
that Alexander, as a Soldier engaged in War, and soiled with 
its service, was disgusted with those Unguents : By Hercules, 
he said, let it be devoted to the care of Homer's Books, that 
the most precious Work of the Human Mind should be pre- 
served in the richest of all Caskets. The same Prince, when 
he took Thebes, commanded that the Dwelling-house and 
Family of the Poet Pindar* should be spared. He refounded 
the native place (Patria) of Aristotle the Philosopher ; and 
so mingled a kind Testimony for one who threw light on 
all things in the World. Apollo, at Delphi, revealed the 
murderers of Archilochus the Poet. When Sophocles, the 
Prince of the Tragic Buskin, was dead, and the Walls of 
the City were besieged by the Lacedaemonians, Liber Pater 
commanded that he should be buried ; and he admonished 
Lysander their King several times as he slept, to suffer his 
delight to be interred. The King made diligent inquiry who 

1 " The Macedonian conqueror bade spare 

The house of Pindarus, when temple and tower 
Went to the ground." MILTON. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 215 

lately had died in Athens : and by relation of the Citizens 
soon found out who the god had signified ; and so gave them 
peace for the burial. 

Of Plato, Ennius, Virgil, M. Varro, and M. Cicero. 

DIONYSIUS the Tyrant, born otherwise to pride and 
cruelty, sent out to meet Plato, the Chief of the Wise 
Men, a Ship adorned with Ribbons; and himself went out 
in a Chariot with four white Horses, to receive him on the 
Shore. Isocrates sold one Oration for twenty talents of Gold. 
jEschines, the famous Orator of Athens, having at Rhodes 
rehearsed that accusation which he had made against 
Demosthenes, read also his adversary's defence, by occasion 
of which he had been driven into Banishment at Rhodes ; 
and when the Rhodians wondered at it he said, How much 
more would you have wondered, if you had heard him de- 
livering it himself! Yielding thus in his Calamity a noble 
Testimony to his Adversary. The Athenians exiled Thucy- 
dides their General : but after he had written his Chronicle 
they called him home again, wondering at the Eloquence of 
the Man whose Courage they had condemned. The Kings 
of Egypt and Macedonia gave a strong Testimony how much 
they honoured Mcenander the Comic Poet, in that they 
sent Ambassadors for him with a Fleet ; but he won himself 
greater fame by esteeming more his Studies, than the Favours 
of Princes. Also the Roman Nobles have afforded Testi- 
monies even to Foreigners. Hence Cn. Pompey, when he had 
ended the War against Mithridates, being about to enter the 
House of Posidonius, the celebrated Professor of Wisdom, 
forbad the Lictor to knock at the Door according to custom : 
and he to whom both the East and the West parts of the 
World had submitted, laid down the lictorial Fasces at the 
Gate. Cato, surnamed Censorius, when there came to Rome 
that noble embassage from Athens, consisting of three, the 
wisest Men among them, having heard Carneades speak, 

2 1 6 History of Nature. [ BOOK V 1 1 . 

gave his opinion presently, that those Ambassadors were to 
be sent away with all speed, because, if that Man argued the 
case, it would be difficult to find out the Truth. 1 What a 
change is there now in Men's manners ! His decision was, 
that by any means all Greeks should be expelled from Italy ; 
but his nephew's Son, (Pronepos,) Cato of Utica, brought one 
of their Philosophers over with him from the Tribunes of the 
Soldiers, and another from the Cyprian Embassy. And it is 
worthy of notice to consider how the same Language was regard- 
ed by these two Catoes : for by the one it was rejected. But 
let us now discern the glory of our own Countrymen. Scipio 
Africanusthe elder gave order that the Statue of Q, Ennius* 

1 The account of Cato's conduct with the Greek ambassadors, as 
given by Pliny, is very different from that by Plutarch, and, from 
Cato's acknowledged love of eloquence, we may judge more correct. It 
was not, therefore, the fear that eloquence would render the Romans 
effeminate ; but because the peculiar eloquence of these men, with per- 
haps the general tendency of Greek studies, was calculated to foster 
habits of sophistry, and so confound the distinction between truth and 
falsehood. Wem. Club. 

3 He was emphatically the poet of the republic, and must have been 
a man of sterling worth to have been so highly esteemed by the family 
of Scipio, and by the censor Cato. " It was well known from a passage 
in Cicero, and another in Livy, that the sepulchre of the Scipios stood 
beyond the Porta Capena of Rome ; and Livy describes it as being in his 
time surmounted by three statues : two of them of the Scipios, and the 
third, as was believed, of the poet Ennius. But it was not until the year 
A.D. 1780, that some labourers at work in a vineyard discovered a clue 
which led to further excavations; and thus the tombs, after having lain 
undisturbed for upwards of 2000 years, were most unexpectedly brought 
to light. The original inscriptions have been removed to the Vatican." 
The following is from " Roma Antica," but is also contained in Mont- 
faucon's " Antiquities," and it must belong to that Scipio who is spoken of 
by Pliny in the thirty-fourth chapter of this book, though our author 
has erred in the application : 

Hone . oino . ploirume . consentient . R . 

Duonoro . optumo . fuise . viro . 

Luciom . Scipione . filios . Barbati . 

Consol . Censor . Aidilis . Hie . fuit .A .... 

Hec . cepit . Corsica . Aleriaque . Urbe . 

Dedet . tempestatebus . aide . mereto . 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 217 

the Poet should be set over his Tomb; 1 to the end that this 
illustrious name, or indeed the spoil that he had carried 
away from a third part of the World, should be read over his 
last ashes, with the title of the Poet. Divus Augustus forbad 
that the Poems of Virgil should be burned, contrary to the 
truth of his will ; by which means there grew more credit to 
the Poet, than if himself had approved his own Verses. 
Asinius Pollio was the first that set up a public Library at 
Rome, raised from his portion of spoil ; and in it he placed 
the image of M. Varro, even while he lived : a thing of as 
great honour, in my opinion (considering that among the 
multitude of learned Men he only received this Crown from a 
Citizen and an excellent Orator), as that other Naval Crown 
gained him, which Pompey the Great bestowed upon him 

Thus interpreted : 

Hunc unum plurimi consentiunt Romae, 

Bonorum optimum fuisse virum, 

Lucium Scipionem, filius Barbati, 

Consol, Censor, ^Edilis, Hie fuit ; atque (or, apud vos, 

or ad eos). 

Hie cepit Corsicam, Aleriamque urbem 
Dedit Tempestatibus aedem merito. 

" The Roman people agree in thinking this man, Lucius Scipio, the 
best of all good citizens. He was the son of Barbatus, and consul, censor, 
and aedile among you. He took Corsica, and the city Aleria, and 
worthily dedicated a temple to the Seasons." 

This inscription was dug up in 1616, but was rejected as spurious until 
the others were discovered. Africanus, the greatest of the Scipios, was 
not buried in the paternal tomb, but on the shore at Liternum ; and the 
inscription on his tomb is supposed to have been, " Ingrata Patria, ne 
ossa quidem habes." The place is supposed to be marked by a modern 
tower, which from the inscription still retains the name of " Patria." 
Wern. Club. 

1 " Nor think the great from their high place descend, 
Who choose the Muses' favourite for a friend ; 
When mighty Scipio, Rome well pleas'd could see, 
With Ennius join'd, in kindest amity." 

JEPHSON'S Roman Portraits. 

" L'intime liaison de Scipion avec le poe'te Ennius, avec qui il voulut 
avoir un tombeau commun, fait juger qu'il ne manquoit pas de gout 
pour les belles lettres." Hist. Rom. par ROLLIS, vol. vii. 

218 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

in the Pirates' War. There are innumerable Roman exam- 
ples, if a Man would search them out: for this one Nation 
hath brought forth more excellent Men in every kind than 
all besides. But why should I be silent concerning the sacri- 
fice of M. Tullius? or how shall I best declare his high 
excellency? how better his praises than from the most 
ample testimony of the whole body of the People in general, 
and the acts only of this Consulship, chosen out of the 
whole course of thy life? Thine Eloquence was the cause 
that the Tribes renounced the Agrarian Law : that is, their 
own Sustenance. Through thy Persuasion they pardoned 
Roscius, the Author of the Law of the Theatre; 1 they were 
content to be noted by the Difference of Seat. At thy 
Request the Children of the Proscribed felt ashamed to sue 
for honourable Dignities ; Catiline fled from thy Ability ; it 
was thou that proscribedst M. Antonius. Hail, thou who wast 
the first that wast saluted by the Name of Father of thy Coun- 
try! the first in the long Robe that deserved a Triumph, and 
the Laurel for thy Language ! the Father indeed of Elo- 
quence and of the Latin Learning : and (as the Dictator 
Ccesar, who was at one Time thine Enemy, hath written of 
thee) hast obtained a Laurel above all other Triumphs, by how 
much more Praiseworthy it is to have enlarged the Bounds 
of Roman Learning than of Roman Dominion. 

Of Majesty in Manners. 

THOSE who, among other Gifts of the Mind, have sur- 
passed the rest of Mankind in Wisdom, were on that Account 
among the Romans surnamed Cati, and CorculL Among the 
Greeks, Socrates was preferred to all beside by the Oracle of 
Apollo Pythius. 

1 The Roscian and Julian law, of which L. Roscius Otho, tribune of 
the people, was the author, which denned and regulated the order of 
sitting in the public theatre ; where, before this, the people mixed indis- 
criminately with the knights. The law seems to have been unpopular, 
and therefore to have required frequent renewal. Martial (b. v. ep. 8), 
has an amusing epigram on its enforcement by Domitian. Wern. Club. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 219 

Of Authority. 

AGAIN, Chilo the Lacedaemonian was of such great Reput- 
ation among Men, that his Sayings were held for Oracles ; 
and three Precepts of his were consecrated at Delphi, in 
these Words : That each one should know himself: Set thy 
Mind too much on Nothing: Debt and Law are always accom- 
panied with Misery. Moreover, when he died for Joy, on 
receiving Tidings that his Son was Conqueror at Olympia, 
all Greece solemnised his Funeral. 

Of a divine Spirit. 

AMONG Women, in the Sibyl 1 there was a divine Spirit, 
and a certain very noble Companionship with celestial 
Beings. Of Men, among the Greeks, Melampus; and among 
the Romans, Martins. 

Of Nasica. 

SCIPIO NASICA was judged once by the sworn Senate to 
be the best Man from the Beginning of Time: but the same 
Man is remarked to have twice suffered a Repulse by the 
People in his white Robe. And to conclude, it was not per- 
mitted him to die in his own Country; no more, by Hercules, 
than it was that Socrates, pronounced the wisest Man by 
Apollo, should die out of Bonds. 

Of Modesty. * 

SULPITIA, Daughter of Paterculus and Wife to Fulvius 
Flaccus, by the Sentence in general of the Matrons was pro- 

1 The Sibyls will be referred to in the 34th book. Wern. Club. 
* It was an ancient law, " Ut Matronis de via decederetur, nihil obscoeni 
presentibus iis vel diceretur vel fieret, neve quis nudum se ab iis conspici 

220 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

nounced the most modest ; and was elected out of a hundred 
principal Matrons to dedicate the Image of Venus, according 
to the Sybilline Books. Claudia, likewise was, by a religious 
Experiment (proved to be such), by bringing the Mother of 
the Gods to Rome. 

Of Piety. 1 

TRULY, in all Parts of the World, there have been found 
infinite Examples of Piety; but one Example of this occurred 
at Rome, to which none beside can be compared. There 
was a young Woman of humble Condition among the com- 
mon People, and therefore of no account, who lately had been 
in Childbed, and whose Mother was shut up in Prison for 
some great Offence; and whn this Daughter obtained leave 
to have Access to her Mother, and constantly by the Jailer 
was narrowly searched, that she might not bring to her any 
Food, she was at last detected suckling her with the Milk 
of her Breasts. On account of this astonishing circum- 
stance the Life of the Mother was granted to the Piety of 
the Daughter, and both of them had continued Sustenance 
allowed them ; and the Place where this happened was con- 
secrated to this Deity (Piety) : so that when C. Quintius and 
M. Acilius were Consuls, the Temple of Piety was built, in 
the very Place where this Prison stood, and where now 
stand eth the Theatre ofMarcellus. The Father of the Gracchi 

pateretur, alioquin criminis capitalis reus haberetur." That they should 
give way to matrons, that no obscenity should either be spoken or done in 
their presence ; and that no man should suffer himself to be within sight 
of them naked : if otherwise, he should be held guilty of a capital crime. 
Wern. Club. 

1 In the language of the ancients, piety is not to be understood as 
having a reference to God, but only as expressing the law of social kind- 
ness among the relations of blood or marriage. It proceeds only from 
revelation that the latter is made to be a duty flowing from the former ; 
and hence, while among Heathens the most vicious of mankind in his 
general character might also be among the most pious, among Christians 
no such anomalies can exist. Wern. Club. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 221 

having taken two Serpents within his House, received an 
Answer (from the Soothsayers), that if he would himself live 
the female Snake must be killed. Truly then, said he, rather 
kill the male ; for Cornelia is young, and may have more 
Children. This was in order to spare his Wife's Life, in 
consideration of the Good she might do to the Common- 
wealth. And so it fell out soon after. M. Lepidus so en- 
tirely loved his wife Apuleia, that he died when she was 
divorced from him. P. Rutilius was laid by from some 
slight Illness, but hearing of his Brother's Repulse in his 
Request for the Consulship, died immediately. P. Catienus 
Philotimus so loved his Master (Patronus), that though he 
was made his Heir to all that he had, yet he cast himself into 
his funeral Fire. 


Of the Excellency of many Arts, as Astrology, Grammar, 
and Geometry. 

IN the Knowledge of various Arts a great Number of 
Men have excelled ; but we will only take the Flower of 
them, and touch them lightly. In Astrology, Berosus was 
eminent ; to whom the Athenians, for his divine Predictions, 
caused a Statue with a golden Tongue to be erected in the 
public Gymnasium. In Grammar, Apollodorus was distin- 
guished ; and therefore he was highly honoured by the Am- 
phitryons of Greece. In Medicine, Hippocrates^ excelled ; 
and having foretold a Pestilence that was approaching from 
Illyria, to cure it he sent his Disciples to the surrounding 
Cities. In Recompense of which good Desert, Greece de- 
creed for him the like Honours as to Hercules. For the same 
Science, King Ptolemy gave to Cleombrotus of Cea, at the 
sacred Megalensian Rites, a hundred Talents, especially for 
curing King Antiochus. Critobulus likewise acquired great 
Fame for drawing an Arrow out of King Philip's Eye, and 

1 The remarkable observation at the end of the 50th chapter, which 
appears to be confirmed by the course of the most formidable epidemics of 
modern times, will account for this skill in this most eminent physician 


History of Nature. 

[BooK VII. 

so curing the Wound that the Sight remained, and only a 
Blemish of the Mouth remained. But Asclepiades the Pru- 
sian surpassed all others, having founded a new Sect ; he 
rejected the Ambassadors and large Promises offered by 
King Mithridates; discovered a Method to make Wine medi- 
cinable for the Sick; and recovered a Man to his former 
state of Health, who was carried forth to be buried : and 
chiefly he attained to the greatest Name for the Engagement 
made against Fortune, that he would not be reputed a Phy- 
sician if he ever were known to be in any way diseased. And 
he was Conqueror ; for when he was very aged he fell down 
over the Stairs, and was killed. A high Testimony for Know- 
ledge in Geometry and the making of Engines was given by 
M. Marcellus to Archimedes, who in the storming of Syra- 
cuse gave express Command concerning him alone, that no 
Violence should be done to him ; but military Imprudence 
disappointed the Order. Ctesiphon of Gnosos is much praised 
for having wonderfully erected the Temple of Diana at 
Ephesus. Philon, likewise, was highly esteemed for making 
the Arsenal at Athens, which was able to receive a thousand 
Ships ; and Ctesibius for a Method of forming Wind Instru- 
ments, and the Discovery of Engines to draw Water : Dino- 

of antiquity, who had the benefit of access to the long series of records of 
the family of the Asclepiadae, and whose public spirit was equal to his 
abilities and opportunities. Wern. Club. 

Medal of Hippocrates, from an engraving in Dr. Mead's Harveyan Oration, 1723. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 223 

crates, also, for devising the Model of Alexandria in Egypt, 
when Alexander founded it. To conclude, this great Com- 
mander (Imperator) forbade, by Edict, that any Man should 
paint him but Apelles: that any one should carve his Statue 
besides Pyrgoteles : and that any one except Lysippus 
should cast his Image in Brass. In which Arts many have 


Surprising Works of Artificers. 1 

KING Attains offered by Competition, for one Picture by 
Aristides the Theban Painter, a hundred Talents. Ccesar 
the Dictator bought for eight Talents two Pictures, the 
Medea and Ajax of Timomachus, which he meant to conse- 
crate in the Temple of Venus Genetrix. King Candaulas 
bought of Butarchus a Picture of the Destruction of the 
Magnetes, of no great Size, and weighed it in an equal Scale 
with Gold. King Demetrius, surnamed Expugnator, forbore 
to set Rhodes on Fire, because he would not burn a Picture by 
Protogenes, which was placed in that part of the Wall which 
he attacked. Praxiteles was ennobled on account of a marble 
Statue, the Gnidian Venus, remarkable particularly for the 
mad Love of a certain young Man ; which Statue was so 
esteemed by King Nicomedes, that he endeavoured to obtain 
it in full Payment of a large Debt they owed him. The 
Jupiter Olympius still affordeth daily Testimony to Phydias. 
(Jupiter} Capitolinus, and Diana of Ephesus yield Testimony 
to Mentor : and the Instruments of this Art were consecrated 
by them in their Temples. 


Of Bondsmen. 2 
I HAVE never obtained the Knowledge to this Day of a 

The subject of statues and paintings is more fully treated of in the 
34th and 35th books. Wern. Club. 

3 The money which Marc Antony paid for a couple of boys is given 
in the 12th chapter of this book. Wern. Club. 

224 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

Man born a Slave who was valued so high as JDaphnis, the 
Grammarian, was : for Cn. Pisaurensis sold him for 300,700 
Sesterces to M. Scaurus, Prince of the City. In this our Age 
Stage-players have gone beyond this Price, and that not a 
little ; but they had bought their Freedom. And no Wonder, 
for it is reported that the Actor Roscius in former Time had 
yearly earned 500,000 Sesterces. Unless any one may desire 
in this Place to hear of the Treasurer of the Armenian War, 
a little while before carried on on account of Tyridates, and 
who was made free by Nero for 120,000 Sesterces. But, by 
Hercules, it was the War that cost so much, and not the Man. 
Like as Sutorius Priscus gave to Sejanus 3500 Sesterces for 
Pcezon, one of his Eunuchs : but this was more for Lust than 
for his Beauty. But he executed this infamous Bargain at a 
Time when the City was in Sorrow, and no Man had any 
Leisure to utter a Word in reproach. 

The Excellency of Nations. 

IT will be scarcely questioned, that of all Nations in the 
World, the Romans 1 are the most excellent for every Virtue ; 
but to determine who was the happiest Man is above the 
reach of human Understanding, considering that some fix 

1 The Romans were a haughty people; and they had much to be 
proud of: for we have no records of a nation that ever understood the 
arts of government or war better than they. But of what is properly 
denominated science they knew little; and the Chevalier Bunsen re- 
marks, that they did not reverence or recognise human rights in any 
nation beside their own. The love of knowledge and truth for their own 
sakes was altogether unknown among them, and they never conferred 
benefit except for their own advantage. Their calculating self-love made 
them, essentially, beneficial rulers ; but they manifested no esteem for their 
subjects ; and we may add, that the most probable motive which actuated 
Plutarch in writing his " Lives," and especially for arranging them in 
parallels, was to shew covertly that men, as great in all respects as any 
Romans, had lived in Greece. Germanicus is judged to have been an 
exception to this Roman constitution of mind ; and probably there were 
others of lower rank ; but they are to be regarded as simply the exceptions 

BOOK VII.] History of Na f u re . 225 

their highest Advantage in one Thing, others in another; 1 
and every one measureth it, according to his several Dispo- 
sition : but if we wish to form a correct Judgment, throwing 
aside all the Ambition of Fortune, it may be concluded, that 
there is not a Man in the World to be accounted happy. And, 
therefore, Fortune dealeth liberally and indulgently with any 
one, if he may justly be called not unhappy ; because if there 
be no other Things, yet surely a Man may be ever in Fear 
lest Fortune should grow tired of him : but let him admit 
this Fear, and there can be no solid Happiness. What 
should I say, moreover, to this ? that no Man is at all Times 
wise ? I wish that this were false, and not, in the Judgment 
of most Men, a Poet's Word only. But such is the Folly of 
mortal Men, that they are very ingenious in deceiving them- 
selves : so that they reckon after the Custom of the Thra- 
cians, who, by Stones marked with different Colours, which 
they cast into an Urn, institute the Trial of every Day ; and 
at their last Day they separate these Stones one from an- 
other and count them : and thus give Judgment concerning 

to the general rule. It is in the spirit of Pliny's remark that Martial 
begins his Epigram to Trajan, lib. xii. ep. 8 : 

" Terrarum Dea, gentiumque Roma, 
Cui par est nihil, et nihil secundum." 

Goddess of lands and nations, Rome, 

Xothing to which can equal come, 

And nothing second. Wern. Club. 

1 The reader is referred to the fourth epistle of Pope's " Essay on 
Man," for a more extended and poetical developement of this sentiment. 

The sentiments in the latter part of this chapter are re-echoed in the 
Book of Ecclesiastes by Solomon ; where he employs the advantages 
arising from his high situation and consummate wisdom in seeking to 
discover whether, on merely human principles, there was any such thing 
as human happiness in the world. The result was the same as is expressed 
by Pliny, but with the advantage on the side of the Hebrew sage, that 
he was able to find in his more elevated principles a security of which 
Pliny was altogether ignorant. The value of the Life and Immortality 
which have been brought to light by the Gospel, can best be estimated 
when we see the gloom which occupied the mind of even such a man as 
Pliny without it. The highest happiness detailed in the next chapter 
(xli.) is much below the aspiration of every Christian. Wern. Club. 

226 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

each one. But what if the Day, flattered with a white Stone, 
have in it the Beginning of some Misfortune ? How many a 
Man hath entered upon Empires, which have turned to their 
Affliction ? How many have lost their Goods, and at last 
have been brought to utter Ruin ? Certainly these are good 
Things if a Man could enjoy them fully for one Hour. But 
thus stands the Case, that one Day is the Judge of another, 
and the last Day judgeth all ; and therefore there is no 
trust to be placed in them. To say nothing of this : that our 
good Fortunes are not equal to our bad even in Number ; 
nor is any one Joy to be weighed against the least of our 
Sorrows. Alas for our empty and imprudent Diligence ! 
We reckon our Days by Number, whereas we should esti- 
mate them by Weight. 

Of the highest Happiness. 

LAMPIDO, a Lacedaemonian Lady, is the only Woman that 
ever was known to have been the Daughter of a King, a 
King's Wife, and the Mother of a King. Also, Pherenice 
alone was the Daughter, Sister, and Mother of them that won 
the Victory at the Olympian Games. In one Family of the 
Curiones there were three Orators, one after another, by 
descent from Father to Son. The Family of the Fdbii alone 
afforded three Presidents of the Senate in succession, who 
were M. Fabius Ambustus, Fabius Rullianus the Son, and 
Q. Fabius Gurges the Nephew. 

Examples of Change of Fortune. 

WE have innumerable other examples of the variety of 
Fortune : for what great Joys did she ever give, but such as 
sprung from some Evil ? Or what great Calamities that 
have not followed upon the highest Joys? 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 227 

Of one twice Proscribed: of Q. Metellus, and L. Sylla. 

M. PIDUSTIUS, a Senator, having been Proscribed by 
Sylla, was preserved for six-and-thirty Years ; but he was 
afterwards Proscribed the second time : for he outlived Sylla 
and continued to the time of Antony; and it so happened 
that by him he was Proscribed again, for no other reason 
but because he had been so before. Fortune was pleased 
that P. Ventidius alone should triumph over the Parthians : 
but she had led him, while a Boy, in the Asculan triumph of 
Cn. Pompeius Strabo ; although Massurius testifieth, that he 
was so led in triumph twice. Cicero saith, 1 that he was at 
first but a Muleteer to serve the Camp with Meal. Many 
others affirm that in his Youth he was a poor Soldier, and 
served as a Footman in his Caliga (or Military Foot Clothing). 
Balbus Cornelius was also the Senior Consul : but he had 
been judicially accused, delivered over to the Counsel of the 
Judges, so that the right of the Rods 2 was on him. But this 
Man was the first Roman Consul of Foreigners, and even of 
those born within the Ocean ; having attained to that Dig- 
nity, which our Forefathers denied to Latium. Among the dis- 
tinguished is L. Fulvius, who was Consul of the rebellious Tus- 
culans ; but when he had passed over to the Romans, he was 
presently by the whole People advanced to the same Honour 
among them : and he was the only Man who triumphed at 

1 Epist. x. 18. 

a This "right" was according to a law whose origin is disputed; but 
it seems to have been ancient. According to Dalechampius' note on the 
passage, no Roman citizen could be sentenced by the magistrate to the 
rods, or be put to death, for any other crime than murder; and of 
the latter it was necessary that he should be regularly convicted. But it 
would appear that he might be condemned to exile with little ceremony. 
Before the passing of this law, a Roman citizen, as well as a foreigner, if 
sentenced to death, was scourged as a matter of course previous to the 
execution of the higher sentence. The tendency of this law to confer 
protection is seen in the instance of St. Paul, Acts of the Apostles, xvi. 37, 
and xxii. 15.Wern. Club. 

228 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

Rome over them whose Consul he had been, even in the 
same Year in which he was himself an Enemy in the Field. 
L. Sylla was the only Man, until our time, that challenged 
to himself the surname of Felix, 1 or the Fortunate ; but the 
Title was adopted from shedding the Blood of Citizens, and 
by waging War against his Country. And by what argu- 
ments was grounded this good Fortune of his ? That, he was 
able to Proscribe, and put to Death, so many thousands of 
the Citizens? O mistaken interpretation, and unhappy even 
to future time ! For were not they more blessed, who then 
lost their Lives, whose Death at this day we pity, than Sylla, 
whom no Man living at this day doth not abhor? More- 
over, was not his end more cruel than the misery of all those 
who were Proscribed by him ? for his own wretched Body 
consumed itself, 2 and bred its own torment. And although 
we may believe that he dissembled all this by his last Dream, 3 
wherein he lay as if he were dead, upon which he gave out 
this Speech, that himself alone had overcome Envy by Glory ; 
yet in this one thing he confessed, that his Felicity was 
defective, inasmuch as he had not Consecrated the Capitol. 
Q. Metellus, in that Funeral Oration which he made in 
commendation of L. Metellus, his Father, left it written of 

1 There was scarcely a title more coveted by the Romans than this of 
Fortunate, for they took it to be a decisive evidence of the ability which 
had led to success. Appian says that there existed in front of the Rostra 
in Rome, a golden equestrian figure of Sylla, with the inscription, 
" Syllae Imperat. fortunate." But from Pliny we learn that his cruelty 
had caused his memory to be held in little estimation by posterity. 
Wern. Club. 

3 The cause of the death of Sylla is not quite certain. Appian (De 
Bell. Civ. i. 105) says he died of an attack of fever; while others inform 
us that the loathsome disease called phthiriasis was the cause of his death. 
Of this latter opinion were Plutarch, Pliny, and Pausanias. Wern. Club. 

3 Plutarch says, " Sylla tells us," in his Commentaries, " that the 
Chaldasans had predicted, that after a life of glory he would depart in the 
height of his prosperity." He further acquaints us, that his son, who 
died a little before Metella, appeared to him in a dream, dressed in a 
mean garment, and desired him to bid adieu to his cares, and go along 
with him to his mother Metella, with whom he should live at ease, and 
enjoy the charms of tranquillity. Wern. dub. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 229 

him, that he had been Pontit'ex, twice Consul, Dictator, 
Master of the Horse, one of the Quindecimvirs deputed for 
Division of Lands, and that in the first Punic War he led 
many Elephants in triumph : moreover, that he had accom- 
plished ten of the greatest and best Things; in seeking which 
the Wise spend their whole time: for his desire was to be 
among the foremost of Warriors, an excellent Orator, a very 
powerful Commander (Imperator) ; to have the conduct of 
the most important Affairs, to be in the highest place of 
Honour, to be eminent for Wisdom, to be accounted a prin- 
cipal Senator, to attain to great Wealth by good Means, to 
leave many Children behind him, and to be the noblest per- 
sonage in the City. That these perfections fell to him, and 
to none but him since the Foundation of Rome, it were long 
and useless now to confute : but it is abundantly answered 
by one instance ; for this same Metellus became Blind in his 
old Age ; having lost his Eyes in a Fire, when he would have 
saved the Palladium 1 out of the Temple of Vesta : an act 
worthy of being remembered ; but the event was unhappy. 
In regard of which it is not proper to term him Unfortunate 
(Infelix); and yet he cannot be called Fortunate (Felix). 
The People of Rome granted to him a Privilege, which no 
Man before him in the World was known to have : that he 
should be conveyed in a Chariot to the Senate-house as often 
as he went to sit at the Council: a great and elevated Pre- 
rogative, but it was allowed him as a Compensation for his 


Of another Metellus. 

A SON likewise of this Q. Metellus, who gave out those 
Commendations concerning his Father, is reckoned among 

1 It was one of the figments of Roman divinity, that this image of the 
tutelary Pallas had existed in ancient Troy; from whence, with ^Eneas, 
it had transferred the empire to the imperial city of Rome. A similar 
image existed at Ephesus (Acts of the Apostles, xxix. 35), and it has 
been supposed that the fall from the sky, of at least the materials of the 
image, may not have been imaginary. The descent of an aerolite was, 
probably, as common in ancient times as in modern. Warn. Club, 

230 History of Nature. [BooK VII 

the most rare examples of human Felicity ; for besides the 
most honourable Dignities, and the Surname of Macedonicus, 
he was borne to the Funeral Pile by four Sons; one being 
the Praetor, and the other three having been Consuls : of 
which two had triumphed, and one had been Censor : which 
remarkable things had happened to few. And yet in the 
very flower of these Honours, as he was returning from the 
Field, about Noon-day, he was seized by Catinius Labeo, 
surnamed Macerio, a Tribune of the Commons, whom he by 
virtue of his Censorship had expelled out of the Senate ; and 
the Forum of the Capitol being empty, he took him away by 
force to the Tarpeian Rock, with an intention to cast him 
down headlong. A number came running about him of that 
company which called him Father ; but, as was unavoidable 
in so sudden a case, slowly, and as if attending a Funeral ; 
with the absence also of a right to make Resistance, and 
repel the inviolable Authority : so that he was likely to have 
Perished even for his Virtue arid faithful Execution of his 
Censorship, if there had not been one Tribune found, with 
much difficulty, to step between and oppose himself; by 
which means he was rescued, even from the utmost point of 
Death. He lived afterwards by the liberality of other 
Men : for all his Goods from that day forward wei-e devoted, 
from his Condemnation : as if he had not suffered Punish- 
ment enough to have his Neck so writhed, as that the Blood 
was squeezed out at his Ears. And truly I would reckon it 
among his Calamities, that he was an Enemy to the later 
Africanus, even by the Testimony of Macedonicus himself. 
These were his words to his Children : Go, my Sons, and 
do honour to his Obsequies ; for the Funeral of a greater 
Citizen ye will never see. And this he said to them, when 
they had conquered Crete and the Balearic Islands, and had 
worn the Diadem in triumph : being himself already entitled 
Macedonicus. But if we consider that only injury offered to 
him, who can justly deem him happy, being exposed to the 
pleasure of his Enemy, far inferior to Africanus, and so to 
come to confusion ? What were all his Victories to this one 
Disgrace? What Honours and Chariots did not Fortune 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 231 

cast down by her violence, when a Censor was dragged 
through the middle of the City (the only way indeed to bring 
him to his Death) ; dragged to the Capitol itself, to which 
he had ascended triumphant : but he never so dragged along 
those Captives, for whose Spoils he triumphed. And this 
Outrage was the greater in regard of the Felicity which 
ensued ; considering that this Macedonicus was in danger to 
have lost so great an Honour as this solemn and stately 
Sepulture, in which he was carried forth to his Funeral Fire 
by his triumphant Children, as if he had triumphed again at 
his very burial. Truly that can be no sound Felicity, which 
is interrupted by any Indignity of Life, much less by so great 
a one as this. To conclude, I know not whether there be 
more cause to glory for the modest carriage of Men, or to 
grieve at the Indignity, that among so many Metelli so auda- 
cious a Villany as this of Catinius was never revenged. 

Of Divus Augustus. 1 

ALSO, in Divus Augustus, whom all the World declareth 
to be in this rank of fortunate Men, if we diligently consider 
all things, we perceive great Changes of the Human lot 
Driven by his Uncle from the Generalship of the Horse, 
and, notwithstanding his Petition, seeing Lepidus preferred 
to that place, he laboured under the reproach of the Pro- 
scription ; and for being one of the Triumvirate, united with 
the most wicked Citizens ; and this with a less than equal 
share (of the Roman Empire), for Antony obtained the 
greatest Portion. He was Sick at the Battle of Philippi ; 
his flight; and while still Sick, for three Days his lying 
hidden in a Marsh ; so that (as Agrippa and Meccenas con- 
fess), he grew into a kind of Dropsy, and his Sides were 
distended with Water under the Skin ; his Shipwreck in 

1 It is a proof of the imperfect manner in which history has been gene- 
rally treated, that Suetonius has written the life of Augustus Caesar 
without the mention of a great part of these particulars, and of none of 
them in the point of view here given. Wern. Club. 

232 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

Sicily, and there likewise he was glad to remain concealed in 
a Cave : then he was put to flight at Sea, and when the whole 
power of his Enemies was hard on him, he besought Pro- 
culeius to put him to Death ; how he was perplexed by the 
Contentions at Perusium ; the anxiety he was in at the 
Battle of Actium, and for the issue of the Pannonian War; 
for the fall of a Bridge ; so many Mutinies among his Sol- 
diers ; so many dangerous Diseases of his Body ; the sus- 
pected Allegiance of Marcellus ; the shame of Banishing 
Agrippa ; his Life so many times attempted by secret Plots ; 
the suspected Deaths of his Children ; the sad Afflictions 
thereby ; and not altogether for his Childless condition : the 
Adultery of his Daughter, and her Contrivances for taking 
his Life away made known to the World ; the reproachful 
Retreat of JVero, his Wife's Son ; another Adultery com- 
mitted by one of his Nieces : above all this, so many united 
Evils, as the want of Pay for his Soldiers ; the Rebellion of 
Illyricum ; the Mustering of Slaves; the Scarcity of Young 
Men ; a Pestilence in the City ; Famine and Drought through 
Italy; a deliberate Resolution of Dying, having to that end 
Fasted four Days and Nights, and in that time received into 
his Body the greater part of his own Death. Besides these 
things, the Slaughter of Variuss Forces, and the foul stain 
of his Honour ; the putting away of Posthumus Agrippa 
after his Adoption, and the desire that he had for him after 
his Banishment ; then the Suspicion that he conceived of 
Fabius, and the disclosing of his Secrets ; and again his 
Opinions concerning his Wife and Tiberius, which surpassed 
all his other Cares. To conclude, that God, of whom I do 
not know whether he rather obtained Heaven than deserved 
it, left behind him for his Heir the Son of his Enemy. 

Whom the Gods Judge the most Happy. 

I CANNOT pass over in this Discourse the Oracles of Del- 
phos, delivered from the God to chastise the Folly of Men. 
Two of them are these : That P/iedius, who but a while 

BOOK V 1 1.] History of Nature. 233 

before Died for his Country, was the most Happy. Again, 
being consulted by Gyges, the most sumptuous King in all 
the Earth, the answer was, that Aglaus Psoplddius was the 
more Happy. This Aglaus was a Man somewhat advanced 
in Years, dwelling in a very narrow corner of Arcadia, 
where he had a little Estate, which himself cultivated ; and 
it was sufficient with its yearly Produce to Support him 
plentifully ; out of it he never went : so that (as appeared by 
his course of Life,) as he coveted very little, so he expe- 
rienced as little Trouble while he Lived. 


Whom, while Living, they ordered to be Worshipped 
as a God. 1 

BY the appointment of the same Oracle, and by the 
approbation of Jupiter, the Sovereign of the Gods, Euthymus 
the Wrestler, who always was Conqueror at Olympia, except 
once, was Consecrated a God while he lived, and knew of it ; 
he was born at Locri, in Italy, where one Statue of his, as 
also another at Olympia, were both on one Day struck with 
Lightning : which I see Callimachus wondered at, as if 
nothing else were worthy of Admiration ; and gave order 
that he should be Sacrificed to, as to a God : which was per- 
formed accordingly, both while he Lived and after he was 
Dead. A thing that I wonder at more than at any thing 
else : that the Gods should have been pleased with such 
a thing. 

1 It was scarcely more reasonable to worship a man after he was dead 
than during his life ; and yet Pliny must have joined in the worship of 
Augustus and Julius Caesar, and have been conscious, as appears from 
several places of his writings, that the greatest gods of his country had 
formerly been living men. The egregious vanity of desiring to be sup- 
posed a god was felt by Alexander the Great, to whose applicatio'n for 
recognition in this character the Lacedaemonians replied by an edict, that 
" If Alexander wished to be a god, he might be a god." Pliny lived to 
see the brother of his patron Titus, Domitian, exemplify the absurdity of 
which he complains ; for it appears that the latter emperor was more than 
ordinarily fond of this assumption of divinity. Wern. Club. 

234 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

Of the longest Extent of Life. 

THE extent and duration of Man's Life are rendered 
uncertain, not only by the Situation of Places, but also from 
Examples, and the peculiar lot of his Nativity. Hesiod, 
the first Writer who has treated on this Subject, in his Fabu- 
lous Discourse (as I regard it), embracing many things about 
the Age of Man, saith that a Crow lives nine times as long 
as we ; the Stags four times as long as the Crow ; and the 
Ravens thrice as long as they. And his other remarks about 
the Nymphs and the Phrenix are still more Fabulous. Ana- 
creon the Poet, assigneth to Arganthonius, King of the 
Tartessi, 150 Years : and to Cyniras, King of the Cypri, ten 
Years longer : to <3Zgimius, 200. Theopompus affirmeth. that 
Epimenides, the Gnossian, died when he was 157 Years old. 
Hellanicus hath Written, that among the Epii, in ^Etolia, 
there are some who continue full 200 Years : and with him 
agreeth Damastes ; adding also, that there was one Pic- 
toreus among them, a Man of exceeding Stature, and very 
Strong, who lived even to 300 Years. Ephorus saith, that 
the Kings of Arcadia usually lived to 300 Years. Alexander 
Cornelius writeth of one Dando in Illyrica, who lived 500 
Years. Xenophon in his " Periplus," niaketh mention of a 
King of a People upon the Sea-coasts, who lived 600 Years : 
and as if he had not lied enough already, he saith, that his 
Son came to 800. All these strange reports proceed from 
ignorance of the times past, for some reckoned the Summer 
for one Year, and the Winter for another. Others reckoned 
every Quarter for a Year, as the Arcadians, whose Year was 
but three Months. Some, as the Egyptians, count every 
change of the Moon for a Year ; and therefore some of them 
are reported to have lived 1000 Years. But to pass to 
things acknowledged as true, it is almost certain, that Argan- 
tltonius, King of Calais, reigned 80 Years ; and it is supposed 
that he was 40 Years old when he began to Reign. It is 
undoubted, that Masanissa reigned 60 Years; and also that 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 235 

Gorgias the Sicilian lived 108 Years. Q. Fabius Maximus 
continued Augur for 63 Years. M. Perpenna, and of late, 
L. Volusius Saturninus, out-lived all those Senators who 
had sat in Council with them when they were Consuls. 
Perpenna left but seven of those Senators alive whom he 
had chosen in his Censorship ; and he lived himself 98 
Years. Where, by the way, one thing cometh to my Mind 
worth the noting : that there was one Space of five Years, 
and never but one, in which not one Senator died ; and that 
was from the time that Flaccus and Albinus the Censors 
finished their Lustrum, to the coming in of the next Censors ; 
which was from the Year after the Foundation of the City, 
579. M. Valerius Corvinus lived 100 Years complete; and 
between his first Consulate and his sixth, were 46 Years. 
He took his Seat on the Curule Chair 21 Times ; and no 
Man ever besides him so often. Metellus the Pontifex lived 
full as long as he. 

To come now to Women : Lima the Wife of Rutilius 
lived more than 97 Years. Statilia, a noble Lady, in the 
Time of Claudius the Prince, was 99 Years of Age : Cicero's 
Wife, Terentia, was 103 Years old : Clodia, Wife to Osilius, 
saw 1 15 Years ; and she had 15 Children. Luceia, a Comic 
Actress, appeared on the Stage for 100 Years. Galeria 
Copiola, a Mimic Actress, was brought again upon the 
Stage when Cn. Pompeius and Q. Sulpitius were Consuls, at 
the solemn Plays vowed for the Health of Divus Augustus, 
when she was in the 1 04th Year of her Age : the first Time 
that she entered on the Stage was 91 Years before, when 
she was brought thither by M. Pomponius, ^Edile of the 
Commons, in the Year that C. Marius and Cn. Carbo were 
Consuls ; and once again Pompey the Great, at the dedica- 
tion of his great Theatre, returned the old Woman to the 
Stage for the wonder of the thing. Also Asconius Peedi- 
anus writeth, that Samula lived 110 Years; and therefore I 
wonder the less that Stephanie (who was the first of the 
Long Robe who appointed Dancing) danced in both the 
Secular Games, as well those that were set out by Divus 
Augustus, as those which Claudius Ccesar exhibited in his 

236 History of Nature. [ BOOK VII. 

fourth Consulship ; considering that between the one and 
the other there were but 63 Years ; and yet Stephanie lived 
for a considerable Time after. Mutianus witnesseth, that in 
Tempsis, which is the Crest of the Mountain Tmolus, People 
lived 150 Years. At that Age, T. Fullonius, of Bononia, 
entered his Name in the Census at the Time that Claudius 
Ccesar held the Registry ; and that he was so old indeed, 
appeared by comparing together several Registries that he 
had before made, as also by circumstances that had occurred 
in his Lifetime ; for the Emperor took care in that way to 
find out the Truth. 1 

Of Differences in the Nativities. 

THIS Point would require the Advice of the Science of 
the Stars; for Epigenes saith, that it is not possible for a 
Man to live a hundred and twenty-two Years ; and Berosus 
is of opinion, that one cannot pass an hundred and seven- 
teen. That Calculation holdeth good which Petosiris and 
Necepsos have delivered, and which they call Tetartemorion, 
from a portion of three Signs; according to which account it 

1 The length of life detailed in the Mosaic records was unknown to 
the Greeks, who had only retained an obscure traditionary remembrance 
of it, and of the great stature and strength with which it was supposed to 
be accompanied. But that Pliny's mode of interpreting it, by a peculiar 
method of explaining the length of the year, will not apply to the narra- 
tive in the Book of Genesis, appears from the fact that the same history 
records the reduction of the length of human life, by sudden transitions, 
to at last threescore and ten years, which we are compelled to measure 
by the same scale as the former. 

As a general summary of the duration of life in historical times, the 
" History of Life and Death," by Lord Bacon, may be consulted. Fuller 
mentions James Sands, of Horborne in Staffordshire, who lived 140 
years, and his wife 120. The Countess of Desmond, known to Sir W 
llawleigh, lived to about 140 years, and had new teeth three several 
times. Thomas Parr was born in 1483; married at the age of eighty, 
and in the space of thirty-two years had only two children. At the age 
of 120 he had another child, and died aged 150 years. Wern. Club. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 237 

is evident, that in the Tract of Italy, Men may reach to a 
hundred and twenty-six Years. They denied that a Man 
could possibly pass the ascendant Space of 90 Degrees 
(which they call Anaphoras) ; and that even these are cut 
short, either by the encounter of malevolent Planets, or by 
the radiations of them or the Sun. Again, the Sect of Ascle- 
piades 1 affirm, that the appointed Length of Life proceedeth 
from the Stars ; but concerning the utmost term, it is uncer- 
tain. But they say, that the longer Ages are Rare, because 
the greatest Number by far have their Nativity at the 
marked Moments of the Hours of the Moon, or of Days 
according to the Number of Seven or Nine (which are 
Daily and Nightly observed) : by the gradual declining Law 
of the Years, called Climacteric, 2 and such as are so Born 
scarcely exceed the fifty-fourth Year. But here, first, the 
Uncertainty of the Art itself declareth how doubtful this 
matter is. To this are added the Observations and Instances 
of the very recent Census, which within the Space of four 
Years, the Imperators, Caesars, Vespasians, Father and 
Son, Censors, have accomplished. And here we need not 
search every Cupboard, we will only set down the examples 
of the middle part, between the Apennine and the Po. At 
Parma, three Men were found of the Age of a hundred and 

1 In book xxvi. c. 3, Pliny gives a more precise, and not very com- 
plimentary, account of this physician. Wern. Club. 

2 A large portion of the physiological learning of ancient physicians 
consisted in the arithmetical calculation of types and periods of vital and 
diseased actions ; in connexion with which they also arranged the motions 
of the celestial bodies and their influences. It thus became necessary, 
that he who was a physician in the modern meaning of the word should 
also be able to interpret the stars, and to apply mathematical reasoning 
to the laws of health and disease. The calculation of climacterical 
years, and the ultimate duration of human life, were thus decided by a 
combination of intricate mathematical probabilities. These climacteric 
years were formed on the multiplication of the number seven by the 
unit numbers, and at them the most important of the periodic changes 
of the body were accomplished. The highest number thus multiplied 
formed the grand climacteric, after which the changes produced a retro- 
gression towards feebleness and decay; the danger of which was ever 
greatest at the climacterics. See bookii. c. 52. Wern. Club. 

238 History of Nature, [BooK VII. 

twenty Years: at Brixelus, one that was a hundred and 
twenty-five Years; at Parma, two of a hundred and thirty 
Years ; at Placentia, one of a hundred and thirty-one ; at 
Faventia, there was one Woman a hundred and thirty-two 
Years old ; at Bonona, L. Terentius, the Son of Marcus, and 
at Ariminum M. Aponius, were a hundred and fifty. 
Tertulla was a hundred and thirty-seven. About Placentia 
there is a Town on the Hills, named Velleiacium, in which 
six Men brought a Certificate that they had lived a hundred 
and ten Years ; four likewise brought one of about a hundred 
Years ; one of a hundred and forty, 1 namely M. Mutius, 
son of Marcus surnamed Galerius Felix. But because we 
will not dwell long in a matter so commonly allowed, in the 
eighth Region of Italy there were found in the Roll fifty- 
four Persons of one hundred Years of Age ; fifty-seven of a 
hundred and ten ; two, of a hundred and twenty-five ; four, 
of a hundred and thirty ; as many that were a hundred and 
thirty-five, or a hundred and thirty-seven Years ; and three 
Men of a hundred and forty. Another inconstant variety in 
mortal Men : Homer reporteth, that Hector and Polydamas 
were born in one Night, though Men of such a different 
Fortune. While C. Marius was Consul, and Cn. Carbo with 
him, who had been twice before Consul, the fifth Day before 
the Calends of June, M. Ccecilius Ruffus and C. Licinius 
Calvus were born on the same Day ; and both of them 
indeed were Orators : but their fate was very different. 
And this is seen daily to happen throughout the World, that 
among those born in one Hour some are Kings, and others 
Beggars, some Lords and others Slaves. 

Various Examples of Diseases. 

PUB. CORNELIUS RUFUS, who was Consul with M. 
Curius, dreamed that he had Lost his Sight ; and so it proved 
when he awoke. On the other Hand, Phalereus being given 

1 Dr. Holland seems to have read " one hundred and fourteen." 
Wern. Club. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 239 

over by the Physicians for the Disease of Vomica, being 
stabbed in his Breast, found a Remedy in his Enemy. Q. 
Fdbius Maximus, Consul, engaging in a Battle with the Nations 
of the Allobroges and Averni, near the River Isara, on the 
sixth Day before the Ides of August ; in which double 
action he Slew of his Enemies 13,000 ; he was in the Contest 
delivered from his Fever. This gift of Nature, truly, what- 
ever is bestowed on us, is frail and uncertain : and in those 
in whom it exists in the largest Measure, it is but short and 
evil if we consider the whole Course of it from Beginning to 
End. Because if we count our repose by Night, a Man 
may be truly said to live but one half of his Life ; for that 
Half of it which is spent in Sleep may be compared to Death ; 
and if he cannot Sleep, it is a Punishment. Nor are the 
Years of our Infancy to be reckoned, for this Age is void of 
Sense; nor those of old Age, which is the punishment of a 
disposition to live. What shall I speak of so many kinds of 
Dangers, so many Diseases, so many Fears, so many Cares, 
so many Prayers for Death, that we Pray for nothing more 
frequently ? and therefore Nature knoweth not what better 
thing to give a Man, than short Life. The Senses 1 become 
dull, the Members grow benumbed, the Eye-sight decayeth 
betimes, the Hearing followeth, then the Supporters, the 
Teeth also, and the very Instruments that serve for our 
Food ; and yet all this Time is counted a Part of our Life. 
And therefore it is taken for a wonderful example, and that 
to which we cannot find a fellow, that Xenophilus the Musi- 
cian lived 105 Years, without any inconveniency in all his 
Body. But all other Men, by Hercules! are vexed at certain 
Hours, as no other Creatures are besides, with pestiferous 
Heat and Cold in every part of their Members ; which go 

1 How remarkably does this enumeration of the signs and evils of 
age correspond with the more poetical representation of the same condi- 
tion by Solomon, in the last chapter of the Book of Ecclesiastes ! 
Cicero, in his " Cato," laments the ills of age as more weighty than JEtna ; 
and others of the wisest heathens join in the lamentation ; which ceases 
to surprise us when we reflect that they were destitute of a hope in the 
future. Wern. Club. 

240 History of Nature. [ BOOK VII. 

and come, not for certain Hours only, but by Day and by 
Night : one while every Third, and at others every Fourth 
Day and Night, even through the whole Year. And it is 
some sort of Disease to die through wisdom, for Nature 
hath set down certain Laws, even to Diseases ; as that the 
circle of a Quartan Fever never beginneth in the shortest 
Days of the Year, neither in the Months of Winter; that 
some Diseases are not incident to those that are above Sixty 
Years of Age ; that others again pass away when young 
People come to the Age of Puberty ; and especially this is 
observed in young Women. Old People are the least liable 
to take the Plague. Also there are Sicknesses that follow 
particular Regions, affecting the Inhabitants generally 
therein. There are some again that take hold of Servants 
only ; others touch the highest Persons alone : and so from 
degree to degree. But in this Place it is to be observed, that 
a Pestilence beginneth in the South parts, and always goeth 
toward the West ; and it scarcely ever doeth otherwise, 
except in Winter, and then it doth not exceed three 
Months. 1 

Of the Signs of Death* 

Now let us take a View of the fatal Signs in Sickness 
In the Disease of Fury (Madness), to Laugh is such a Sign : 
In the Sickness of Wisdom (Frenzy), to have a care of 
the Fringes of their Garments and Bedclothes, to smoothe 
them down ; the neglect of such things as would prevent 
their Sleep; the apologising letting go of their Water. It 

1 This remark has been already referred to c. 37, p. 221 ; and it is the 
more worthy of notice, since there is reason to believe that all the epidemics 
which have traversed Europe since the time when Pliny wrote have 
conformed to the same rule. Wern. Club. 

2 Celsus considers this subject, book ii. c. 6, and the medical nature 
and treatment of insanity, book iii. c. 18. Byfuroris morbus (madness 
or mania), and sapientice cegritudine (frenzy), he seems to mean, the 
former, insanity of the passions ; and the latter, insanity of the under- 
standing. Wern. Club. 

BOOK VII.] . History of Nature. 241 

may also he certainly seen in the aspect of the Kyes and 
Nose, as also in the manner of lying always upon the Back 
supine: also by the unequal stroke of the Veins, as if an 
Ant crept under it, with other Signs which Hippocrates, the 
prince of Medicine, hath observed. And whilst there are 
innumerable Signs that presage Death, there is not one that 
can assure a Man certainly of Life and Health. For Cato 1 
the Censor, writing to his Son concerning robust Health, 
hath delivered from some Oracle, that Youth resembling 
Age is a Sign of untimely Death. Diseases are so innu- 
merable, that Pherecydes, of the Island of Syros, died of a 
great quantity of Creepers 2 bursting out of his Body. Some 
are never free of a Fever, as C. Meccenas. The same Man, 
for tbree whole Years before he died, never was asleep for 
a single Minute. Antipater Sidonius the Poet, once a year 
during his Life was seized with an Ague-fit upon his Birth- 
day only, and at last he died in such a Fit in a good 
old Age. 


Of such as were carried forth to their Funeral and revived, 
ay ain. 

A. VIOLA, who had been Consul, came to himself when 
he was on the Funeral Pile ; but because the Flame was so 
Strong that he could not be got away, he was burnt alive. 

1 Cato's knowledge of medical subjects may be judged of from the 
specimens of miserable quackery contained in his " Treatise on Agricul- 
ture." Much of it consisted of charms, in unintelligible jargon. 
Wern. Club. 

'* Pliny sometimes employs unusual words to express plain and com- 
mon things; or he may have adopted the term to avoid what among 
polite people would have excited loathing. For the same reason another 
author speaks of the same creatures under the name of animalia tctra, or 
foul creatures. It was the disease which afflicted Herod, Acts of the 
Apostles, xii. 23; and in modern times Dr. Heberden records a case, 
" Commentaries," c. Ixxi : but it is not certain that they are of the same 
species as that which commonly attacks the human body. The fate of 
Sylla, from the same cause, is referred to in the 4-'5d chapter of this Book. 
Wern. CMi. 

VOL. If. R 

242 History of Nature [BooK VII. 

The like accident is reported to have befallen Lit. Lamia, 
of Praetorian rank. That C. ^Elius Tubero, who had been 
Praetor, was brought Alive again from the Funeral Fire, 
Messala Rufus and many others assert. Such is the condi- 
tion of Mortal Men ; and to this kind of Fortune, and such 
as this, are we born : so that in the case of Man there is 
no assurance, no, not even in his Death. We read in 
Chronicles, that the Soul of Hermotimus Clazomenius was 
accustomed to leave his Body, and wandering to a great 
distance, brought him backs News of such things as could 
not possibly have been known unless it had been present 
there ; and all the while his Body lay half Dead. This 
manner he continued, until the Cantharidae, who were his 
Enemies, took his Body and burnt it to Ashes; and by that, 
means disappointed his Soul when it came back again to 
its Sheath. Also it is said, that the Spirit of Aristteas in 
Proconnesus was seen to fly out of his Mouth in the form 
of a Raven ; and many an empty Tale followeth thereon : 
for surely I take it to be no better than a Fable, which is in 
like manner reported of Epimenides the Gnossian, that, when 
he was a Boy, and wearied with Heat and Travel, he laid 
himself down in a Cave, and there slept for 57 Years. 1 At 
length he awoke, as if on the very next Morning, and won- 
dered at the changed face of every thing he saw. Hence in an 
equal number of Days after, he grew Old, that at last he lived 
to the Age of 175 Years. Women, by reason of their Sex, are 
most subject to this, danger, 2 by the turning of the Womb ; 
which, if it be corrected, they soon recover. To this belongs 
that noble Volume among the Greeks written by Heraclides, 
where he writeth of a Woman that for seven Days lay as 
Dead, but who in the end was restored to Life. Also Varro 
reporteth, that when the twenty Men were dividing Lands 

1 Gibbon refers to a similar story, which was widely believed, in the 
fifth century of Christianity (" Decline and Fall," c. xxxiii.) ; but he seems 
not to have been aware of this more ancient, and perhaps original, narra- 
tive of a similar event. Wern. Club. 

2 That is, of the suspension of animation, one of the symptoms of 
Hysteria. Wern. Club. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 243 

at Capua, there was one carried forth on his Bier who came 
home again upon his Feet. Also, that the like happened at 
Aquinum. Likewise, that in Rome one Corfidius, who had 
married his own Aunt by the Mother's side, after his 
Funeral had been set in order, revived again ; and the 
Orderer of his Funeral was by him carried out to the 
same. Varro also addeth some surprising- things, which 
are worth the rehearsal at large. There were two Brethren 
of the Equestrian order, of whom the elder, named Corfidius, 
happened in all appearance to die ; and when his last Will 
was opened, the younger Brother, who was appointed his 
Heir, gave orders for his Funeral. In the meanwhile the 
Man that seemed Dead, by clapping one Hand against the 
other, 1 raised the Servants in the House ; and he recounted 
to them that he was come from his younger Brother, who 
had recommended his Daughter to him ; and, moreover, that 
he had shewed to him in what place he had buried his 
Gold, without the knowledge of any Man : requesting him 
also to employ that Provision which he had prepared for 
him about his own Funeral. As he was relating this matter, 
his Brother's domestic Servants came in great haste to the 
House, and brought word that, their Master was dead ; and 
the Gold was found in the place he had pointed out. And 
truly life is full of these Divinations ; but they are not to be 
compared with these, as for the most part they are mere 
lies, as we will prove by one notable example : in the 
Sicilian War, Gabienus, one of the bravest Officers of 
CfBsars Fleet, was taken prisoner by Sex. Pompey, and by 
commandment from him his Head was almost stricken off, 
so that it scarcely hung to the Neck by the Skin, and in this 
condition he lay all day on the Shore. When it grew 
toward the Evening, and a Company were flocked about 
him, with a groan and prayers he requested that Pompey 
would come to him, or at least send some one of those who 

1 Clapping the hands together appears to have been an ordinary 
method of summoning the attendants before bells came into use for that 
purpose. Wern. Club. 

244 History of Nature. [ BOOK VII. 

were dear to him, because he was sent back from the Lower 
Regions, and had a Message to deliver to him. Then Pompey 
sent several of his friends, to whom Gabienus related that 
the Infernal Gods were well pleased with the Cause and 
pious Dispositions of Pompey, and therefore he should have 
as good an issue of it as he could wish. Thus much, he said, 
he was commanded to deliver ; and as a proof of the truth, 
so soon as he had done his errand he would immediately 
expire : and so it came to pass. Histories also make men- 
tion of them who have appeared after they were committed 
to Earth. But our purpose is to write of Nature's works, 
and not to prosecute such Prodigious Matters. 

Of Sudden Deaths. 

BUT among the principal things is sudden Death, which 
is the greatest Felicity of Life ; many examples of which we 
have, that always seem strange, although they are common, 
and as we shall shew, natural. Verrius hath set forth many, 
but we will make choice among them all. Besides C/iilo/i, 
of whom we have spoken before, there died suddenly for Joy 
Sophocles the Poet, and Dionysius the Tyrant of Sicily : 
both of them, on Tidings brought to them that they had won 
the best Prize among the Tragic Poets. Presently after the 
famous battle of Canna3, a Mother died immediately on the 
sight of her Son unhurt, whom by a false Message she had 
heard to have been Slain. Diodorus, a Professor of Dialectic 
Learning, for shame that he could not readily resolve a fri- 
volous Question at the demand of Stilbo, sunk away without 
recovery. Without any apparent cause some have died, 
particularly two of the Ccesars ; the one a Praetor : the other 
who had borne that Dignify, the Father of Ccesar the Dic- 
tator : both of them in the Morning when they were putting 
on their Shoes, the one at Pisa, the former at Rome. 
Q. Fabius Maximvs in his very Consulship, upon the last 
Day of December; in whose place llebilus made suit to be 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 245 

Consul for a very few Hours. 1 Also, C. Vulcatius Guryes, a 
Senator: all of them in such sound and perfect Health, that 
they expected to live Long. Q. JEmilius Lepidus, even as he 
was going out of his Bed-chamber, hit his great Toe against 
the Door-post and died from it. C. Aufdius was going 
out of his House, on his way to the Senate, and stumbled 
with his Foot in the Comitium. The Ambassador of the 
Rhodians also, who had to the great admiration of all that 
were present pleaded their cause before the Senate, in the 
very entry of the Counsel-house, as he was going out, fell 
down Dead. C'n. Bcebius Pampkilus, who had been Prsetor, 
died suddenly as he was asking a Boy what it was o'clock. 
A. Pompeius, so soon as he had worshipped the Gods in the 
Capitol ; M. Juventius Talva, the Consul, as he was sacri- 
ficing ; Caius Servilius Pansa, as he stood at a Shop in the 
Forum, at the second Hour of the Day, leaning on his 
Brother, P. Pansa; Bcebius, the Judge, as he was adjourning 
an Appearance in the Court ; M. Terentius Corax, while he 
was writing Letters in the Forum ; no longer since than last 
Year a Knight of Rome, as he was talking in the Ear of one 
who had been Consul, before the Ivory Statue of Apollo, 
which is in the Forum of Augustus: but above all others, 
C. Julius, a Physician, as he was dressing an Eye with 
Ointment, and drawing the Surgical Instrument along the 
Eye ; also L. Manlius Torquatus, a Consular Man, when at 
Supper he reached for a Cake ; L. Durius Valla, a Phy- 
sician, while he was drinking a Draught of honeyed Drink ; 
Apfjius SaitJ'eius, being come out of the Bath, as he was 
drinking honeyed Drink, and supping an Egg ; P. Quin- 
tius Scapula, as he was at Supper with Aquillius Gallus ; 
Decimus Saufeius, a Scribe, as he sat at Dinner in his own 
House ; Cornelius Gallus, who had been Praetor, and T, 
JEthcrius a Roman Knight, died in the very act of Venus. 
The like befell in our Days to two of the Equestrian order, 
with the same pantomimic Jester Mithycus, who was in 
those days of surpassing Beauty. But M. Ofilius Hilarus, 

1 Until the year was accomplished : an honour which otherwise he 
was not likely ever to attain. Wern. Club. 


History of Nature. 

[Booic VII. 

an Actor in Comedies, as is reported by ancient Writers, 
died with the most laboured security of Death ; for after he 
had afforded much Pleasure to the People on his Birth-day 
he held a Feast ; and when the Supper was set forth, he 
called for some hot Drink in a Basin: and casting his Eye 
on the Mask that, he had worn that day, he took off the 
Chaplet from his Head, and set it on it; in this habit he 
became cold before any Man perceived it, until he that 
reclined next to him put him in mind that his Drink was 
growing cold. These are examples of happy Deaths. But, 
on the other hand, there is a very great number of those that 
are miserable. L. Domitius, descended from a noble Family, 
being vanquished by Ceesar near Massilia, and taken pri- 
soner at Corsinium by the same CWar, for very irksomeness 
of Life poisoned himself; but after he had drunk the 
Poison he did fill he could to save his life. We find in the 
Public Acts, that when Felix, one of the Red-coloured 
Chariot- drivers, was carried out to be burnt, one of those 
who favoured him threw himself into his Funeral Fire. A 
frivolous matter it is to speak of; but they of the other side, 
that this act should not be ascribed to the honour of the 
Artist abovenamed, gave it out, that this Friend of his did it 
only because his Head was intoxicated with the strong smell 
of the Odours. Not long before this M. Lepidus, 1 descended 
from a most noble Family, who (as is above said) died 
through Grief, was by the violence of the Flame cast off from 
the Funeral Pile ; and as, because of the extreme Heat, no 
one could come near to lay him again on the place, he was 
burnt naked on a pile of dry Vine Cuttings, near the former. 

Of Burial. 

To burn the Bodies' 2 of the Dead was not an ancient 
Custom among the Romans ; but they Buried them in the 

' The cause of his death is mentioned in the 36th chapter of this 
book. Wern. Club. 

' 2 The practice of burning the dead is of high antiquity, and as such is 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 247 

Earth. But after they understood that the Bodies of the 
Men slain in the distant Wars were taken up out of the Earth 
again, it was appointed to Burn them. And yet many Fami- 
lies kept still to the old Customs: as in the House of the 
Cornelii no one is reported to have been burnt before L. 
Sylla, the Dictator. And he willed it through dread that he 
should be so served as he had done by C. Marius, whose 
Corpse he had caused to be digged up. (In Latin) he is said 
to be Sepultus, who is bestowed in any way ; but Humatus 
signified! that he is covered with the Earth. 

Of the Soul, or the Manes. 1 

AFTER Sepulture there is very great Obscurity regarding 
the Manes ; but this is generally held, that in whatever Con- 
familiarly spoken of by Homer. That it was more ancient among the 
Romans than is represented by Pliny appears from Ovid ; who (" Fasti," 
c. 4) speaks of its having been practised on the body of Remus, the bro- 
ther of Romulus. The same is also negatively proved by Nutna, who 
ordered that his body should not be burned ; and by the laws of the 
Twelve Tables, regulations were instituted concerning it : chiefly to pre- 
vent extravagant expense in the ceremony. The general fashion of 
burning, in preference to interment, succeeded to the example set by 
Sylla ; after whose day it was practised even by people of inferior orders : 
but neither burning nor burial were allowed by law within the bounds 
of the city. An ordinance of Numa forbade that a woman who died in 
childbirth should be buried, until the child was taken from her ; and the 
usual ceremonies were to be omitted when the person had been killed by 
lightning. Wern. Club. 

1 " Manes " was a general term expressive of the souls of men after 
they were separated from the body. They were supposed to be arranged 
in classes, according to their moral condition : for which see a note, 
vol. i. p. 24. But however situated, a kind of deityship was supposed to 
attach itself to them : and hence they were addressed as Dii Manes. 
Such was the popular opinion, as referred to by Virgil, Ovid, and other 
writers who reflected the public mind ; but it was scarcely an article of 
faith among philosophers and the higher classes, whose opinions fluctuated 
according to circumstances. As a motive to moral obligation and respon- 
sibility it was exceedingly feeble. 

Pliny's observation, " that in whatever condition they were before 

'248 History of Nature. [ BOOK VII. 

ditiori they were before they were born, in the same they 
remain when they are dead. For neither Body nor Soul 
hath any more Sense after Death than they had before the 
Day of Birth. But the Vanity of Men extendeth itself even 
into the future, and in the very Time of Death Hattereth 
itself with a Life after this. For some attribute Immortality 
to the Soul ; others devise a Transfiguration ; some again 

they were born, in the same they remain after they are dead," may he 
understood as referring to the Pythagorean doctrine of Transmigration ; 
which was the most plausible account of the disposition of the intelligent 
principle that the Heathens could reach to, before Light and Immor- 
tality were revealed in the Gospel ; but by the almost contemptuous 
silence with which he passes it over in his argument, it appears that he 
did not feel disposed to credit it. With regard to the station of the 
manes, Plato supposes that impure spirits wander about among sepulchres 
and monuments. Homer represents Elpenor as prevented from rest 
until the funeral rites were paid ; and a commonly received doctrine was, 
that there were days sacred to Dis and Proserpine, on which the whole of 
the secret and deep places of the world were thrown open, and the disem- 
bodied spirits were permitted to revisit the light. Varro supposes that 
this occurs three times in the year : on the feast of Vulcanalia, tenth of 
the Calends of September, or 23d of August ; on the 3d of the Nones of 
October, the Fontinalia, October 13 ; and the 6th of the Ides of November, 
or 8th of that month. 

According to the doctrine of the Jewish liabbis, derived, no doubt, 
from ancient Oriental sources, "during the first twelve months after 
death the souls of righteous men descend and ascend again " (Talmud, tr. 
Sabbath) : which Rabbi Joseph Albo, in the " Book of Principles," c. xxxi., 
explains hy saying, that the soul does not directly and at once become 
divested of those corporeal attachments to which it is accustomed, but 
lingers about them until by habit it becomes weaned from them, and 
assimilated to the new condition on which it has entered; 

The gloomy views which even the more virtuous of the ancient Hea- 
thens took of an invisible world is shewn by Homer's representations in 
the " Odyssey," b. xi. ; and by so much of Etrurian learning as, from 
their paintings and other representations, have descended to us. With so 
much distaste of a wearisome life on the one hand (in which even Homer 
joins, b. xvii.), and on the other the dim prospect of the dreary regions 
below, we can scarcely wonder if even the virtuous Pliny should choose 
rather to lie down in ashes without the prospect of living again. The 
greater portion of his argument, however, is founded on his ignorance : 
his questions, then so doubtful, are such as now even a child may answer. 
Wen,. Club. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 249 

bestow Sense on those who are in the Lower Regions ; and 
they do Honour to the Manes, making a God of him who 
hath ceased to be a Man : as if the Mariner of Man's Breath- 
ing differed from that of other living Creatures ; or as if 
there were not to be found many other Things in. the World, 
that live much longer than Men, and yet no Man foretells 
the like Immortality to them. But what is the Body that 
followeth the Material of the Soul ? where lieth her 
Thought? how is her Seeing, how is her Hearing per- 
formed? what toucheth she? nay, what doth she at all? 
How is she employed ? or what Good can there be without 
these? I would know where she hath her abiding Place? 
and what Multitudes of Souls, like Shadows, would there be 
in so many Ages ? Surely these are but fantastical and 
childish Toys, devised by Men that would fain live always. 
The like Foolery there is in preserving the Bodies of Men. 
And the Vanity of Democritus is no less, who promised a 
Restoration to Life, and yet himself hath not come to Life 
again. And what an Instance of Madness to think (an Evil 
in itself) that Death should be the Way to a life ! What 
Repose should ever Men have that are born, if the Sense of 
their Souls should remain on high, while their Shadows are 
among those below ? Certainly, this sweet Inducement, 
and Credulity, destroyeth the Benefit of the best Gift of 
Nature, which is Death ; and it doubleth the Pain of a Man 
who is to die, if he happen to consider what shall befall him 
in the Time to come. For if it be sweet to live, what Plea- 
sure can one have, that hath already lived? But how much 
more easy and certain is it for each Man to trust to himself, 
and to gather Reasons from the Experience that he had 
before he was born? 

The first Inventors of Things i?i Life. 

BEFORE we depart from this Discourse of Men's Nature, 
it seeineth convenient to point out their Inventions, and 
what each Man hath discovered. In the first Place, Liber 

250 History of Nature. [ BOOK V 1 1 . 

Pater appointed buying and selling ; he also devised the 
Diadem, the Ornament of Kings, and the Triumph. Ceres 
shewed the use of Corn, whereas before Men lived on Mast. 
She taught also how to grind Corn, to knead Dough, and 
make Bread of it, in Attica. Italy, and Sicily; for which she 
was reputed a Goddess. She it was that began to make 
Laws ; but others have thought that Rhadamanthm was the 
first Lawgiver. I am of opinion, that Letters ever were in 
Assyria ; but some think, as particularly Gellius, that they 
were invented by Mercury in Egypt, and others will have it 
that they came first from Syria. True it is, that Cadmus 
brought into Greece from Phcenice to the Number of sixteen ; 
to which Paiamedes, in the Time of the Trojan War, added 
four, in these characters, 0, a, <, x. And after him Simon- 
ides Melicus 1 produced the same Numbers, Z, H, T, ft : the 
Force of all which Letters we acknowledge among ourselves. 
Aristotle is rather of opinion, that there were eighteen an- 
cient Letters : A, B, r, A, E, Z, I, K, A, M, N, o, n, p, 2, T, r, o, 
and that the other two, and X, were added by JEpichan/ms, 
and riot by Paiamedes. Antidides writeth, that one in Egypt 
named Menon was the Inventor of Letters, fifteen Years be- 
fore the Time of Phoroneus, the most ancient King of Greece : 
and he endeavoureth to prove the same by Monuments. On 
the other Hand, Epigenes, an Author as renowned as any, 
sheweth, that among the Babylonians there were found 
Observations of the Stars for 720 Years, written on Bricks ; 
and they who speak of the least, as Berosus and Critodemus, 
report the like for 480 Years. Whereby it appeareth that 
the use of Letters was eternal. The Pelasgi brought their 
use into Latiurn. Euryalus and Hyperbius, two Brothers at 
Athens, invented the first Manufacture of Bricks and the 
Formation of Houses ; for before their Time Caves were used 
for Houses. Gellius is of opinion that Doxius, the Son of 
Ccelus, devised the first Houses that were made of Clay ; 
taking his Pattern from the Nests of Swallows. Cecrops 
called a Town after his own Name, Cecropia ; which at this 

1 Some copies read Medicus, " a physician." Wern. Club. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 251 

Day is the Castle in Athens. Some will have it that Argos 
was built before it by King Phoroneus; and others again, 
that Sycione was before them. The Egyptians affirm, that 
long before that, their City Diospolis was founded. Cinyra, 
the Son of Agriopa, invented the Slating of Houses, and 
Mines of Brass : both within the Isle of Cyprus. He also 
invented Pincers, the little Hammer, the Lever, and the 
Anvil. JDanaus, who was brought from Egypt to Greece, 
which was then called Argos Dipsion, first sunk Wells. 
Cadmus at Thebes, or, as Theophrastus saith, in Phcenice, 
found out Stone Quarries. Thrason was the first Builder 
of Walls : of Towers, the Cyclops, as Aristotle thinketh ; 
but the Tyrinthii, according to Theophrastus. Weaving 
was the Invention of the Egyptians ; and Dyeing Wool, 
of the Lydians in Sardis. Closter, the Son of Arachne, 
taught the first making of the Spindle for Woollen Yarn : 
and Arachnid herself, the Flax and Nets. Nicias the Megaren- 
sian invented the Fuller's Art: Bocthius, the Art of Sewing. 
The Egyptians will have Medicine to have been discovered 
among them ; but others, that Arabns, the Son of Babylo 
and Apollo, was its Author. The first Herbarist and Apothe- 
cary was Chiron, Son of Saturn and Phyllira. Aristotle 
thinketh that Lydus the Scythian displayed the melting and 
tempering of Brass ; Theophrastus, that it was Delas the 
Phrygian. Some think the Chalybse devised the working 
into Vessels of Brass, and others attribute it to the Cyclopae. 
The Discovery of Iron was the Invention of those in 
Crete, who were called Dactyli Idsei, according to Hesiod. 
Erichthonius the Athenian discovered Silver, or, as others 
say, ^Eacus. The Gold Mines, together with the melting of 
the Metal, Cadmus the Phoenician first found out at the 
Mountain Pangaeus ; but others say, Thoas and Eaclis in 
Panchaia ; or else Sol the Son of Oceanus, to whom Gellius 
attributeth the Discovery of Medicine, and of Honey. 
Midacritus was the first that brought Lead out of the Island 
Cassiteris. 1 And the Cyclops invented the working Iron to 

1 The Islands of Stilly. Wern. Club. 

252 History of Nature. [BooK VII. 

use; Corcebus the Athenian, the Potter's Art; and therein 
Anacharsi.s the Scythian, or according to some, Hyperbios 
the Corinthian, invented the forming into a Globe. The 
Carpenter's Art was the Invention of Dcedalus, as well as 
the Tools : the Saw, the Hatchet, the Perpendicular, the 
Auger, Glue, Fish-glue. The Square, the Level, the Lathe, 
and the Key, were invented by Theodorus Samius. Phidon 
the Argive, or Palame.dts, as Gellius rather thinketh, found 
out Measures and Weights. Pyrodes, the Son of C'dix, first 
obtained Fire from the Flint; and Prometheus, the Means to 
preserve it. in Ferula (or Fennel). The Phrygians invented 
the Waggon with four Wheels : the Poeni (Carthaginians), 
Merchandise: Eumoljms the Athenian discovered the culti- 
vation of Vines arid Trees. Staphylus, the Son of S'denus, 
taught how to mix Wine with \Vater. Aristceus the Athenian 
invented the making of Oil, and also the Press belonging to 
it. The same Man taught to draw Honey from the Combs. 
.Buzyyes the Athenian, or as others have it, Triptolemns, 
employed Oxen for the Plough. The Egyptians were the 
first that had a royal City, and the Athenians a popular 
City. After Theseus, the first Tyrant was Phalaris of Agri- 
gentum. The Lacedaemonians first invented the Condition 
of Slavery. The first Judgment for Death wtss in the Court 
of Areopagus. The first Battle was fought between the Afri- 
cans and Egyptians; and the same was done with Clubs, 
which they call Phalanges. Shields were contrived by 
Prcetus and Acriaius, when they warred against each other; 
or by Calchus, the Son of Athamas. Midias of Messene in- 
vented the Cuirass, and the Lacedaemonians the Helmet, 
Sword, and Spear. The Carians contrived Greaves, and 
Crests (upon Helmets): Scythes, the Son of Jupiter, the Bow 
and Arrows; although some say that Perses, the Son of 
Perseus, invented Arrows. The ^Etolians invented the 
Lance . the Dart with a Loop was by jEtolns, the Son of 
Mars: the light Javelins and the Piluni by Tyrrhenus ; and 
Penthes'dea the Amazon, the Battle-axe. Piseus found out 
the Boar-spear and Chasing-staff. Among Engines to throw 
with, the Cietes invented the Scorpion : the Syrians, the 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 253 

Catapult : the Phoenicians, the Balista and the Sling. Pisevs 
the Tyrrhenian first used the hrazen Trumpet; and Arthemon 
the Clazomenian, Tortoises. The Engine to batter Walls 
(called sometimes the Horse, and now the Ram) was the 
Device of Epeus at Troy. Bclleropkon shewed first how to 
ride on Horseback : Pelethronius invented the Saddle and 
Bridle for the Horse. The Thessalians, called Centaurs, 
inhabiting near the Mountain Pelius, were the first that 
fought on Horseback. The Nation of the Phrygians first 
joined two Horses to a Chariot ; and JErichthonius four. 
Palamedes, during the Trojan Wa*r, invented the manner 
of setting an Army in array: also the giving of a Signal, 
the Watch-word, and the Outposts (Vigiliee). In the same 
War, Sinon devised Watch-towers. Lycanor was the first 
Maker of a Truce : Theseus, of Alliances : Car, from whom 
Caria took its Name, observed first the Flight of Birds 
(Augury) ; to which Orpheus added the Signs from other 
Animals. Delphus invented Divination from the Entrails 
(Aruspices) : Amphiaraus, that of the Inspection of Fire 
(Ignispex) : Tyresias, the Theban, that of the Auspices of 
Birds. Amphictyon gave the Interpretation of portentous 
Sights, and of Dreams. Atlas, the Son of Libya (or, 
as some say, the Egyptians, and as others the Assyrians), 
invented Astrology ; and in that Science, Anaximander the 
Milesian devised the Sphere. The Explanation of the 
Winds was given by JEohts, the Son of Helen. Amphion 
invented Music. The Flute and the single Pipe 1 were 
the Invention of Pan, the Son of Mercury. The oblique 
Cornet was by Midas in Phrygia ; and in the same Country 
Marsyas invented the Double Flute ; Amphion taught the 
Lydian Measures; Thamyras the Thracian, the Dorian; and 
Marsyas of Phrygia, the Phrygian. Amphion, likewise (or, 
as some say, Orpheus, and according to others, Linus), played 
first on the Lute. 2 Ter pander added seven Strings to it; 
Simonides added the eighth ; and Timotheus the ninth. Tha- 
myras was the first that played on the Lute without Song, 

1 Fistula and Monaxilus. Wern. Club. * Cithara. Wern. Club. 

254 History of Nature. [ BOOK VII. 

and Amphion sung with it, or, according to some, Linus. 
Terpander adapted Songs to the Lute. Dardanvs, the Troe- 
zenian, began first vocal Music to the Flute. 1 The Curetes 
taught to dance in Armour ; and Pyrrhus the Pyrrhic Dance ; 
and both these were first, practised in Crete. The Heroic 
Verse we owe to the Oracle of Pythius (Apollo}. About the 
Original of Poems there is a great Question. They are 
proved to have existed before the Trojan War. Pherecydes 
of Syros, in the Days of King Cyrus, invented the Writing 
in Prose. Cadmus the Milesian founded History. Lycaon 
appointed the first pubKc Games of Strength in Arcadia ; 
Acastus in lolcum, the first solemn Games at Funerals ; and 
after him Theseus, in the Isthmus. Hercules instituted the 
Athletic Exercises at Olympia : and Pythus those of Play at 
Ball. Gyges the Lydian first practised Painting in Egypt ; 
but in Greece, Euchir, a Relative of Dcedalus, as Aristotle 
supposeth ; and according to Theophrasfus, it was Polygnotux 
the Athenian. Danaits was the first that sailed "with a Ship, 
and so he passed the Sea from Egypt to Greece ; for before 
that time they used Rafts, which were invented by King 
Erythra, to cross from one Island to another in the Red Sea. 
But we meet with some Writers who suppose that the Tro- 
jans and Mysians were the first that devised Navigation be- 
fore them in the Hellespont, when they passed over-against 
the Thracians. And even at this Day in the British Ocean, 
there are made Wicker Boats covered with Leather, and 
stitched round about ; in the Nile, of Papyrus, Cane-reed, 
and Rushes. Philostephanus witnesseth, that Jason first used 
in Navigation the long Ship; but Egesias saith, that it was 
Paralus. Ctesias attributeth it to Samyras ; Sapftanus, to 
Semiramis ; and Archimachus, to sEgeon. Damastes testi- 
fieth, that the Erythraeans first made the Bireme (or Galley 
with two Ranks of Oars) : Thucydides, that Aminocles the 
Corinthian built the first Trireme (with three Rows of Oars) : 
Aristotle saith, that the Carthaginians were the first that set 
to Sea the Quadrireme (with four Ranks of Oars) : and 

1 Tibia. Wern. Cbih. 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 255 

Nesichthon the Salaminian, set afloat the first Quinquireme 
(with five Ranks of Oars). Zenagoras of Syracusa brought 
up those of six Rows ; and from it to those of ten, Mnesigeton 
was the Inventor. It is said that Alexander the Great built 
Galleys with twelve Banks ; and P hilostephanus reporteth, 
that Ptolemy Soter rose to fifteen : Demetrius, the Son of 
Antigonus, to thirty: Ptolemy Philadelphus, to forty; and 
Ptolemy P/dlopater, surnamed Tryphon, to fifty. Hippus 
the Tyrian invented Ships of Burden. 1 The Cyrenians first 
built the Pinnace ; the Phoenicians, the Ferry-boat ; the 
Rhodians, the Wherry ; and last, the Cyprians, the Hulk. 
The Phoenicians were the first that in sailing observed the 
Course of the Stars. The Copeans devised the Oar, and the 
Plateans its broad End : Icarus, the Sails : D&dalus, the 
Mast and the Yard. Vessels for transporting Horses were 
the Invention of the Samians, or else of Pericles the Athe- 
nian. The Thasii formed the long-covered Ships : for before 
their Time they fought only from the Stern and the Bow. 
Piseus added the Rostra ; the Tyrrhenians, the Anchor ; to 
which Eupalamus added the two Claws, and Anacliarsis the 
Grappling-hooks. The Stock was by Pericles the Athenian ; 
and finally, the Steering-tackle by Typhis. The Chief that 
first fought in a Fleet was Minos. The first that killed a 
Beast was Hyperbius, the Son of Mars; and Prometheus first 
killed an Ox. 2 

1 The names of these ships in the original are, Oneraria, Cymba, 
Celox, Cercuros. Wern. Club. 

2 It has been already remarked, that the Greeks regarded as the 
inventor of any art him who had communicated it to them ; and Pliny 
seeks no further than to their writings for authority in these particulars, 
In the Book of Genesis (chap. iv. &c.) we have more authentic particulars 
of the invention of musical instruments, of tents to dwell in, and of 
working in metal : the latter by one whose name seems to have been the 
origin of that of Vulcan ; and the following catalogue of discoveries in 
the most ancient times is derived from Sanchoniatho, the Phoanician : 

" From Genus, the son of Protogonus and (Eon, other mortal issue 
were begotten, whose names were Light, Fire, and Flame. These found 
out the way of generating fire by the rubbing of pieces of wood against 
each other, and taught men the use thereof. These begat sons of vast 
bulk and height, whose names were given to mountains on which they 

256 History of Nature. [ BOOK V IF . 

Wlterein first appeared the general Agreement of Nation ft. 

THE first silent Consent of all Countries hath agreed in 
this, That they should use the Ionian Letters. 

first seized : so from them were named Mounts Cassius and Libanus, 
Antilibanus and Brathys. Perhaps it is to these that allusion is made, 
Genesis, vi. 4. The Protogonus and (Eon here spoken of, being the 
first generation of mortals, were the discoverers of the way of taking 
food from trees; and their children, Genus and Genea, in a time of 
scarcity in Phoenicia, first worshipped the sun, as Beelsamin, or only 
Lord of Heaven. 

" Hypsuranius, a Tyrian, first made huts of reeds and rushes, and the 
paper-reeds. His brother Usoiis first invented covering for his body, out 
of the skins of wild beasts which he could catch ; which may be reconciled 
with the narrative in Genesis, iii. 21. He consecrated two rude stone 
pillars to the fire and wind, and worshipped them with the sprinkling of 
the blood of wild beasts taken in hunting. He first ventured on the sea 
in a kind of raft ; and on his death were first instituted anniversary feasts. 
Many years after him, Agreus and Halieus were the inventors of the arts, 
and it would appear, the fathers of tribes who pursued hunting and fish- 
ing. The two brothers who invented the working of iron were their 
sons. One of these, named Chrysor, the same as Vulcan, employed 
charms and divinations; he invented the hook, bait, and fishing-line, and 
boats slightly made : perhaps those covered with leather, mentioned by 
Pliny as used in his day in Britain, and originally derived from this 
Eastern source. This Coracle, employed so late as the fourth or fifth cen- 
tury of Christianity in crossing the British Channel, is still used in Welsh 
rivers, and is figured, in its modern structure, by Mr. Yarrell (" History 
of British Fishes," vol. ii. p. 62, 2d edit.) : a copy from an ancient relievo 
in Montfaucon is at the end of this volume. It was a subsequent race, 
the Cabiri, that formed the first complete ship. From the last generation, 
or Chrysor and his brother, sprang two brothers : one called Technites, or 
the artist, and the other, Ge'inus Autochthon, the home-born man of the 
earth. These first mingled stubble with the brick earth, and dried the 
tiling in the sun. This accommodation was further improved by the for- 
mation of courts, fences, and cellars about bouses. They were husband- 
men, and worshipped a statue carried about in a movable temple, drawn 
by oxen. This practice is alluded to by the prophet Amos, v. 26, and 
perhaps 2 Samuel, vi. 3 and 7. These were the first that employed dogs 
in the hunting of wild animals. Amynus and Magus, their sons, first 

BOOK V 1 1 . J History of Nature. 257 

Of the ancient Letters. 1 

THAT the old Greek Letters were almost the same as the 
present Latin appeareth by an antique Table of Brass, which 
came from the Temple at Delphos, and which at this Day is 
in the Library of the Palatium, dedicated to Minerva by the 
Emperors, with an Inscription like this on it: Navoixodrr^ 
Tiffa/Aivov "A^va/o?, jco^a xa/ ' A6qva &veOt))tsv : i.e. Nausicrates (the 
Son) of Tisamenus an Athenian, caused this Table to be made 
and set up to Minerva. 

formed villages and flocks ; and their sons, Misor and Sydyc (Wellfreed 
and Just), discovered the use of salt. 

" Cronus first made a scimitar and spear : Dagon invented the use of 
bread and the plough. Inachus, whom Archbishop Usher makes contem- 
porary with the Scriptural Nahor, was the inventor of honorary gold and 
silver chains. The purple dye from shell-fish was discovered by the Phoe- 
nician Hercules, the great navigator Melcartus, who first passed through 
the Straits of Gibraltar, and visited Cornwall. It is true, there seems some 
doubt whether there be not two individuals referred to under this name, 
one of whom lived in the days of Canaan ; but if so, at least they were 
natives of the same country, and were both honoured by their country- 
men as inventors of the arts by which the nation acquired riches and 
eminency. Cronus first taught the use of the bow as a weapon; which 
took place in Crete, an island afterwards famous for this kind of skill. 
' Eupolemus says of Enoch, that he was the true Atlas, the inventor of 
astronomy.' Finally, the infamy of having first practised persecution for 
religion is ascribed to Cronus, who is supposed to be Ham, the son of 
Noah, with the concurrence of the Egyptian Thoth ; but the Jews are 
inclined to derive its origin from the city of Ur, in Chaldam, where Terah 
was put to death in the fire (Ur) : but in either case the act was devised 
in support of false religion, or idolatry." Wern. Club. 

1 In the beginning of the 56th chapter, Pliny has expressed his belief 
that the Assyrian letters are the most ancient in the world : but whether 
these were the same as in recent times have been discovered among the 
antique monuments of Nineveh and Babylon ; the Chaldean characters 
afterwards introduced among the Jews by Ezra ; or the ancient Phoeni- 
cian, now termed the Samaritan; in either case it is only by passing 
through great mutations that they can be traced to the Greek and Latin 
forms of the days of Pliny. Sanchoniatho says that Taautus, called by 

258 History of Nature.. [ Boo K V I T . 

When Barbers were first at Rome. 

THE next Consent of all People was to entertain Bar- 
bers; but they were later among the Romans. The first that 
entered Italy came from Sicily, in the 454th Year after the 
Foundation of Rome. They were brought in by P. Ticiniits 
Mena, as Varro reporteth : for before this they were un- 
shorn. The first that took up the practice to Shave every 
day was Scipio Africanus : and after him cometh Divus 
Augustus, who always used the Rasor. 1 

When was the first Dial* 

THE third Consent of all Nations was in the observation of 
the Hours ; and this was grounded upon Reason : but at 
what Time, and by whom this was Invented in Greece, we 
have declared in the Second Book ; and it was late before 
this came up at Rome. In the Twelve Tables the East and 
West alone are mentioned ; after some Years the Noon was 
added, and the Consul's Officer proclaimed Noon when, 
standing at the Hall of the Council, he beheld the Sun in 

the Greeks Hermes, found out the first letters ; but these appear, from 
his subsequent remarks, to have been what we now term hieroglyphics. 
It may be the phonetic characters, of which Pliny ascribes the invention 
to Meno the Egyptian ; but it is probable that they are all much more 
ancient. Wern. Club. 

1 Slaves and servants were not permitted to be shaved. The Egyp- 
tians were the only people who universally used the rasor. Wern. Club. 

* Lumisden has some observations on the Roman method of measur- 
ing time. " I do not conceive," he says, " how a sun-dial or any other 
instrument could point out the various hours, as time was computed by 
the ancient Romans. The time the earth takes to revolve once round its 
axis, or the space between the rising of the sun till its next rising, which 
makes a day and a night, divided into twenty-four equal parts, we call 
hours. Now, the Romans divided the day and the night into twenty-four 
hours. Twelve of these, from the rising of the sun to its setting, con- 

BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 2 59 

that Quarter between the Rostra and the Grecostasis. But 
when the Sun inclined downward from the Column named 
Mania, to the Prison, he proclaimed the last Quarter (of the 
Day). But this observation would serve only on clear Days ; 
and yet it was so until the first Punic War. Fabius Vestalis 
writeth, that L. Papyrius Cursor, the Prince, twelve Years 
before the War with Pyrrhus, to do the Romans a pleasure 
set up a Sun-dial on the Temple of Quirinus, when it was 
dedicated, his Father having vowed it before him. But 
this Author sheweth not either the method of that Dial, or 
the Workman ; nor yet from whence it was brought, nor in 
what Writer he found it so written. M. Varro reporteth, 
that the first Dial was set up in the common Market-place' 
upon a Column near the Rostra, in the first Punic War, by 
M. Valerius Messala, the Consul, presently after the taking 
of Catana, in Sicily ; from whence it was brought, thirty 
Years after the report of the aforesaid Dial of Papyrius, in 
the Year of the City 477. And although the Lines of this 
Dial did not agree with the Hours, yet were the People 
governed by it for an hundred Years save one, until 
Q. Martins Philippus, who was Censor, with L. Paulus, 
set another by it, made more carefully. And this gift, 
among other things done by the Censor, was highly 
acceptable to the People. But notwithstanding this, if it 
were a cloudy Day the Hours were uncertain ; and thus it 

stituted their day; and the other twelve, from the setting of the sun to 
its rising, constituted their night. Thus, as the seasons changed, the 
length of their hours must have varied. In winter the twelve hours of 
the day were short, and those of the night long : in summer they were 
the reverse. How then could these hours, of an unequal length, and 
which daily varied, be measured by an instrument ? I have not been 
able to discover any method by which this could be done. However, 
they had two fixed points, namely, mid-day and midnight, which they 
called the sixth hour. So that a meridian line would always point out 
the sixth hour, or mid- day." 

That the dial was a very ancient instrument for measuring time 
appears from the 2d Book of Kings, xx. 11, and Isaiah, xxxviii. 8, 
where is the first mention of it on record. It probably was invented in 
Babylonia. Wern. Club. 


History of Nature. 

[BooK VII 

continued five Years more. Then Scipio JVasicct, the Col- 
league of Lcenas, first divided the Hours, both of Day and 
Night equally, by Water. And this Horologe he dedicated 
under a Roof, in the Year of the City 595 from the Build- 
ing of Rome. So long it was, that the People of Rome did 
not measure out the Light. 

Now let us return to the other Living Creatures : and 
first, of Animals of the Land. 

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